Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



MOTET, n. A musical composition; an air or hymn.

MOTH, n.

1. An animal of the genus Phalaena, which breeds in yard and garments, and often does injury by eating the substance and destroying the texture. Matthew 6:19-20.

The name is also applied to the whole genus.

2. Figuratively, that which gradually and silently eats, consumes or wastes any thing. Idle persons are a moth to the community.

MOTHEAT, v.t. [moth and eat.] To eat or prey upon, as a moth eats a garment.

MOTHEATEN, a. Eaten by moths. Job 13:28.

MOTHEN, a. Full of moths. [Not in use.]

MOTHER, n. [L. mater, mother; matrix, the womb; materia, matter, stuff, materials of which any thing is made. We observe that in some other languages, as well as in English, the same word signifies a female parent, and the thick slime formed in vinegar; and in all the languages of Europe here cited, the orthography is nearly the same as that of mud and matter. The question then occurs whether the name of a female parent originated in a word expressing matter, mold; either the soil of the earth, as the producer, or the like substance, when shaped and fitted as a mold for castings; or whether the name is connected with the opinion that the earth is the mother of all productions; whence the word mother-earth. We are informed by a fragment of Sanchoniathon, that the ancient Phenicians considered mud to be the substance from which all things were formed. See Mud. The word matter is evidently from the Ar. madda, to secrete, eject or discharge a purulent substance; and I think cannot have any direct connection with mud. But in the Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, the same word madre signified mother, and a mold for castings; and the northern languages, particularly the German and Danish, seem to establish the fact that the proper sense of mother is matrix. Hence mother of pearl, the matrix of pearl. If this word had its origin in the name of the earth used for the forms of castings, it would not be a singular fact; for our word mold, in this sense, I suppose to be so named from mold, fine earth. The question remains sub judice.]

1. A female parent; especially, one of the human race; a woman who has borne a child; correlative to son or daughter.

2. That which has produced any thing.

Alas, poor country! it cannot

Be called our mother, but our grave.

So our native land is called mother country, and a plant from which a slip or cion is taken, is called the mother plant. In this use, mother may be considered as an adjective.

3. That which has preceded in time; the oldest or chief of any thing; as a mother-church.

4. Hysterical passion. [Not used.]

5. A familiar term of address or appellation of an old woman or matron.

6. An appellation given to a woman who exercises care and tenderness towards another, or gives parental advice; as when one says,” a woman has been a mother to me.”

7. A thick slimy substance concreted in liquors, particularly in vinegar, very different from scum or common lees.

MOTHER, a. Native; natural; received by birth; as mother-wit.

1. Native; vernacular; received from parents or ancestors; as mother-tongue.

MOTHER, v.i. To concrete, as the thick matter of liquors.
MOTHER, v.t. To adopt as a son or daughter.

MOTHERHOOD, n. The state of being a mother.

MOTHER-IN-LAW, n. The mother of a husband or wife.

MOTHERLESS, a. Destitute of a mother; having lost a mother; as motherless children.

MOTHERLY, a. Pertaining to a mother; as motherly power or authority.

1. Becoming a mother; tender; parental; as motherly love or care.

MOTHERLY, adv. In the manner of a mother.

MOTHER OF PEARL, n. The matrix of pearl; the shell in which pearls are generated; a species of Mytilus or Mussel.

MOTHER OF THYME, n. A plant of the genus Thymus.

MOTHER-WATER, n. A fluid remaining after the evaporation of salt water, and containing deliquescent salts and impurities.

MOTHER-WIT, n. Native wit; common sense.

MOTHER-WORT, n. A plant of the genus Leonurus.

MOTHERY, a. Concreted; resembling or partaking of the nature of mother; as the mothery substance in liquors.

MOTHMULLEN, n. A plant.

MOTHWORT, n. A plant.

MOTHY, a. [from moth.] Full of moths; as an old mothy saddle.

