Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



OUTWARD, a. [L. versus.]

1. External; exterior; forming the superficial part; as the outward coat of an onion; an outward garment.

2. External; visible; opposed to inward; as outward hate.

3. Extrinsic; adventitious.

And outward honor for an inward toil.

4. Foreign; not intestine; as an outward war. [Not now used. We now say, external or foreign war.]

5. Tending to the exterior part.

The fire will force its outward way.

6. In Scripture, civil; public; as opposed to religious. 1 Chronicles 26:29.

7. In theology, carnal; fleshly; corporeal; not spiritual; as the outward man.

OUTWARD, n. External form.

1. To the outer parts; tending or directed towards the exterior.

The light falling on them [black bodies] is not reflected outwards.

2. From a port or country; as a ship bound outwards.

OUTWARD-BOUND, a. Proceeding from a port or country.


1. Externally; opposed to inwardly; as outwardly content, but inwardly uneasy.

2. In appearance; not sincerely. Many may inwardly reverence the goodness which they outwardly seem to despise.

OUTWASH, v.t. To wash out; to cleanse from. [Little used.]

OUTWATCH, v.t. To surpass in watching.


1. To wear out. [Not used.]

2. To pass tediously to the end.

By the stream, if I the night outwear -

3. To last longer than something else. [This is the common signification.]

OUTWEED, v.t. To weed out; to extirpate, as a weed.

OUTWEEP, v.t. To exceed in weeping.

OUTWEIGH, v.t. outwa’y. [See Weigh.]

1. To exceed in weight.

2. To exceed in value, influence or importance.

One self-approving hour whole years outweighs of stupid starers and of loud huzzas.

OUTWELL, v.t. or i. To pour out. [Not used.]

OUTWENT, pret. of outgo.

OUTWHORE, v.t. To exceed in lewdness.

OUTWIN, v.t. To get out of. [Not used.]

OUTWIND, v.t. To extricate by winding; to unloose.

OUTWING, v.t. To move faster on the wing; to outstrip.

OUTWIT, v.t. To surpass in design or stratagem; to overreach; to defeat or frustrate by superior ingenuity.

OUTWORK, n. The part of a fortification most remote from the main fortress or citadel.

OUTWORN, pp. [See Wear.] Worn out; consumed by use.

OUTWORTH, v.t. To exceed in value.

OUTWREST, v.t. outrest’. To extort; to draw from or forth by violence.

OUTWRITE, v.t. outri’te. To surpass in writing.

OUTWROUGHT, pp. outraut’. [See Work.] Outdone; exceeded in act or efficacy.

OUTZANY, v.t. [See Zany.] To exceed in buffoonery.

OVAL, a. [L. ovum, an egg.]

1. Of the shape or figure of an egg; oblong; curvilinear; resembling the longitudinal section of an egg. It is sometimes synonymous with elliptical; but an ellipsis is equally broad at both ends, and is not strictly egg-shaped.

2. Pertaining to eggs; done in the egg; as oval conceptions.

OVAL, n. A body or figure in the shape of an egg.

OVARIOUS, a. Consisting of eggs; as ovarious food.

OVARY, n. [L. ovarium, from ovum, an egg.]

The part of a female animal in which the eggs are formed or lodged; or the part in which the fetus is supposed to be formed.

OVATE, OVATED, a. [L. ovatus, from ovum, an egg.] Egg-shaped; as an ovate leaf.

OVATE-LANCEOLATE, a. Having something of the form of an egg and a lance, inclining to the latter.

OVATE-SUBULATE, a. Having something of the form of an egg and an awl, but most tending to the latter.

OVATION, n. [L. ovatio.] In Roman antiquity, a lesser triumph allowed to commanders who had conquered without blood, or defeated an inconsiderable enemy.

OVATO-OBLONG, a. Oblong in the shape of an egg, or with the end lengthened.

OVEN, n. uv’n.

An arch of brick or stone work, for baking bread and other things for food. Ovens are made in chimneys or set in the open air.

OVER, prep. [L. super., Gr.]

1. Across; from side to side; implying a passing or moving either above the substance or thing, or on the surface of it. Thus we say, a dog leaps over a stream, or over a table; a boat sails over a lake.

2. Above in place or position; opposed to below; as the clouds over our heads. The smoke rises over the city.

The mercy-seat that is over the testimony. Exodus 30:6.

