Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



LICITLY, adv. Lawfully.

LICITNESS, n. Lawfulness.

LICK, v.t. [L. lingo; Gr. See Like and Sleek.]

1. To pass or draw the tongue over the surface; as, a dog licks a wound.

2. To lap; to take in by the tongue; as, a dog or cat licks milk. 1 Kings 21:19.

To lick up, to devour; to consume entirely.

Now shall this company lick up all that are round about us, as an ox licketh up the grass of the field. Numbers 22:4.

To lick the dust, to be slain; to perish in battle.

His enemies shall lick the dust. Psalm 72:9.

LICK, n. In America, a place where beasts of the forest lick for salt, at salt springs.
LICK, n.

1. A blow; a stroke. [Not an elegant word.]

2. A wash; something rubbed on. [Not in use.]

LICK, v.t. To strike repeatedly for punishment; to flog; to chastise with blows. [Not an elegant word; but probably flog, L. fligo, is from the root of this word.]

LICKER, n. One that licks.

LICKERISH, a. [Gr. sweet. The sense of watery, smooth, sweet, are allied; likeness is often connected with smoothness in radical sense, and sleek is probably from the root of lick, like.]

1. Nice in the choice of food; dainty; as a lickerish palate.

2. Eager; greedy to swallow; eager to taste or enjoy; having a keen relish.

3. Dainty; tempting the appetite; as lickerish baits.

LICKERISHLY, adv. Daintly.

LICKERISHNESS, n. Niceness of palate; daintiness.

LICORICE, n. [L. glycyrrhiza; Gr. sweet, and root.]

A plant of the genus Glycyrrhiza. The root of this plant abounds with a sweet balsamic juice, much used in pectoral compositions.

LICOROUS, LICOROUSNESS, for lickerish, etc. not used.

LICTOR, n. [L. lick, to strike.] An officer among the Romans, who bore an ax and fasces or rods, as ensigns of his office. The duty of a lictor was to attend the chief magistrates when they appeared in public, to clear the way and cause due respect to be paid to them. A dictator was attended by twenty four lictors, a consul by twelve, and a master of the horse by six. It was also the duty of lictors to apprehend and punish criminals.

LID, n. [L. claudo, cludo; Gr.; Heb.]

A cover; that which shuts the opening of a vessel or box; as the lid of a chest or trunk; also, the cover of the eye, the membrane which is drawn over the eyeball of an animal at pleasure, and which is intended for its protection; the eyelid.

LIE, water impregnated with alkaline salt, is written lye, to distinguish it from lie, a falsehood.

LIE, n.

1. A criminal falsehood; a falsehood uttered for the purpose of deception; an intentional violation of truth. Fiction, or a false statement or representation, not intended to deceive, mislead or injure, as in fables, parables and the like, is not a lie.

It is willful deceit that makes a lie. A man may act a lie, as by pointing his finger in a wrong direction, when a traveler inquires of him his road.

2. A fiction; in a ludicrous sense.

3. False doctrine. 1 John 2:21, 27.

4. An idolatrous picture of God, or a false god. Romans 1:25.

5. That which deceives and disappoints confidence. Micah 1:14.

To give the lie, to charge with falsehood. A man’s actions may give the lie to his words.

LIE, v.i.

1. To utter falsehood with an intention to deceive, or with an immoral design.

Thou hast not lied to men, but to God. Acts 5:4.

2. To exhibit a false representation; to say or do that which deceives another, when he has a right to know the truth, or when morality requires a just representation.

LIE, v.i. pret. lay; pp. lain, [lien, Obs.] [The Gr. word usually signifies to speak, which is to utter or throw out sounds. Hence to lie down is to throw one’s self down, and probably lie and lay are of one family, as are jacio and jacceo, in Latin.]

1. To be in a horizontal position, or nearly so, and to rest on any thing lengthwise, and not on the end. Thus a person lies on a bed, and a fallen tree on the ground. A cask stands on its end, but lies on its side.

2. To rest in an inclining posture; to lean; as, to lie on or against a column.

3. To rest; to press on.

4. To be reposited in the grave.

All the kings of the earth, even all of them, lie in glory. Isaiah 14:18.

5. To rest on a bed or couch; to be prostrate; as, to lie sick.

My little daughter lieth at the point of death. Mark 5:23.

6. To be situated. New Haven lies in the forty second degree of north latitude. Ireland lies west of England.

Envy lies between beings equal in nature, though unequal in circumstances.