MOTION, n. [L. motio. See Move.] The act or process of changing place; change of local position; the passing of a body from one place to another; change of distance between bodies; opposed to rest.

Animal motion is that which is performed by animals in consequence of volition or an act of the will; but how the will operates on the body in producing motion, we cannot explain.

Mechanical motion is effected by the force or power of one body acting on another.

Perpetual motion is that which is effected or supplied by itself, without the impulse or intervention of any external cause. Hitherto it has been found impossible to invent a machine that has this principle.

1. Animal life and action.

Devoid of sense and motion.

2. Manner of moving the body; port; gait; air.

Each member move and every motion guide.

3. Change of posture; action.

Watching the motion of her patron’s eye.

4. Military march or movement.

5. Agitation; as the motions of the sea.

6. Internal action; excitement; as the motions of the breast.

7. Direction; tendency.

In our proper motion we ascend.

8. The effect of impulse; action proceeding from any cause, external or internal. In the growth of plants and animals, there must be a motion of the component parts, though invisible. Attraction or chimical affinity produces sensible motion of the parts of bodies. Motions of the mind ascribed to the invisible agency of the Supreme Being, are called good motions.

Let a good man obey every good motion rising in his heart, knowing that every such motion proceeds from God.

9. Proposal made; proposition offered; particularly, a proposition made in a deliberative assembly. A motion is made for a committee; a motion for introducing a bill; a motion to adjourn.

10. A puppet-show or puppet. [Not used.]

MOTION, v.t. To propose. [Little used. See Move.]

MOTIONER, n. A mover. [Not used.]

MOTIONLESS, a. Wanting motion; being at rest.

I grow a statue, fixed and motionless.

MOTIVE, a. [See the Noun.] Causing motion; having power to move or tending to move; as a motive argument; motive power.


1. That which incites to action; that which determines the choice, or moves the will. Thus we speak of good motives, and bad motives; strong and weak motives. The motive to continue at rest is ease or satisfaction; the motive to change is uneasiness, or the prospect of good.

2. That which may or ought to incite to action; reason; cause.

3. A mover. [Not in use.]

MOTIVITY, n. The power of producing motion.

MOTLEY, a. [Eng. mote.]

1. Variegated in color; consisting of different colors; dappled; as a motley coat.

2. Composed of different or various parts, characters or kinds; diversified; as a motley style.

And doubts of motley hue.

[This word primarily means spotted; but it may signify also striped.]

MOTOR, n. [L. from moveo, to move.]

A mover. The metals are called motors of electricity.

MOTORY, a. Giving motion; as motory muscles.

MOTTO, n. Primarily, a word; but more commonly, a sentence or phrase prefixed to an essay or discourse, containing the subject of it, or added to a device.

In heraldry, the motto is carried in a scroll, alluding to the bearing or to the name of the bearer, or expressing some important idea.

MOULD, an incorrect orthography. [See Mold, and its derivatives.]

MOULT. [See Molt.]

MOUNCH, MAUNCH, v.t. To chew.

MOUND, n. [L. mons. See Mount.] Something raised as a defense or fortification, usually a bank of earth or stone; a bulwark; a rampart or fence.

God has thrown

That mountain as his garden mound, high raised.

To thrid the thickets or to leap the mounds.

MOUND, v.t. To fortify with a mound.

MOUNDED, pp. Surrounded or defended by mounds.

The lakes high mounded.

MOUNDING, ppr. Defending by a mound.

MOUNT, n. [L. mons, literally a heap or an elevation.]

1. A mass of earth, or earth and rock, rising considerably above the common surface of the surrounding land. Mount is used for an eminence or elevation of earth, indefinite in highth or size, and may be a hillock, hill or mountain. We apply it to Mount Blanc, in Switzerland, to Mount Tom and Mount Holyoke, in Massachusetts, and it is applied in Scripture to the small hillocks on which sacrifice was offered as well as to Mount Sinai. Jacob offered sacrifice on the mount or heap of stones raised for a witness between him and Laban. Genesis 31:54.