3. Above, denoting superiority in excellence, dignity or value; as the advantages which the christian world has over the heathen.

Young Pallas shone conspicuous o’er the rest.

4. Above in authority, implying the right or power of superintending or governing; opposed to under.

Thou shalt be over my house. Genesis 41:40.

I will make thee ruler over many things. Matthew 25:23.

5. Upon the surface or whole surface; through the whole extent; as, to wander over the earth; to walk over a field, or over a city.

6. Upon. Watch over your children.

Dost thou not watch over my sin? Job 14:16.

His tender mercies are over all his works. Psalm 145:9.

7. During the whole time; from beginning to end; as, to keep any thing over night; to keep corn over winter.

8. Above the top; covering; immersing; as, the water is over the shoes or boots.

Over night. In this phrase, over sometimes signifies before; as, when preparing for a journey, we provide things necessary over night.

Over, in poetry, is often contracted into o’er.

OVER, adv.

1. From side to side; as a board a foot over; a tree a foot over, a foot in diameter.

2. On the opposite side. The boat is safe over.

3. From one to another by passing; as, to deliver over goods to another.

4. From one country to another by passing; as, to carry any thing over to France, or to bring any thing over to England.

5. On the surface.

6. Above the top.

Good measure, pressed down and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. Luke 6:38.

7. More than the quantity assigned; beyond a limit.

He that gathered much had nothing over. Exodus 16:18.

8. Throughout; from beginning to end; completely; as, to read over a book; to argue a question over again.

Over and over, repeatedly; once and again.

And every night review’d it o’er and o’er.

Over again, once more; with repetition.

O kill not all my kindred o’er again.

Over and above, besides; beyond what is supposed or limited.

He gained, over and above, the good will of the people.

Over against, opposite; in front.

Over against this church stands a large hospital.

Over is used with rolling or turning from side to side; as, to turn over; to roll over.

1. To give over, to cease from; as, to give over an enterprize.

2. To consider as in a hopeless state; as, the physicians have given over their patient.

Over, in composition, denotes spreading, covering above; as in overcast, overflow; or across, as to overhear; or above, as to overhang; or turning, changing sides, as in overturn; or more generally beyond, implying excess or superiority, as in overact, overcome.

OVER, a.

1. Past.

The Olympic games were over.

2. Upper; covering; as over-shoes; over-leather.

OVERABOUND, v.i. To abound more than enough; to be superabundant.

OVERACT, v.t. To act or perform to excess; as, he overacted his part.

OVERACT, v.i. To act more than is necessary.

OVERAGITATE, v.t. To agitate or discuss beyond what is expedient.

OVERALLS, n. A kind of trousers.

OVERANXIOUS, a. Anxious to excess.

OVERARCH, v.t. To arch over; to cover with an arch.

Brown with o’erarching shades.

OVERAWE, v.t. overaw’. To restrain by awe, fear or superior influence.

The kind was present in person to overlook that magistrates and overawe the subjects with the terror of his sword.

OVERBALANCE, v.t. To weigh down; to exceed in weight, value or importance. The evils which spring from vice overbalance all its pleasures.

OVERBALANCE, n. Excess of weight or value; something more than an equivalent; as an overbalance of exports; an overbalance of probabilities.


Too fruitful; exuberant. [Not used.]

OVERBEAR, v.t. [See Bear.] To bear down; to repress; to subdue.

The point of reputation, when the news first came of the battle lost, did overbear the reason of war.

Yet fortune, valor, all is overborne by numbers.

Till overborne with weight the Cyprians fell.


1. Bearing down; repressing.

2. a. Haughty and dogmatical; disposed or tending to repress or subdue by insolence or effrontery.

OVERBEND, v.t. To bend or stretch to excess.


1. To bid or offer beyond.

2. To bid or offer more than an equivalent.


1. To blow with too much violence; a seaman’s phrase.

2. To blow over, or be past its violence. [Not used.]

OVERBLOW, v.t. To blow away; to dissipate by wind.

OVERBLOWN, pp. Blown by and gone; blown away; driven by; past.

And when this cloud of sorrow’s overblown.

OVERBOARD, adv. Literally, over the side of a ship; hence, out of a ship or from on board; as, to fall overboard; which of course is to fall into the water.

