Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



MILL-TOOTH, n. plu. mill-teeth. A grinder, dens molaris.

MILLENARIAN, a. Consisting of a thousand years; pertaining to the millenium.

MILLENARIAN, n. A chiliast; one who believes in the millenium, and that Christ will reign on earth with his saints a thousand years before the end of the world.

MILLENARY, a. Consisting of a thousand.

MILLENIAL, a. Pertaining to the millenium, or to a thousand years; as millenial period; millenial happiness.

MILLENIST, n. One who holds to the millenium. [Not used.]

MILLENIUM, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and annus, year.]

A thousand years; a word used to denote the thousand years mentioned in Revelation 20:2-7. during which period Satan shall be bound and restrained from seducing men to sin, and Christ shall reign on earth with his saints.

MILLEPED, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and pes, foot.] The wood-louse, an insect having many feet, a species of Oniscus.

MILLEPORE, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and porus, a pore.]

A genus of lithophytes or polypiers of various forms, which have the surface perforated with little holes or pores, or even without any apparent perforation.

MILLEPORITE, n. Fossil millepores.

MILLER, n. [from mill.] One whose occupation is to attend a grist-mill.

1. An insect whose wings appear as if covered with white dust or powder, like a miller’s clothes.

MILLER’S-THUMB, n. A small fish found in small streams.

MILLESIMAL, a. [L. millesimus, from mille, a thousand.]

Thousandth; consisting of thousandth parts; as millesimal fractions.

MILLET, n. [L. milium.] A plant of the genus Milium, of several species, one of which is cultivated as an esculent grain.

The Indian millet is of the genus Holcus.

MILLIARY, a. [L. milliarium, a milestone.]

Pertaining to a mile; denoting a mile; as a milliary column.

MILLIGRAM, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and Gr. a gram.]

In the system of French weights and measures, the thousandth part of a gram, equal to a cubic millimeter of water.

The milligram is equal to .0154 English grains.

MILLILITER, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and liter.]

A French measure of capacity containing the thousandth part of a liter or cubic decimeter, equal to .06103 decimals of a cubic inch.

MILLIMETER, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and metrum, a measure.]

A French lineal measure containing the thousandth part of a meter; equal to .03937 decimals of an inch. It is the least measure of length.

MILLINER, n. [Johnson supposes this word to be Milaner, form Milan, in Italy.] A woman who makes and sells head-dresses, hats or bonnets, etc. for females.

MILLINERY, n. The articles made or sold by milliners, as head-dresses, hats or bonnets, laces, ribbons and the like.

MILLION, n. mil’yun. [L. mille, a thousand.]

1. The number of ten hundred thousand, or a thousand thousand. It is used as a noun or an adjective; as a million of men, or a million men. As a noun, it has a regular plural, millions.

2. In common usage, a very great number, indefinitely.

There are millions of truths that men are not concerned to know.

MILLIONARY, a. Pertaining to millions; consisting of millions; as the millionary chronology of the Pundits.

MILLIONED, a. Multiplied by millions. [Not used.]

MILLIONTH, a. The ten hundred thousandth.

MILLREA, MILLREE, n. A coin of Portugal of the value of $1.24 cents.

MILT, n.

1. In anatomy, the spleen, a viscus situated in the left hypochondrium under the diaphragm.

2. The soft roe of fishes, or the spermatic part of the males.

MILT, v.t. To impregnate the roe or spawn of the female fish.

MILTER, n. A male fish.

MILTWORT, n. A plant of the genus Asplenium.

MIME, n. A buffoon. [See Mimic.]

1. A kind of dramatic farce.

MIME, v.i. To mimic, or play the buffoon. [See Mimic.]

MIMER, n. A mimic. [See Mimic.]

MIMESIS, n. [Gr.] In rhetoric, imitation of the voice or gestures of another.

MIMETIC, a. [Gr.] Apt to imitate; given to aping or mimicry.

MIMIC, n. One who imitates or mimics; a buffoon who attempts to excite laughter or derision by acting or speaking in the manner of another.