2. A mound; a bulwark for offense or defense.

Hew ye down trees and cast a mount against Jerusalem. Jeremiah 6:6.

3. Formerly, a bank or fund of money.

MOUNT, v.i.

1. To rise on high; to ascend; with or without up.

Doth the eagle mount up at thy command? Job 39:27.

The fire of trees and houses mounts on high.

2. To rise; to ascend; to tower; to be built to a great altitude.

Though Babylon should mount up to heaven. Jeremiah 51:53.

3. To get on horseback.

4. To leap upon any animal.

5. To amount; to rise in value.

Bring then these blessings to a strict account,

Make fair deductions, see to what they mount.

MOUNT, v.t. To raise aloft; to lift on high.

What power is it which mounts my love so high?

1. To ascend; to climb; to get upon an elevated place; as, to mount a throne.

2. To place one’s self on horseback; as, to mount a horse.

3. To furnish with horses; as, to mount a troop. The dragoons were well mounted.

4. To put on or cover with something; to embellish with ornaments; as, to mount a sword.

5. To carry; to be furnished with; as, a ship of the line mounts seventy four guns; a fort mounts a hundred cannon.

6. To raise and place on a carriage; as, to mount a cannon.

To mount guard, to take the station and do the duty of a sentinel.

MOUNTAIN, n. [L. adjective, montanus.] A large mass of earth and rock, rising above the common level of the earth or adjacent land, but of no definite altitude. We apply mountain to the largest eminences on the globe; but sometimes the word is used for a large hill. In general, mountain denotes an elevation higher and larger than a hill; as the Altaic mountains in Asia, the Alps in Switzerland, the Andes in South America, the Allegheny mountains in Virginia, the Catskill in New York, the White mountains in New Hampshire, and the Green mountains in Vermont. The word is applied to a single elevation, or to an extended range.

MOUNTAIN, a. Pertaining to a mountain; found on mountains; growing or dwelling on a mountain; as mountain air; mountain pines; mountain goats.

MOUNTAIN-BLUE, n. Malachite; carbonate of copper.

MOUNTAINEER, MOUNTAINER, a. An inhabitant of a mountain.

1. A rustic; a freebooter; a savage.

MOUNTAINET, n. A small mountain; a hillock. [Not used.]

MOUNTAIN-GREEN, n. A carbonate of copper.

MOUNTAINOUS, a. Full of mountains; as the mountainous country of the Swiss.

1. Large as a mountain; huge; as a mountainous heap.

2. Inhabiting mountains. [Not used.]

MOUNTAINOUSNESS, n. The state of being full of mountains.

MOUNTAIN-PARSLEY, n. A plant of the genus Athamanta.

MOUNTAIN-ROSE, n. A plant.

MOUNTAIN-SOAP, n. A mineral of a pale brownish black color.

MOUNTANT, a. Rising on high.


1. One who mounts a bench or state in the market or other public place, boasts of his skill in curing diseases, vends medicines which he pretends are infallible remedies, and thus deludes the ignorant multitude. Persons of this character may be indicted and punished.

2. Any boastful and false pretender.

Nothing so impossible in nature, but mountebanks will undertake.

MOUNTEBANK, v.t. To cheat by boasting and false pretenses; to gull.

MOUNTEBANKERY, n. Quackery; boastful and vain pretenses.

MOUNTED, pp. Raised; seated on horseback; placed on a carriage; covered or embellished; furnished with guns.

MOUNTENAUNCE, n. Amount in space. [Not used.]

MOUNTER, n. One that mounts or ascends.

MOUNTING, ppr. Rising; soaring; placing on horseback; ascending an eminence; embellishing.

MOUNTINGLY, adv. By rising or ascending.

MOUNTY, n. The rise of a hawk.

MOURN, v.i. [L. maereo.]