7. To be; to rest; to abide; to remain; often followed by some word denoting a particular condition; as, to lie waste; to lie fallow; to lie open; to lie hid; to lie pining or grieving; to lie under one’s displeasure; to lie at the mercy of a creditor, or at the mercy of the waves.

8. To consist.

He that thinks that diversion may not lie in hard labor, forgets the early rising of the huntsman.

9. To be sustainable in law; to be capable of being maintained. An action lies against the tenant for waste.

An appeal lies in this case.

To lie at, to tease or importune. [Little used.]

To lie at the heart, to be fixed as an object of affection or anxious desire.

1. To lie by, to be reposited, or remaining with. He has the manuscript lying by him.

2. To rest; to intermit labor. We lay by during the heat of the day.

To lie in the way, to be an obstacle or impediment. Remove the objections that lie in the way of an amicable adjustment.

To lie hard or heavy, to press; to oppress; to burden.

To lie on hand, to be or remain in possession; to remain unsold or undisposed of.

Great quantities of wine lie on hand, or have lain long on hand.

To lie on the hands, to remain unoccupied or unemployed; to be tedious. Men are sometimes at a loss to know how to employ the time that lies on their hands.

To lie on the head, to be imputed.

What he gets more of her than sharp words, let it lie on my head.

To lie in wait, to wait for in concealment; to lie in ambush; to watch for an opportunity to attack or seize.

To lie in one, to be in the power of; to belong to.

As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Romans 12:18.

To lie down, to lay the body on the ground or other level place; also, to go to rest.

To lie in, to be in childbed; to bring forth young.

To lie under, to be subject to; to suffer; to be oppressed by.

To lie on or upon, to be a matter of obligation or duty. It lies on the plaintiff to maintain his action.

1. To lie with, to lodge or sleep with; also, to have carnal knowledge of.

2. To belong to. It lies with you to make amends.

To lie over, to remain unpaid, after the time when payment is due; as a note in bank.

To lie to, to be stationary, as a ship.

LIEF, a. [See Love.] Dear; beloved. Obs.

LIEF, adv. [supra. This word coincides with love, L. lubet, libet, and the primary sense is to be free, prompt, ready.]

Gladly; willingly; freely; used in familiar speech, in the phrase, I had as lief go as not. It has been supposed that had in this phrase is a corruption of would. At any rate it is anomalous.

LIEGE, a. [L. ligo, to bind; Gr. to bind, to bend; a withe.]

1. Bound by a feudal tenure; obliged to be faithful and loyal to a superior, as a vassal to his lord; subject; faithful; as a liege man. By liege homage, a vassal was bound to serve his lord against all, without excepting his sovereign; or against all, excepting a former lord to whom he owed like service.

2. Sovereign; as a liege lord. [See the noun.]

LIEGE, n. [supra.]

1. A vassal holding a fee by which he is bound to perform certain services and duties to his lord.

2. A lord or superior; a sovereign.

[Note. This is a false application of the word, arising probably from transferring the word from the vassal to the lord; the lord of liege men, being called liege lord.]

LIEGE-MAN, n. A vassal; a subject. Obs.

LIEN, the obsolete participle of lie. [See Lain.]

LIEN, n. [supra.] A legal claim; as a lien upon land.

LIENTERIC, a. [from lientery.] Pertaining to a lientery.

LIENTERY, n. [L.; Gr. smooth, and an intestine.]

A flux of the bowels, in which the aliments are discharged undigested, and with little alteration either in color or substance.

LIER, n. [from lie.] One who lies down; one who rests or remains; as a lier in wait or in ambush. Joshua 8:13-14.

LIEU, n. [L. locus, Eng. ley or lea. See Ley.]

Place; room; stead. It is used only with in. Let me have gold in lieu of silver. In lieu of fashionable honor, let justice by substituted.

LIEUTENANCY, n. luten’ancy. [See Lieutenant.]

1. The office or commission of a lieutenant.

2. The body of lieutenants.

LIEUTENANT, n. luten’ant. [L. tenens, holding.]

1. An officer who supplies the place of a superior in his absence. Officers of this kind are civil, as the lord-lieutenant of a kingdom or county; or military, as a lieutenant general, a lieutenant colonel.

2. In military affairs, the second commissioned officer in a company of infantry cavalry or artillery.

3. In ships of war, the officer next in rank to the captain.

LIEUTENANTSHIP. [See Lieutenancy.]

LIEVE, for lief, is vulgar. [See Lief.]