1. A mean or servile imitator.

Of France the mimic, and of Spain the prey.

MIMICAL, a. [L. mimus, mimicus; Gr. to imitate.]

1. Imitative; inclined to imitate or to ape; having the practice or habit of imitating.

Man is of all creatures the most mimical in gestures, speech, etc.

2. Consisting of imitation; as mimic gestures.

Mimic implies often something droll or ludicrous, or less dignified than imitative.

MIMICK, v.t. To imitate or ape for sport; to attempt to excite laughter or derision by acting or speaking like another; to ridicule by imitation.

--The walk, the words, the gesture, could supply,

The habit mimick, and the mien belie.

MIMICRY, n. Ludicrous imitation for sport or ridicule.

MIMOGRAPHER, n. [Gr.] A writer of farces.

MINA, n. [L. mina.] A weight or denomination of money. The mina of the Old Testament was valued at sixty shekels. The Greek or Attic mina, was valued at a hundred drachmas, about f2. 17s. sterling, $10.44 cents.

MINACIOUS, a. [L. minax, from minor, to threaten.]

Threatening; menacing.

MINACITY, n. [L. minax.] Disposition to threaten. [Little used.]

MINARET, n. A small spire or steeple, or spire-like ornament in Saracen architecture.

MINATORY, a. Threatening; menacing.

MINCE, v.t. mins. [L. minuo, to diminish; L. minor, smaller; minuo, to diminish; Gr. small, slender; to diminish; L. minutus, minute.]

1. To cut or chop into very small pieces; as, to mince meat.

2. To diminish in speaking; to retrench, cut off or omit a part for the purpose of suppressing the truth; to extenuate in representation.

I know no way to mince it in love, but to say directly, I love you.

Siren, now mince the sin,

And mollify damnation with a phrase--

If, to mince his meaning, I had either omitted some part of what he said, or taken from the strength of his expression, I certainly had wronged him.

These--were forced to mince the matter.

3. To speak with affected softness; to clip words; not to utter the full sound.

4. To walk with short or diminished steps.

MINCE, v.i. To walk with short steps; to walk with affected nicety; to affect delicacy in manner.

I’ll turn two mincing steps

Into a manly stride.

Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, - walking and mincing as they go. Isaiah 3:16.

1. To speak softly, or with affected nicety.

MINCED, pp. Cut or chopped into very small pieces.

MINCE-PIE, MINCED-PIE, n. A pie made with minced meat and other ingredients, baked in paste.

MINCING, ppr. Cutting into small pieces; speaking or walking affectedly.

MINCINGLY, adv. In small parts; not fully.

MIND, n. [L. reminiscor; L. mens; Gr. memory, mention, to remember, mind, ardor of mind, vehemence; anger. Mind signifies properly intention, a reaching or inclining forward to an object, from the primary sense of extending, stretching or inclining, or advancing eagerly, pushing or setting forward, whence the Greek sense of the word, in analogy with the Teutonic mod, moed, muth, mind, courage, spirit, mettle. So L. animus, animosus.]

1. Intention; purpose; design.

The sacrifice of the wicked is abomination; how much more, when he bringeth it with a wicked mind. Proverbs 21:27.

2. Inclination; will; desire; a sense much used, but expressing less than settled purpose; as in the common phrases, “I wish to know your mind;” “let me know your mind;” “he had a mind to go;” “he has a partner to his mind.”

3. Opinion; as, to express one’s mind. We are of one mind.

4. Memory; remembrance; as, to put one in mind; to call to mind; the fact is out of my mind; time out of mind. From the operations of the intellect in man, this word came to signify.

5. The intellectual or intelligent power in man; the understanding; the power that conceives, judges or reasons.

I fear I am not in my perfect mind.

So we speak of a sound mind, a disordered mind, a weak mind, a strong mind, with reference to the active powers of the understanding; and in a passive sense, it denotes capacity, as when we say, the mind cannot comprehend a subject.