1. To express grief or sorrow; to grieve; to be sorrowful. Mourning may be expressed by weeping or audible sounds, or by sobs, sighs or inward silent grief.

Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep. Genesis 23:2.

Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted. Matthew 5:4.

2. To wear the customary habit of sorrow.

We mourn in black.

Grieve for an hour perhaps, then mourn a year.

MOURN, v.t. To grieve for; to lament. But there is an ellipsis of for, the verb not being transitive. When we say, we mourn a friend or a child, the real sense and complete phrase is, we mourn for a friend, or mourn for the loss of a friend. “He mourn’d his rival’s ill success,” that is, he mourned for his rival’s ill success.

1. To utter in a sorrowful manner.

The love lorn nightingale

Nightly to thee her sad song mourneth well.

MOURNE, n. morn. The round end of a staff; the part of a lance to which the steel is fixed, or the ferrel. [Not used.]

MOURNER, n. One that mourns or is grieved at any loss or misfortune.

1. One that follows a funeral in the habit of mourning.

2. Something used at funerals.

The mourner eugh and builder oak were there.

MOURNFUL, a. Intended to express sorrow, or exhibiting the appearance of grief, as a mournful bell; mournful music.

No funeral rites nor man in mournful weeds.

1. Causing sorrow; sad; calamitous; as a mournful death.

2. Sorrowful; feeling grief.

The mournful fair--

Shall visit her distinguished urn.

MOURNFULLY, adv. In a manner expressive of sorrow; with sorrow. Malachi 3:14.

MOURNFULNESS, n. Sorrow; grief; state of mourning.

1. Appearance or expression of grief.

MOURNING, ppr. Grieving; lamenting; sorrowing; wearing the appearance of sorrow.

MOURNING, n. The act of sorrowing or expressing grief; lamentation; sorrow.

1. The dress or customary habit worn by mourners.

And ev’n the pavements were with mourning hid.

MOURNING-DOVE, n. A species of dove found in the U. States, the Columba Caroliniensis.

MOURNINGLY, adv. With the appearance of sorrow.

MOUSE, n. plu. mice. [L. mus; The L. mus forms muris in the genitive, and the root is not obvious.]

1. A small animal of the genus Mus, inhabiting houses. The name is also applied to many other species of the genus, as the field mouse, meadow mouse, rock mouse, etc.

2. Among seamen, a knob formed on a rope by spun yarn or parceling.

MOUSE, v.i. mouz. To catch mice.
MOUSE, v.t. mouz. To tear, as a cat devours a mouse.

To mouse a hook, with seamen, is to fasten a small line across the upper part to prevent unhooking.

MOUSE-EAR, n. mouse’-ear. A plant of the genus Hieracium; also, a plant of the genus Myosotis, called likewise mouse-ear scorpion grass. The mouse-ear chickweed is of the genus Cerastium.

MOUSE-HOLE, n. mous’hole. A hole where mice enter or pass; a very small hole or entrance.

He can creep in at a mouse-hole.

MOUSE-HUNT, n. mous’hunt. A hunting for mice.

1. A mouser; one that hunts mice.

MOUSER, n. mouz’er. One that catches mice. The cat is a good mouser.

MOUSE-TAIL, n. mous’-tail. A plant of the genus Myosurus.

MOUSE-TRAP, n. mous’trap. A trap for catching mice.


1. The aperture in the head of an animal, between the lips, by which he utters his voice and receives food. In a more general sense, the mouth consists of the lips, the gums, the insides of the cheeks, the palate, the salival glands, the uvula and tonsils.

2. The opening of a vessel by which it is filled or emptied; as the mouth of a jar or pitcher.

3. The part or channel of a river by which its waters are discharged into the ocean or into a lake. The Mississippi and the Nile discharge their waters by several mouths.

4. The opening of a piece of ordnance at the end, by which the charge issues.

5. The aperture of a vessel in animal bodies, by which fluids or other matter is received or discharged; as the mouth of the lacteals.