LIEVRITE, n. A mineral, called also yenite, which see.

LIFE, n. plu lives. [See Live.]

1. In a general sense, that state of animals and plants, or of an organized being, in which its natural functions and motions are performed, or in which its organs are capable of performing their functions. A tree is not destitute of life in winter, when the functions of its organs are suspended; nor man during a swoon or syncope; nor strictly birds, quadrupeds or serpents during their torpitude in winter. They are not strictly dead, till the functions of their organs are incapable of being renewed.

2. In animals, animation; vitality; and in man, that state of being in which the soul and body are united.

He entreated me not to take his life.

3. In plants, the state in which they grow or are capable of growth, by means of the circulation of the sap. The life of an oak may be two, three, or four hundred years.

4. The present state of existence; the time from birth to death. The life of man seldom exceeds seventy years.

If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable. 1 Corinthians 15:19.

5. Manner of living; conduct; deportment, in regard to morals.

I will teach my family to lead good lives.

6. Condition; course of living, in regard to happiness and misery. We say, a man’s life has been a series of prosperity, or misfortune.

7. Blood, the supposed vehicle of animation.

And the warm life came issuing through the wound.

8. Animals in general; animal being.

Full nature swarms with life.

9. System of animal nature.

Lives through all life.

10. Spirit; animation; briskness; vivacity; resolution.

They have no notion of life and fire in fancy and words.

11. The living form; real person or state; in opposition to a copy; as, a picture is taken from the life; a description from the life.

12. Exact resemblance; with to, before life.

His portrait is draw to the life.

13. General state of man, or of social manners; as the studies and arts that polish life.

14. Condition; rank in society; as high life and low life.

15. Common occurrences; course of things; human affairs.

But to know that which before us lies in daily life, is the prime wisdom.

16. A person; a living being; usually or always, a human being. How many lives were sacrificed during the revolution?

17. Narrative of a past life; history of the events of life; biographical narration. Johnson wrote the life of Milton, and the lives of other poets.

18. In Scripture, nourishment; support of life.

For the tree of the field is man’s life. Deuteronomy 20:19.

19. The stomach or appetite.

His life abhorreth bread. Job 33:20.

20. The enjoyments or blessings of the present life.

Having the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come. 1 Timothy 4:8.

21. Supreme felicity.

To be spiritually minded is life and peace. Romans 8:6.

22. Eternal happiness in heaven. Romans 5:21.

23. Restoration to life. Romans 5:18.

24. The author and giver of supreme felicity.

I am the way, the truth, and the life. John 14:6.

25. A quickening, animating and strengthening principle, in a moral sense. John 6:63.

26. The state of being in force, or the term for which an instrument has legal operation; as the life of an execution.


1. The blood necessary to life; vital blood.

2. That which constitutes or gives strength and energy.

Money, the life-blood of the nation.

LIFE-BLOOD, a. Necessary as blood to life; essential.

LIFE-ESTATE, n. An estate that continues during the life of the possessor.

LIFE-EVERLASTING, n. A plant of the genus Gnaphalium.

LIFE-GIVING, a. Having power to give life; inspiriting; invigorating.

LIFEGUARD, n. A guard of the life or person; a guard that attends the person of a prince, or other person.


1. Dead; deprived of life; as a lifeless body.

2. Destitute of life; unanimated; as lifeless matter.

3. Destitute of power, force, vigor or spirit; dull; heavy; inactive.

4. Void of spirit; vapid; as liquor.

5. Torpid.

6. Wanting physical energy.

LIFELESSLY, adv. Without vigor; dully; frigidly; heavily.

LIFELESSNESS, n. Destitution of life, vigor and spirit; inactivity.

LIFELIKE, a. Like a living person.

LIFERENT, n. The rent of an estate that continues for life.

LIFESTRING, n. a nerve or string that is imagined to be essential to life.

LIFETIME, n. The time that life continues; duration of life.

LIFEWEARY, a. Tired of life; weary of living.

LIFT, v.t. [We retain this sense in shoplifter. L. levo, elevo.]

1. To raise; to elevate; as, to lift the foot or the hand; to lift the head.

2. To raise; to elevate mentally.

To thee, O Lord, do I lift up my soul. Psalm 25:1.

3. To raise in fortune.

The eye of the Lord lifted up his head from misery.

4. To raise in estimation, dignity or rank. His fortune has lifted him into notice, or into office.

The Roman virtues lift up mortal man.