6. The heart or seat of affection.

Which were a grief of mind to Isaac and Rebekah. Genesis 26:35.

7. The will and affection; as readiness of mind. Acts 17:11.

8. The implanted principle of grace. Romans 7:23.

MIND, v.t. To attend to; to fix the thoughts on; to regard with attention.

Cease to request me; let us mind our way.

Mind not high things. Romans 12:16.

1. To attend to or regard with submission; to obey. His father told him to desist, but he would not mind him.

2. To put in mind; to remind.

3. To intend; to mean.

MIND, v.i. To be inclined or disposed to incline.

When one of them mindeth to go into rebellion.

MINDED, a. Disposed; inclined.

If men were minded to live virtuously.

Joseph was minded to put her away privily. Matthew 1:19.

Minded is much used in composition; as high-minded; low-minded; feeble-minded; sober-minded; double-minded.

MINDEDNESS, n. Disposition; inclination towards any thing; as heavenly mindedness.

MINDFILLING, a. Filling the mind.

MINDFUL, a. Attentive; regarding with care; bearing in mind; heedful; observant.

I promise to be mindful of your admonitions.

What is man, that thou art mindful of him? Psalm 8:4.

MINDFULLY, adv. Attentively; heedfully.

MINDFULNESS, n. Attention; regard; heedfulness.

MINDING, ppr. Regarding; heeding.

MINDING, n. Regard.

MINDLESS, a. Inattentive; heedless; forgetful; negligent; careless.

Cursed Athens, mindless of thy worth.

1. Not endued with mind or intellectual powers; as mindless bodies.

2. Stupid; unthinking; as a mindless slave.

MIND-STRICKEN, a. Moved; affected in mind. [Not used.]

MINE, a. called sometimes a pronominal adj. [L. meus.]

My; belonging to me. It was formerly used before nouns beginning with vowels. “I kept myself from mine iniquity.” Psalm 18:23. But this use is no longer retained. We now use my before a vowel as well as before an articulation; as my iniquity. In present usage, my always precedes the noun, and mine follows the noun, and usually the verb; as, this is my book; this book is mine; it is called my book; the book is called mine: it is acknowledged to be mine.

Mine sometimes supplies the place of a noun. Your sword and mine are different in construction.

MINE, n.

1. A pit or excavation in the earth, from which metallic ores, mineral substances and other fossil bodies are taken by digging. The pits from which stones only are taken, are called quarries.

2. In the military art, a subterraneous canal or passage dug under the wall or rampart of a fortification, where a quantity of power may be lodged for blowing up the works.

3. A rich source of wealth or other good.

MINE, v.i. To dig a mine or pit in the earth.

1. To form a subterraneous canal or hole by scratching; to form a burrow or lodge in the earth, as animals; as the mining coney.

2. To practice secret means in injury.

MINE, v.t. To sap; to undermine; to dig away or otherwise remove the substratum or foundation; hence, to ruin or destroy by slow degrees or secret means.

They mined the walls.

In a metaphorical sense, undermine is generally used.

MINE-DIGGER, n. One that digs mines.

MINER, n. One that digs for metals and other fossils.

1. One who digs canals or passages under the walls of a fort, etc. Armies have sappers and miners.

MINERAL, n. [Low L. minera, a matrix or vein of metals, whence mineralia; all from mine.]

A body destitute of organization, and which naturally exists within the earth or at its surface.

Minerals were formerly divided into salts, earths, inflammables and ores; a division which serves for a general distribution, but a more scientific arrangement into classes, orders, genera, species, subspecies and varieties, has been adopted to meet the more precise views of modern mineralogists.

MINERAL, a. Pertaining to minerals; consisting of fossil substances; as the mineral kingdom.

1. Impregnated with minerals or fossil matter; as mineral waters; a mineral spring.

MINERALIST, n. One versed or employed in minerals.

MINERALIZATION, n. [See Mineralize.]

1. The process of forming an ore by combination with another substance; the natural operation of uniting a metallic substance with another.