6. The opening or entrance of a cave, pit, well or den. Daniel 6:17.

7. The instrument of speaking; as, the story is in every body’s mouth.

8. A principal speaker; one that utters the common opinion.

Every coffee house has some statesman belonging to it, who is the mouth of the street where he lives.

9. Cry; voice.

The fearful dogs divide,

All spend their mouth aloft, but none abide.

10. In Scripture, words uttered. Job 19:16; Isaiah 49:2; Psalm 73:9.

11. Desires; necessities. Psalm 103:5.

12. Freedom and boldness of speech; force of argument. Luke 21:15.

13. Boasting; vaunting. Judges 9:38.

14. Testimony. Deuteronomy 17:6.

15. Reproaches; calumnies. Job 5:15.

To make a mouth, to distort the mouth;

To make mouths, to make a wry face; hence, to deride or treat with scorn.

1. To pout; to treat disdainfully.

Down in the mouth, dejected; mortified.

To have God’s law in the mouth, to converse much on it and delight in it. Exodus 13:9.

To draw near to God with the mouth, to make an external appearance of devotion and worship, while there is no regard to him in the heart. Isaiah 29:13.

A froward mouth, contradictions and disobedience. Proverbs 8:13.

A smooth mouth, soft and flattering language. Proverbs 5:3.

To stop the mouth, to silence or to be silent; to put to shame; to confound. Romans 3:19. To lay the hand on the mouth, to be struck silent with shame. Micah 7:16.

To set the mouth against the heavens, to speak arrogantly and blasphemously. Psalm 73:9.

MOUTH, v.t. To utter with a voice affectedly big or swelling; as, to mouth words or language.

Twitch’d by the sleeve, he mouths it more and more.

1. To take into the mouth; to seize with the mouth.

2. To chew; to grind, as food; to eat; to devour.

3. To form by the mouth, as a bear her cub. [Not used.]

4. To reproach; to insult.

MOUTH, v.i. To speak with a full, round, or loud, affected voice; to vociferate; to rant; as a mouthing actor.

I’ll bellow out for Rome and for my country,

And mouth at Caesar, till I shake the senate.

MOUTHED, pp. Uttered with a full, swelling, affected voice.

1. Taken into the mouth; chewed.

2. a. Furnished with a mouth; used chiefly in composition; as well-mouthed; foul-mouthed, contumelious, reproachful or obscene; mealy-mouthed, bashful, reserved in speaking the plain truth; hard-mouthed, as a horse, not obedient to the bit, difficult to be restrained or governed by the bridle.

3. Borne down or overpowered by clamor.

MOUTHFRIEND, n. One who professes friendship without entertaining it; a pretended friend.

MOUTHFUL, n. As much as the mouth contains at once.

1. A quantity proverbially small; a small quantity.

MOUTHHONOR, n. Civility expressed without sincerity.

MOUTHING, ppr. Uttering with an affected swelling voice.

MOUTHLESS, a. Destitute of a mouth.

MOUTHMADE, a. Expressed without sincerity; hypocritical.

MOUTHPIECE, n. The piece of a musical wind instrument to which the mouth is applied.

MOVABLE, a. [from move.] That may be moved; that can or may be lifted, carried, drawn, turned or conveyed, or in any way made to change place or posture; susceptible of motion.

1. That may or does change from one time to another; as a movable feast.

A movable letter, in Hebrew grammar, is one that is pronounced, as opposed to one that is quiescent.

MOVABLENESS, n. The state or quality of being movable; mobility; susceptibility of motion.

MOVABLES, plu. Goods, wares, commodities, furniture; any species of property not fixed, and thus distinguished from houses and lands.

MOVABLY, adv. So that it may be moved.

MOVE, v.t. moov. [L. moveo.]