5. To elate; to cause to swell, as with pride. Up is often used after lift, as a qualifying word; sometimes with effect or emphasis; very often, however, it is useless.

6. To bear; to support.

7. To steal, that is, to take and carry away. Hence we retain the use of shoplifter, although the verb in this sense is obsolete.

8. In Scripture, to crucify.

When ye have lifted up the Son of man. John 8:28.

1. To lift up the eyes, to look; to fix the eyes on.

Lot lifted up his eyes and beheld Jordan. Genesis 13:10.

2. To direct the desires to God in prayer. Psalm 121:1.

1. To lift up the head, to raise from a low condition; to exalt. Genesis 40:13.

2. To rejoice. Luke 21:28.

1. To lift up the hand, to swear, or to confirm by oath. Genesis 14:22.

2. To raise the hands in prayer. Psalm 28:2.

3. To rise in opposition to; to rebel; to assault. 2 Samuel 18:28.

4. To injure or oppress. Job 31:21.

5. To shake off sloth and engage in duty. Hebrews 12:12.

To lift up the face, to look to with confidence, cheerfulness and comfort. Job 22:26.

To lift up the heel against, to treat with insolence and contempt.

To lift up the horn, to behave arrogantly or scornfully. Psalm 75:4-5.

To lift up the feet, to come speedily to one’s relief. Psalm 74:3.

To lift up the voice, to cry aloud; to call out, either in grief or joy. Genesis 21:16; Isaiah 24:14.

LIFT, v.i.

1. To try to raise; to exert the strength for the purpose of raising or bearing.

The body strained by lifting at a weight too heavy -

2. To practice theft. Obs.

LIFT, n.

1. The act of raising; a lifting; as the lift of the feet in walking or running.

The goat gives the fox a lift.

2. An effort to raise; as, give us a lift. [Popular use.]

3. That which is to be raised.

4. A dead lift, an ineffectual effort to raise; or the thing which the strength is not sufficient to raise.

5. Any thing to be done which exceeds the strength; or a state of inability; as, to help one at a dead lift.

6. A rise; a degree of elevation; as the lift of a lock in canals.

7. In Scottish, the sky; the atmosphere; the firmament.

8. In seamen’s language, a rope descending from the cap and mast-head to the extremity of a yard. Its use is to support the yard, keep it in equilibrio, and raise the end, when occasion requires.

LIFTED, pp. Raised; elevated; swelled with pride.

LIFTER, n. One that lifts or raises.

LIFTING, ppr. Raising; swelling with pride.

LIFTING, n. The act of lifting; assistance.

LIG, v.i. to lie. [See Lie.] Obs.

LIGAMENT, n. [L. ligamentum, from ligo, to bind, that is, to strain.]

1. Any thing that ties or unites one thing or part to another.

Interwoven is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts.

2. In anatomy, a strong, compact substance, serving to bind one bone to another. It is a white, solid inelastic, tendinous substance, softer than cartilage, but harder than membrane.

3. Bond; chain; that which binds or restrains.

LIGAMENTAL, LIGAMENTOUS, a. Composing a ligament; of the nature of a ligament; binding; as a strong ligamentous membrane.

LIGATION, n. [L. ligatio.] The act of binding, or state of being bound.

LIGATURE, n. [L. ligatura.]

1. Any thing that binds; a band or bandage.

2. The act of binding; as, by a strict ligature of the parts.

3. Impotence induced by magic.

4. In music, a band or line connecting notes.

5. Among printers, a double character, or a type consisting of two letters or characters united; as fl, fi, in English. The old editions of Greek authors abound with ligatures.

6. The state of being bound.

7. In medicine, stiffness of a joint.

8. In surgery, a cord or string for tying the blood vessels, particularly the arteries, to prevent hemorrhage.

LIGHT, n. lite. [L. lux, light and luceo, to shine. Eng. luck, both in elements and radical sense.]

1. That ethereal agent or matter which makes objects perceptible to the sense of seeing, but the particles of which are separately invisible. It is now generally believed that light is a fluid, or real matter, existing independent of other substances, with properties peculiar to itself. Its velocity is astonishing, as it passes through a space of nearly twelve millions of miles in a minute. Light, when decomposed, is found to consist of rays differently colored; as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. The sun is the principal source of light in the solar system; but light is also emitted from bodies ignited, or in combustion, and is reflected from enlightened bodies, as the moon. Light is also emitted from certain putrefying substances. It is usually united with heat, but it exists also independent of it.