2. The process of converting into a mineral, as a bone or a plant.

3. The act of impregnating with a mineral, as water.

MINERALIZE, v.t. [from mineral] In mineralogy, to combine with a metal in forming an ore or mineral. Sulphur mineralizes many of the metals.

1. To convert into a mineral.

In these caverns, the bones are not mineralized.

2. To impregnate with a mineral substance; as, to mineralize water.

MINERALIZED, pp. Deprived of its usual properties by being combined with another substance or formed into an ore; as, metallic substances are mineralized.

1. Converted into a mineral.

2. Impregnated with a mineral.

MINERALIZER, n. A substance which mineralizes another or combines with it in an ore, and thus deprives it of its usual and peculiar properties. Sulphur is one of the most common mineralizers.

MINERALOGICAL, a. [See Mineralogy.] Pertaining to the science of minerals; as a mineralogical table.

MINERALOGICALLY, adv. In mineralogy.

MINERALOGIST, n. One who is versed in the science of minerals, or one who treats or discourses of the properties of mineral bodies.

MINERALOGY, n. [mineral and Gr. discourse.] The science which treats of the properties of mineral substances, and teaches us to characterize, distinguish and class them according to their properties. It comprehends the study or science of all inorganic substances in the earth or on its surface.

MINGLE, v.t.

1. To mix; to blend; to unite in one body; as, to mingle liquors of different kinds.

2. To mix or blend without order or promiscuously.

There was fire mingled with hail. Exodus 9:24.

3. To compound; to unite in a mass, as solid substances; as, to mingle flour, sugar and eggs in cookery.

4. To join in mutual intercourse or in society.

The holy seed have mingled themselves with the people of those lands. Ezra 9:2; Psalm 106:35.

5. To contaminate; to render impure; to debase by mixture.

The best of us appear contented with a mingled imperfect virtue.

6. To confuse.

There mingle broils.

MINGLE, v.i. To be mixed; to be united with.

She, when she saw her sister nymphs, suppressed

Her rising fears, and mingled with the rest.

MINGLE, n. Mixture; medley; promiscuous mass. [Not used.]

MINGLED, pp. Mixed; united promiscuously.

MINGLEDLY, adv. Confusedly.

MINGLER, n. One that mingles.

MINGLING, ppr. Mixing; uniting without order.

MINIARD, a. Soft; dainty. [Little used.]

MINIARDIZE, v.t. To render soft, delicate or dainty.

MINIATE, v.t. [L. minium, vermillion.] To paint or tinge with vermillion.


1. A painting in water colors on vellum, ivory or paper, with points or dots; sometimes in oil colors. The term is usually applied to portraits painted on a very small scale.

2. A picture or representation in a small compass, or less than the reality.

3. Red letter; rubric distinction.

MINIKIN, a. Small; diminutive; used in slight contempt.

MINIKIN, n. A small sort of pins.

1. A darling; a favorite. [See Minion.]


1. A little man or being; a dwarf.

2. One of a certain reformed order of Franciscans or Minimi.

3. A note in music, equal to half a semi-breve or two crotchets.

4. A short poetical encomium.

5. A small fish.

MINIMUM, n. [L.] The least quantity assignable in a given case.

MINIMUS, n. [L.] A being of the smallest size.

MINING, ppr. Digging into the earth, as for fossils and minerals; sapping.

1. a. Designating the business of digging mines; as the mining districts of Siberia.

MINION, a. [infra.] Fine; trim; dainty. [Not used.]

MINION, n. min’yon. A favorite; a darling; particularly, the favorite of a prince, on whom he lavishes his favors; one who gains favors by flattery or mean adulation.

Edward sent an army into Ireland, not for conquest, but to guard the person of his minion, Piers Gaviston.

The drowsy tyrant by his minions led.

MINION, n. [L. minor. See Mince.]

A small kind of printing types.

MINIONING, n. Kind treatment.

MINIONLIKE, MINIONLY, adv. Finely; daintily.

MINIONSHIP, n. State of being a minion.