1. To impel; to carry, convey or draw from one place to another; to cause to change place or posture in any manner or by any means. The wind moves a ship; the cartman moves goods; the horse moves a cart or carriage. Mere matter cannot move itself. Machines are moved by springs, weights, or force applied.

2. To excite into action; to affect; to agitate; to rouse; as, to move the passions.

3. To cause to act or determine; as, to move the will.

4. To persuade; to prevail on; to excite from a state of rest or indifference.

Minds desirous of revenge were not moved with gold.

But when no female arts his mind could move,

She turn’d to furious hate her impious love.

5. To excite tenderness, pity or grief in the heart; to affect; to touch pathetically; to excite feeling in.

The use of images in orations and poetry is to move pity or terror.

When he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them-- Matthew 9:36.

6. To make angry; to provoke; to irritate.

7. To excite tumult or commotion.

When they had come to Bethlehem, all the city was moved about them. Ruth 1:19; Matthew 21:10.

8. To influence or incite by secret agency.

God moved them to depart from him. 2 Chronicles 18:31; 2 Peter 1:21.

9. To shake; to agitate.

The kingdoms were moved. Psalm 46:6; Jeremiah 49:21.

10. To propose; to offer for consideration and determination; as, to move a resolution in a deliberative assembly.

11. To propose; to recommend.

They are to be blamed alike who move and who decline war upon particular respects.

12. To prompt; to incite; to instigate. Acts 17:5.

MOVE, v.i. To change place or posture; to stir; to pass or go in any manner or direction from one place or part of space to another. The planets move in their orbits; the earth moves on its axis; a ship moves at a certain rate an hour. We move by walking, running or turning; animals move by creeping, swimming or flying.

On the green bank I sat and listened long,

Nor till her lay was ended could I move.

1. To have action.

In him we live, and move, and have our being. Acts 17:28.

2. To have the power of action.

Every moving thing that liveth, shall be meat for you. Genesis 9:3.

3. To walk.

He moves with manly grace.

4. To march. The army moved and took a position behind a wood.

5. To tremble; to shake.

The foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken, because he was wroth. Psalm 18:7.

6. To change residence. Men move with their families from one house, town or state to another.

MOVE, n. The act of moving; the act of transferring from place to place, as in chess.

MOVED, pp. Stirred; excited.

MOVELESS, a. That cannot be moved; fixed.

The Grecian phalanx, moveless as a tower.

MOVEMENT, n. Motion; a passing, progression, shaking, turning or flowing; any change of position in a material body; as the movement of an army in marching or maneuvering; the movement of a wheel or a machine.

1. The manner of moving.

2. Excitement; agitation; as the movement of the mind.

3. In music, any single strain or part having the same measure or time.

Any change of time is a change of movement.

MOVENT, a. [L. movens.] Moving; not quiescent. [Little used.]

MOVENT, n. That which moves any thing. [Little used.]

MOVER, n. The person or thing that gives motion or impels to action.

1. He or that which moves.

2. A proposer; one that offers a proposition, or recommends any thing for consideration or adoption; as the mover of a resolution in a legislative body.

MOVING, ppr. Causing to move or act; impelling; instigating; persuading; influencing.

1. a. Exciting the passions or affections; touching; pathetic; affecting; adapted to excite or affect the passions; as a moving address or discourse.

MOVING, n. Motive; impulse.

MOVINGLY, adv. In a manner to excite the passions or affect sensibility; pathetically.

His air, his voice, his looks and honest soul,

Speak all so movingly in his behalf.

MOVINGNESS, n. The power of affecting, as the passions.

MOW, n. A heap, mass or pile of hay deposited in a barn.

[We never give this name to hay piled in the field or open air. The latter is called a stack or rick.]

MOW, v.t. To lay hay in a heap or mass in a barn, or to lay it in a suitable manner.
MOW, v.t. pret. mower; pp. mowed or mown. [The L. has meto, and the Gr. to mow or reap. The last radical letter is not ascertained.]