2. That flood of luminous rays which flows from the sun and constitutes day.

God called the light day, and the darkness he called night. Genesis 1:5.

3. Day; the dawn of day.

The murderer rising with the light, killeth the poor and needy. Job 24:14.

4. Life.

O, spring to light, auspicious babe, be born!

5. Any thing that gives light; as a lamp, candle, taper, lighted tower, star, etc.

Then he called for a light, and sprang in - Acts 16:29.

I have set thee to be a light to the Gentiles. Acts 13:47.

And God made two great lights. Genesis 1:16.

6. The illuminated part of a picture; the part which lies open to the luminary by which the piece is supposed to be enlightened, and is painted in vivid colors; opposed to shade.

7. Illumination of mind; instruction; knowledge.

I opened Ariosto in Italian, and the very first two lines gave me light to all I could desire.

Light, understanding and wisdom - was found in him. Daniel 5:11.

8. Means of knowing. By using such lights as we have, we may arrive at probability, if not at certainty.

9. Open view; a visible state; a state of being seen by the eye, or perceived, understood or known. Further researches will doubtless bring to light many isles yet undiscovered; further experiments will bring to light properties of matter yet unknown.

10. Public view or notice.

Why am I ask’d what next shall see the light?

11. Explanation; illustration; means of understanding. One part of Scripture throws light on another.

12. Point of view; situation to be seen or viewed; a use of the word taken from painting. It is useful to exhibit a subject in a variety of lights. Let every thought be presented in a strong light. In whatever light we view this event, it must be considered an evil.

13. A window; a place that admits light to enter. 1 Kings 7:4.

14. A pane of glass; as a window with twelve lights.

15. In Scripture, God, the source of knowledge.

God is light. 1 John 1:5.

16. Christ.

That was the true light, that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. John 1:9.

17. Joy; comfort; felicity.

Light is sown for the righteous. Psalm 97:11.

18. Saving knowledge.

It is because there is no light in them. Isaiah 8:20.

19. Prosperity; happiness.

Then shall thy light break forth as the morning. Isaiah 58:8.

20. Support; comfort; deliverance. Micah 7:8-9.

21. The gospel. Matthew 4:16.

22. The understanding or judgment. Matthew 6:22-23.

23. The gifts and graces of christians. Matthew 5:14-16.

24. A moral instructor, as John the Baptist. John 5:35.

25. A true christian, a person enlightened. Ephesians 5:8.

26. A good king, the guide of his people. 2 Samuel 21:17.

The light of the countenance, favor; smiles. Psalm 4:6.

To stand in one’s own light, to be the means of preventing good, or frustrating one’s own purposes.

To come to light, to be detected; to be discovered or found.

LIGHT, a. lite.

1. Bright; clear; not dark or obscure; as, the morning is light; the apartment is light.

2. In colors, white or whitish; as a light color; a light brown; a light complexion.

LIGHT, a. lite.

1. Having little weight; not tending to the center of gravity with force; not heavy. A feather is light, compared with lead or silver; but a thing is light only comparatively. That which is light to a man, may be heavy to a child. A light burden for a camel, may be insupportable to a horse.

2. Not burdensome; easy to be lifted, borne or carried by physical strength; as a light burden, weight or load.

3. Not oppressive; easy to be suffered or endured; as a light affliction. 2 Corinthians 4:17.

4. Easy to be performed; not difficult; not requiring great strength or exertion. The task is light; the work is light.

5. Easy to be digested; not oppressive to the stomach; as light food. It may signify also, contained little nutriment.

6. Not heavily armed, or armed with light weapons; as light troops; a troop of light horse.

7. Active; swift; nimble.

Asahel was as light of foot as a wild roe. 2 Samuel 2:18.

8. Not encumbered; unembarrassed; clear of impediments.

Unmarried men are best masters, but not best subjects; for they are light to run away.

9. Not laden; not deeply laden; not sufficiently ballasted. The ship returned light.

10. Slight; trifling; not important; as a light error.

11. Not dense; not gross; as light vapors; light fumes.

12. Small; inconsiderable; not copious or vehement; as a light rain; a light snow.

13. Not strong; not violent; moderate; as a light wind.

14. Easy to admit influence; inconsiderate; easily influenced by trifling considerations; unsteady; unsettled; volatile; as a light, vain person; a light mind.

There is no greater argument of a light and inconsiderate person, than profanely to scoff at religion.