OVERBROW, v.t. To hang over.

OVERBUILT, pp. overbilt’. Built over.

OVERBULK, v.t. To oppress by bulk. [Not used.]

OVERBURDEN, v.t. To load with too great weight.

OVERBURDENED, pp. Overloaded.

OVERBURN, v.t. To burn too much.

OVERBUSY, a. overbiz’zy. Too busy; officious.

OVERBUY, v.t. To buy at too dear a rate.

OVERCANOPY, v.t. To cover as with a canopy.

OVERCARE, n. Excessive care or anxiety.

OVERCAREFUL, a. Careful to excess.

OVERCARRY, v.t. To carry too far; to carry or urge beyond the proper point.


1. To cloud; to darken; to cover with gloom.

The clouds that overcast our morn shall fly.

2. To cast or compute at too high a rate; to rate too high.

The king in his account of peace and calms did much overcast his fortunes -

3. To sew over.

OVERCAST, pp. Clouded; overspread with clouds or gloom.

The dawn is overcast.

Our days of age are sad and overcast.

OVERCAUTIOUS, a. Cautious or prudent to excess.


1. To charge or load to excess; to cloy; to oppress.

The heavy load of abundance with which we overcharge nature -

2. To crowd too much.

Our language is overcharged with consonants.

3. To burden.

4. To fill to excess; to surcharge; as, to overcharge the memory.

5. To load with too great a charge, as a gun.

6. To charge too much; to enter in an account more than is just.


1. An excessive load or burden.

2. A charge in an account of more than is just.

3. A charge beyond what is proper.

OVERCLIMB, v.t. To climb over.

OVERCLOUD, v.t. To cover or overspread with clouds.

OVERCLOY, v.t. To fill beyond satiety.

OVERCOLD, a. Cold to excess.

OVERCOME, v.t. [See Come.]

1. To conquer; to vanquish; to subdue; as, to overcome enemies in battle.

2. To surmount; to get the better of; as, to overcome difficulties or obstacles.

3. To overflow; to surcharge. [Not used.]

4. To come upon; to invade. [Not used.]

OVERCOME, v.i. To gain the superiority; to be victorious. Romans 3:4.

OVERCOMER, n. One who vanquishes or surmounts.

OVERCOMINGLY, adv. With superiority.

OVERCONFIDENCE, n. Excessive confidence.

OVERCORN, v.t. To corn to excess.

OVERCOUNT, v.t. To rate above the true value.

OVERCOVER, v.t. To cover completely.

OVERCREDULOUS, a. Too apt to believe.

OVERCROW, v.t. To crow as in triumph. [Not used.]

OVERCURIOUS, a. Curious or nice to excess.

OVERDATE, v.t. To date beyond the proper period.

OVERDIGHT, a. Covered over. Obs.

OVERDILIGENT, a. Diligent to excess.

OVERDO, v.t.

1. To do or perform too much.

2. To harass; to fatigue; to oppress by too much action or labor.

3. To boil, bake or road too much.

OVERDO, v.i. To labor too hard; to do too much.


1. Overacted; acted to excess.

2. Wearied or oppressed by too much labor.

3. Boiled, baked or roasted too much.

OVERDOSE, n. Too great a dose.

OVERDRESS, v.t. To dress to excess; to adorn too much.

OVERDRINK, v.t. To drink to excess.

OVERDRIVE, v.t. To drive too hard, or beyond strength. Genesis 33:13.

OVERDRY, v.t. To dry too much.

OVEREAGER, a. Too eager; too vehement in desire.

OVEREAGERLY, adv. With excessive eagerness.

OVEREAGERNESS, n. Excess of earnestness.

OVEREAT, v.t. To eat to excess.

OVERELEGANT, a. Elegant to excess.

OVEREMPTY, v.t. To make too empty.


1. To superintend; to inspect. [Little used.]

2. To observe to remark.

OVERFALL, n. A cataract; the fall of a river.

OVERFATIGUE, n. overfatee’g. To fatigue to excess.

OVERFATIGUE, v.t. overfatee’g. To fatigue to excess.

OVERFEED, v.t. To feed to excess.

OVERFILL, v.t. To fill to excess; to surcharge.

OVERFLOAT, v.t. To overflow; to inundate.

OVERFLOURISH, v.t. overflur’ish. To make excessive display or flourish.