1. To cut down with a scythe, as grass or other plants. We say, to mow grass.

2. To cut the grass from; as, to mow a meadow.

3. To cut down with speed; to cut down indiscriminately, or in great numbers or quantity. We say, a discharge of grape shot mows down whole ranks of men. Hence Saturn or Time is represented with a scythe, an emblem of the general and indiscriminate destruction of the human race by death.

MOW, v.i. To cut grass; to practice mowing; to use the scythe. Does the man mow well?

1. To perform the business of mowing; to cut and make grass into hay; to gather the crop of grass, or other crop.

[In America, mow is not applied to the cutting of wheat or rye. When these are cut with a scythe, they are said to be cradled. Oats and barley are sometimes mowed.]

MOW, n. [from mouth.] A wry face.
MOW, v.i. To make mouths.

MOWBURN, v.i. To heat and ferment in the mow, as hay when housed too green.

MOWE, v.i. To be able; must; may.

MOWED, MOWN, pp. Cut with a scythe.

1. Cleared of grass with a scythe, as land.

MOWER, n. One who mows; a man dexterous in the use of the scythe.

MOWING, ppr. Putting into a mow.

MOWING, ppr. Cutting down with scythe.
MOWING, n. The act of cutting with a scythe.

1. Land from which grass is cut.

MOXA, n. The down of the mugwort of China; a soft lanuginous substance prepared in Japan from the young leaves of a species of Artemisia. In the eastern countries, it is used for the gout, etc. by burning it on the skin. This produces a dark colored spot, the exulceration of which is promoted by applying a little garlic.

MOYLE, n. A mule. [See Mule.]

MUCH, a.

1. Great in quantity or amount.

Thou shalt carry much seed into the field, and gather but little in. Deuteronomy 28:38.

Manasseh wrought much wickedness in the sight of the Lord to provoke him to anger. 2 Kings 21:6.

Return with much riches to your tents. Joshua 22:8.

2. Long in duration. How much time is spent in trifling amusements!

3. Many in number.

Edom came out against him with much people. Numbers 20:20.

[This application of much is no longer used.]

MUCH, adv. In a great degree; by far; qualifying adjectives of the comparative degree; as much more, much stronger, much heavier, much more splendid, much higher. So we say, much less, much smaller, much less distinguished, much weaker, much finer.

1. To a great degree or extent; qualifying verbs and participles.

Jonathan, Saul’s son, delighted much in David. 1 Samuel 19:2.

It is a night to be much observed. Exodus 12:42.

The soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way. Numbers 21:4.

A much afflicted, much enduring man.

2. Often or long.

Think much, speak little.

3. Nearly.

All left the world much as they found it.

MUCH, n. A great quantity; a great deal.

He that gathered much had nothing over. Exodus 16:18.

To whom much is given, of him much shall be required. Luke 12:48.

They have much of the poetry of Maecenas, but little of his liberality.

1. More than enough; a heavy service or burden.

He thought not much to clothe his enemies.

Who thought it much a man should die of love.

2. An uncommon thing; something strange.

It was much that one who was so great a lover of peace should be happy in war.

As much, an equal quantity; used as an adjective or noun. Return as much bread as you borrowed. If you borrow money, return as much as you receive. So we say, twice as much, five times as much, that is, twice or five times the quantity.

1. A certain or suitable quantity.

Then take as much as thy soul desireth. 1 Samuel 2:16.

2. To an equal degree; adverbially. One man loves power as much as another loves gold.

So much, an equal quantity or a certain quantity, as a noun; to an equal degree, or to a certain degree, as an adverb.

Of sweet cinnamon half so much. Exodus 30:23.

In all Israel, there was none to be so much praised as Absalom. 2 Samuel 14:25.

Too much, an excessive quantity, as a noun; to an excessive degree, as an adverb.

To make much of, to value highly; to prize or to treat with great kindness and attention.

1. To fondle.

Much at one, nearly of equal value, effect or influence.