15. Gay; airy; indulging levity; wanting dignity or solidity; trifling.

Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Plautus too light.

We may neither be light in prayer, now wrathful in debate.

16. Wanton; unchaste; as a woman of light carriage.

A light wife doth make a heavy husband.

17. Not of legal weight; clipped; diminished; as light coin.

To set light by, to undervalue; to slight; to treat as of no importance; to despise.

To make light of, to treat as of little consequence; to slight; to disregard.

LIGHT, v.t. lite.

1. To kindle; to inflame; to set fire to; as, to light a candle or lamp; sometimes with up; as, to light up an inextinguishable flame. We often hear lit used for lighted as, he lit a candle; but this is inelegant.

2. To give light to.

Ah hopeless, lasting flames! like those that burn to light the dead -

3. To illuminate; to fill or spread over with light; as, to light a room; to light the streets of a city.

4. To lighten; to ease of a burden. [Not in use. See Lighten.]

LIGHT, v.i. lite.

1. To fall on; to come to by chance; to happen to find; with on.

A weaker man may sometimes light on notions which had escaped a wiser.

2. To fall on; to strike.

They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat. Revelation 7:16.

3. To descend, as from a horse or carriage; with down, off, or from.

He lighten down from his chariot. 2 Kings 5:21.

She lighted off the camel. Genesis 24:64.

To settle; to rest; to stoop from flight. The bee lights on this flower and that.

LIGHT-ARMED, a. Armed with light weapons.

LIGHT-BEARER, n. A torch-bearer.

LIGHT-BRAIN, n. An empty headed person.

LIGHTED, pp. li’ted. Kindled; set on fire; caused to burn. [Lit, for lighted, is inelegant.]

LIGHTEN, v.i. li’tn. [from light, the fluid.]

1. To flash; to burst forth or dart, as lightning; to shine with an instantaneous illumination.

This dreadful night that thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars as doth the lion.

2. To shine like lightning.

3. To fall; to light. Obs.

LIGHTEN, v.t. li’tn.

1. To dissipate darkness; to fill with light; to spread over with light; to illuminate; to enlighten; as, to lighten an apartment with lamps or gas; to lighten the streets.

A key of fire ran all along the shore, and lightened all the river with a blaze.

2. To illuminate with knowledge; in a moral sense.

A light to lighten the Gentiles. Luke 2:32.

3. To free from trouble and fill with joy.

They looked to him and were lightened. Psalm 34:5.

LIGHTEN, v.t. li’tn. [from light, not heavy.]

1. To make lighter; to reduce in weight; to make less heavy; as, to lighten a ship by unloading; to lighten a load or burden.

2. To alleviate; to make less burdensome or afflictive; as, to lighten the cares of life; to lighten the burden of grief.

3. To cheer; to exhilarate.

He lightens my humor with his merry jest.

LIGHTER, n. li’ter.

1. One that lights; as a lighter of lamps.

2. A large open flat-bottomed boat, used in loading and unloading ships.

LIGHTERMAN, n. li’terman. A man who manages a lighter; a boatman.

LIGHTFINGERED, a. li’tefingered. Dexterous in taking and conveying away; thievish; addicted to petty thefts.

LIGHTFOOT, li’tefoot,

LIGHTFOOTED, li’tefooted. a. Nimble in running or dancing; active. [Little used.]

LIGHTHEADED, a. [See Head.]

1. Thoughtless; heedless; weak; volatile; unsteady.

2. Disordered in the head; dizzy; delirious.

LIGHTHEADEDNESS, n. Disorder of the head; dizziness; deliriousness.

LIGHTHEARTED, a. Free from grief or anxiety; gay; cheerful; merry.

LIGHT-HORSE, n. Light armed cavalry.

LIGHT-HOUSE, n. A pharos; a tower or building erected on a rock or point of land, or on an isle in the sea, with a light or number of lamps on the top, intended to direct seamen in navigating ships at night.

LIGHTLEGGED, a. Nimble; swift of foot.

LIGHTLESS, li’teless. Destitute of light; dark.

LIGHTLY, adv. li’tely.

1. With little weight; as, to tread lightly; to press lightly.

2. Without deep impression.

The soft ideas of the cheerful note, lightly received, were easily forgot.

3. Easily; readily; without difficulty; of course.

4. Without reason, or for reasons of little weight.

Flatter not the rich, neither do thou willingly or lightly appear before great personages.

5. Without dejection; cheerfully.

Bid that welcome which comes to punish us, and we punish it, seeming to bear it lightly.