MINIOUS, n. [from L. minium.] Of the color of red lead or vermillion.

MINISH, v.t. [L. minuo, to lessen.]

To lessen; to diminish. [See Diminish.]


1. Properly, a chief servant; hence, an agent appointed to transact or manage business under the authority of another; in which sense, it is a word of very extensive application.

Moses rose up and his minister Joshua. Exodus 24:13.

2. One to whom a king or prince entrusts the direction of affairs of state; as minister of state; the prime minister. In modern governments, the secretaries or heads of the several departments or branches of government are the ministers of the chief magistrate.

3. A magistrate; an executive officer.

For he is the minister of God to thee for good. Romans 13:4.

4. A delegate; an embassador; the representative of a sovereign at a foreign court; usually such as is resident at a foreign court, but not restricted to such.

5. One who serves at the altar; one who performs sacerdotal duties; the pastor of a church, duly authorized or licensed to preach the gospel and administer the sacraments. Ephesians 3:7.

6. Christ is called a minister of the sanctuary. Hebrews 8:2.

7. An angel; a messenger of God.

Who maketh his angels spirits, his ministers a flaming fire. Psalm 104:4.

MINISTER, v.t. [L. ministro.] To give; to afford; to supply.

He that ministereth seed to the sower-- 2 Corinthians 9:10.

That it may minister grace to the hearers. Ephesians 4:29.

MINISTER, v.i. To attend and serve; to perform service in any office, sacred or secular.

I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to minister to me in the priest’s office. Exodus 29:44.

1. To afford supplies; to give things needful; to supply the means of relief; to relieve.

When saw we thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? Matthew 25:44.

2. To give medicines.

Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased?

In this sense, we commonly use administer.

MINISTERED, pp. Served; afforded; supplied.

MINISTERIAL, a. Attending for service; attendant; acting at command.

Enlight’ning spirits and ministerial flames.

1. Acting under superior authority; pertaining to a minister.

For the ministerial offices in court, there must be an eye to them.

2. Pertaining to executive offices, as distinct from judicial. The office and acts of a sheriff are ministerial.

3. Sacerdotal; pertaining to ministers of the gospel; as ministerial garments; ministerial duties.

Genuine ministerial prudence keeps back no important truth, listens to no compromise with sin, connives at no fashionable vice, cringes before no lordly worldling.

4. Pertaining to ministers of state; as ministerial circles; ministerial benches.

MINISTERIALLY, adv. In a ministerial manner or character.

MINISTERING, ppr. Attending and serving as a subordinate agent; serving under superior authority. Hebrews 1:14.

1. Affording aid or supplies; administering things needful.

MINISTERY. [See Ministry.]

MINISTRAL, a. Pertaining to a minister. [Little used.]

MINISTRANT, a. Performing service as a minister; attendant on service; acting under command.

Princedoms and dominations ministrant.

MINISTRATION, n. [L. ministratio.] The act of performing service as a subordinate agent; agency; intervention for aid or service.

--Because their widows were neglected in the daily ministrations. Acts 6:1.

1. Office of a minister; service; ecclesiastical function.

As soon as the days of his ministration were ended. Luke 1:23.

MINISTRESS, n. A female that ministers.

MINISTRY, n. [L. ministerium.] The office, duties or functions of a subordinate agent of any kind.

1. Agency; service; aid; interposition; instrumentality.

He directs the affairs of this world by the ordinary ministry of second causes.

2. Ecclesiastical function; agency or service of a minister of the gospel or clergyman in the modern church, or of priests, apostles and evangelists in the ancient. Acts 1:25; Romans 12:7; 2 Timothy 4:5; Numbers 4:47.

3. Time of ministration; duration of the office of a minister, civil or ecclesiastical.

The war with France was during the ministry of Pitt.

4. Persons who compose the executive government or the council of a supreme magistrate; the body of ministers of state.

5. Business; employment.

He abhorred the wicked ministry of arms.

MINISTRYSHIP, for ministry, is little used and hardly proper.