6. Not chastely; wantonly.

7. Nimbly; with agility; not heavily or tardily.

He led me lightly o’er the stream.

8. Gaily; airily; with levity; without heed or care.

LIGHTMINDED, a. Unsettled; unsteady; volatile; not considerate.

He that is hasty to give credit, is lightminded.

LIGHTNESS, n. li’teness.

1. Want of weight; levity; the contrary to heaviness; as the lightness of air, compared with water.

2. Inconstancy; unsteadiness; the quality of mind which disposes it to be influenced by trifling considerations.

- Such is the lightness of you common men.

3. Levity; wantonness; lewdness; unchastity.

4. Agility; nimbleness.

LIGHTNING, n. li’tening. [that is, lightening, the participle present of lighten.]

1. A sudden discharge of electricity from a cloud to the earth, or from the earth to a cloud, or from one cloud to another, that is, from a body positively charged to one negatively charged, producing a vivid flash of light, and usually a loud report, called thunder. Sometimes lightning is a mere instantaneous flash of light without thunder, as heat-lightning, lightning seen by reflection, the flash being beyond the limits of our horizon.

2. [from lighten, to diminish weight.] Abatement; alleviation; mitigation.

LIGHTROOM, n. In a ship of war, a small apartment, having double glass windows towards the magazine, and containing lights by which the gunner fills cartridges.

LIGHTS, n. lites. plu. [so called from their lightness.]

The lungs; the organs of breathing in animals. These organs in man we call lungs; in other animals, lights.

LIGHTSOME, a. li’tesome.

1. Luminous; not dark; not obscure.

White walls make rooms more lightsome than black. [Little used.]

The lightsome realms of love.

[In the latter passage, the word is elegant.]

2. Gay; airy; cheering; exhilarating.

That lightsome affection of joy.


1. Luminousness; the quality of being light; opposed to darkness or darksomeness.

2. Cheerfulness; merriment; levity. [This word is little used.]

LIGN-ALOES, n. [L. lignum, wood, and aloes.] Aloes-wood. Numbers 24:6.

LIGNEOUS, a. [L. ligneus.] Wooden; made of wood; consisting of wood; resembling wood. The harder part of a plant is ligneous.

LIGNIFICATION, n. The process of becoming or of converting into wood, or the hard substance of a vegetable.

LIGNIFORM, a. [L. lignum, wood, and form.] Like wood; resembling wood.

LIGNIFY, v.t. [L. lignum, wood, and facio, to make.] To convert into wood.

LIGNIFY, v.i. To become wood.

LIGNITE, n. [L. lignum.] Fossil or bituminous wood, a mineral combustible substance.

LIGNOUS, a. Ligneous. [Little used.]

LIGNUM-VITAE, n. [L.] Guaiacum or pockwood, a genus of plants, natives of warm climates. The common Lignumvitae is a native of the warm latitudes of America. If becomes a large tree, having a hard, brownish, brittle bark, and its wood firm, solid, ponderous, very resinous, of a blackish yellow color in the middle, and of a hot aromatic taste. It is of considerable use in medicine and the mechanical arts, being wrought into utensils, wheels, cogs, and various articles of turnery.

LIGULATE, LIGULATED, a. [L. ligula, a strap.] Like a bandage or strap; as a ligulate flower, a species of compound flower, the florets of which have their corollets flat, spreading out towards the end, with the base only tubular. This is the semi-floscular flower of Tournefort.

LIGURE, n. A kind of precious stone.

LIGURITE, n. [from Liguria.] A mineral occurring in oblique rhombic prisms, of an apple green color, occasionally speckled.

LIKE, a. [L., Heb., Gr. See Lick and Lickerish.]

1. Equal in quantity, quality or degree; as a territory of like extent with another; men of like excellence.

More clergymen were impoverished by the late war, than ever in the like space before.

2. Similar; resembling; having resemblance.

Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are. James 5:17.

Why might not other planets have been created for like uses with the earth, each for its own inhabitants?

Like is usually followed by to or unto, but it is often omitted.

What city is like unto this great city? Revelation 18:18.

I saw three unclean spirits like frogs. Revelation 16:13.

Among them all was found none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. Daniel 1:19.

3. Probably; likely, that is, having the resemblance or appearance of an event; giving reason to expect or believe.

He is like to die of hunger in the place where he is, for there is no more bread. Jeremiah 38:9.

Many were not easy to be governed, not like to conform themselves to strict rules.

LIKE, n. [elliptically, for like thing, like event, like person.]

1. some person or thing resembling another; an equal. The like lmay never happen again.

He was a man, take him for all and all, I shall not look upon his like again.

2. had like, in the phrase, “he had like to be defeated,” seems to be a corruption; but perhaps like here is used for resemblance or probability, and has the character of a noun. At any rate, as a phrase, it is authorized by good usage.

LIKE, adv.

1. In the same manner.

- Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Matthew 6:29; Luke 12:27.

Like as a father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear him. Psalm 103:13.

2. In a manner becoming.

Be strong, and quit yourselves like men. 1 Samuel 4:9.

3. Likely; probably; as like enough it will.

LIKE, v.t. [L. placeo and delecto, with prefixes.]

1. To be pleased with in a moderate degree; to approve. it expresses less than love and delight. We like a plan or design, when we approve of it as correct or beneficial. We like the character or conduct of a man when it comports with our view of rectitude. We like food that the taste relishes. We like whatever gives us pleasure.

He proceeded from looking to liking, and from liking to loving.

2. to please; to be agreeable to.

This desire being recommended to her majesty, it like her to include the same within one entire lease. Obs.

3. To liken. Obs.

LIKE, v.i.

1. To be pleased; to choose.

He may go or stay, as he likes.

2. To like of, to be pleased. Obs.

LIKELIHOOD, n. [likely and hod.]

1. Probability; verisimilitude; appearance of truth or reality. There is little likelihood that an habitual drunkard will become temperate. There is little likelihood that an old offender will be reformed. Prudence directs us not to undertake a design, when there is little or no likelihood of success.

2. Appearance; show; resemblance. Obs.

LIKELINESS, n. [from likely.]

1. Probability.

2. The qualities that please. [See Likely.]

LIKELY, a. [that is, like-like.]

1. Probable; that may be rationally though or believed to have taken place in time past, or to be true now or hereafter; such as is more reasonable than the contrary. A likely story, is one which evidence, or the circumstances of the case render probable, and therefore credible.

2. Such as may be liked; pleasing; as a likely man or woman.

[This use of likely is not obsolete, as Johnson affirms, nor is it vulgar. But the English and their descendants in America differ in the application. The English apply the word to external appearance, and with them, likely is equivalent to handsome, well formed; as a likely man, a likely horse. In America, the word is usually applied to the endowments of the mind, or to pleasing accomplishments. With us, a likely man, is a man of good character and talents, or of good dispositions or accomplishments, that render him pleasing or respectable.]

LIKELY, adv. Probably.

While man was innocent, he was likely ignorant of nothing important for him to know.

LIKE-MINDED, a. Having a like disposition or purpose. Romans 15:5.

LIKEN, v.t. li’kn.

To compare; to represent as resembling or similar.

Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, that built his house on a rock. Matthew 7:24.

LIKENED, pp. Compared.


1. Resemblance in form; similitude. The picture is a good likeness of the original.

2. Resemblance; form; external appearance. Guard against an enemy in the likeness of a friend.

3. One that resembles another; a copy; a counterpart.

I took you for your likeness, Chloe.

4. An image, picture or statue, resembling a person or thing. Exodus 20:4.

LIKENING, ppr. Comparing; representing as similar.

LIKEWISE, adv. [like and wise.] In like manner; also; moreover; too.

For he seeth that wise men die, likewise the fool and the brutish person perish, and leave their wealth to others. Psalm 49:10.

LIKING, ppr. of like.

1. Approving; being pleased with.

2. a. Plump; full; of a good appearance. Daniel 1:10. Obs.


1. A good state of body; healthful appearance; plumpness.

Their young ones are in good liking - Job 39:4.

2. State of trial. [Not used.]

3. Inclination; pleasure; as, this is an amusement to your liking.

4. Delight in; pleasure in; with to.

He who has no liking to the whole, ought not to censure the parts.

LILAC, n. A plant or shrub of the genus syringa, a native of Persia. The common lilac is cultivated for its flowers, which are purple or white.

LILALITE, n. A species of earth of the argillaceous kind; called also lepidolite, which see.

LILIACEOUS, a. [L. liliaceus, from lilium, a lily.]

Pertaining to lilies; lily-like. A liliaceous corol is one that has six regular petals.

LILIED, a. Embellished with lilies.

By sandy Ladon’s lilied banks.

LILL, v.t. [See Loll. But lill is used in New England.]