Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



KIDDOW, n. A web-footed fowl, called also guillemot, sea-hen, or skout.

KIDLING, n. A young kid.

KIDNAP, v.t. To steal a human being, man, woman or child; or to seize and forcibly carry away any person whatever from his own country or state into another.

KIDNAPPED, pp. Stolen or forcibly carried away; as a human being.

KIDNAPPER, n. One who steals or forcibly carries away a human being; a manstealer.

KIDNAPPING, ppr. Stealing or forcibly carrying away human beings.

KIDNAPPING, n. The act of stealing, or forcible abduction of a human being from his own country or state. This crime was capital by the Jewish law, and in modern times is highly penal.

KIDNEY, n. [I have not found this word in any other language.]

1. The kidneys are two oblong flattened bodies, extending from the eleventh and twelfth ribs to the fourth lumbar vertebra, behind the intestines. Their use is to separate the urine from the blood.

2. Sort; kind. [A ludicrous use of the word.]

3. A cant term for a waiting servant.

KIDNEY-BEAN, n. A sort of bean so named from its resemblance to the kidney. It is of the genus Phaseolus.

KIDNEY-FORM, KIDNEY-SHAPED, a. Having the form or shape of a kidney.

KIDNEY-VETCH, n. A plant of the genus Anthyllis.

KIDNEY-WORT, n. A plant of the genus Saxifraga.

KIFFEKILL, KEFFEKILL, n. A mineral, the meerschaum, which see.

KIL, n. A Dutch word, signifying a channel or bed of a river, and hence a stream.

KILDERKIN, n. A small barrel; a liquid measure containing two firkins, or 16 or 18 gallons.

KILL, v.t.

1. To deprive of life, animal or vegetable, in any manner or by any means. To kill an animal or a plant, is to put an end to the vital functions, either by destroying or essentially injuring the organs necessary to life, or by causing them to cease from action. An animal may be killed by the sword or by poison, by disease or by suffocation. A strong solution of salt will kill plants.

2. To butcher; to slaughter for food; as, to kill an ox.

3. To quell; to appease; to calm; to still; as, in seamen’s language, a shower of rain kills the wind.

KILLAS, n. An argillaceous stone of a pale gray or greenish gray, of a lamellar or coarsely granular texture, found in Cornwall, England.

KILLDEE, n. A small bird in America, so called from its voice or note; a species of plover.

KILLED, pp. Deprived of life; quelled; calmed.

KILLER, n. One who deprives of life; he or that which kills.

KILLING, ppr. Depriving of life; quelling.

KILLINITE, n. A mineral, a variety of spodumene, found at Killeney, in Ireland.

KILLOW, n. An earth of a blackish or deep blue color.

KILN, n. kil.

1. A large stove or oven; a fabric of brick or stone which may be heated for the purpose of hardening, burning or drying any thing; as a kiln for baking or hardening earthen vessels; a kiln for drying grain or meal.

2. A pile of brick constructed for burning or hardening; called also a brick-kiln.

KILN-DRIED, pp. Dried in a kiln.

KILN-DRY, v.t. kil-dry. To dry in a kiln; as, to kiln-dry or grain.

KILN-DRYING, ppr. Drying in a kiln.

KILOGRAM, n. In the new system of French weights and measures, a thousand grams. According to Lunier, the kilogram is equal in weight to a cubic decimeter of water, or two pounds, five drams and a half.

KILOLITER, n. [Gr. a thousand, and a Greek measure. See Liter.]

In the new French measures, a thousand liters; or 264 gallons and 44,231 cubic inches. According to Lunier, it is nearly equal to a ton of wine of Bourdeaux.

KILOMETER, n. [Gr. a thousand, and a meter.] In the French system of measures, a thousand meters; the meter being the unit of linear measure. The kilometer is nearly equal to a quarter of a French league.

KILT, n. A kind of short petticoat worn by the highlanders of Scotland.

KILT, pp. Killed.

KIMBO, BIMBOW, a. Crooked; arched; bent; as a kimbo handle.

To set the arms a kimbo, is to set the hands on the hips, with the elbows projecting outward.

KIN, n. [L. genus; Gr. connected with L. gigno, geno.]

1. Relation, properly by consanguinity or blood, but perhaps sometimes used for relation by affinity or marriage.

This man is of kin to me.

2. Relatives; kindred; persons of the same race.

--The father, mother and the kin beside.

3. A relation; a relative.

4. The same generical class; a thing related.

And the ear-deafening voice of th’ oracle,

Kin to Jove’s thunder.

5. As a termination, kin is used as a diminutive, denoting small, from the sense of child; as in manikin, a little man.

KIN, a. Of the same nature; kindred; congenial.

KINATE, n. A salt formed by the union of kinic acid with a base.

KIND, n.

1. Race; genus; generic class; as in mankind or humankind. In technical language, kind answers to genus.

2. Sort, in a sense more loose than genus; as, there are several kinds of eloquence and of style, many kinds of music, many kinds of government, various kinds of architecture or of painting, various kinds of soil, etc.

3. Particular nature; as laws most perfect in their kind.

4. Natural state; produce or commodity, as distinguished from money; as taxes paid in kind.

5. Nature; natural propensity or determination.

Some of you, on pure instinct of nature,

Are led by kind t’ admire your fellow creature.

6. Manner; way. [Little used.]

7. Sort. He spoke with a kind of scorn or contempt.

KIND, a.

1. Disposed to do good to others, and to make them happy by granting their requests, supplying their wants or assisting them in distress; having tenderness or goodness of nature; benevolent; benignant.

God is kind to the unthankful, and to the evil. Luke 6:35.

Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted. Ephesians 4:32.

2. Proceeding from tenderness or goodness of heart; benevolent; as a kind act; a kind return of favors.

KINDED, a. Begotten.

KINDLE, v.t. [L. accendo; from the root of candeo, caneo, to be light or white, to shine.]

1. To set on fire; to cause to burn with flame; to light; as, to kindle a fire.

2. To inflame, as the passions; to exasperate; to rouse; to provoke; to excite to action; to heat; to fire; to animate; as, to kindle anger or wrath; to kindle resentment; to kindle the flame of love, or love into a flame.

So is a contentious man to kindle strife. Proverbs 26:21.

3. To bring forth.

KINDLE, v.i. To take fire; to begin to burn with flame. Fuel and fire well laid, will kindle without a bellows.

1. To begin to rage, or be violently excited; to be roused or exasperated.

It shall kindle in the thickets of the forest. Isaiah 9:18.

KINDLED, pp. Set on fire; inflamed; excited into action.

KINDLER, n. He or that which kindles or sets on fire.

KINDLESS, a. Destitute of kindness; unnatural.

KINDLINESS, n. Affection; affectionate disposition; benignity.

1. Natural disposition.

KINDLING, ppr. Setting on fire; causing to burn with flame; exciting into action.

KINDLY, a. [See Kind, the noun.] Homogeneal; congenial; kindred; of the same nature. This Johnson supposes to be the original sense; but it is also used as a derivative of the adjective, in the sense of

1. Mild; bland; softening; as kindly showers.

KINDLY, adv. With good will; with a disposition to make others happy or to oblige; benevolently; favorably. Let the poor be treated kindly.

Be kindly affectioned one to another, with brotherly love-- Romans 12:10.

And he comforted them, and spake kindly unto them. Genesis 50:21.

KINDNESS, n. [from kind, the adjective.]

1. Good will; benevolence; that temper or disposition which delights in contributing to the happiness of others, which is exercised cheerfully in gratifying their wishes, supplying their wants or alleviating their distresses; benignity of nature. Kindness ever accompanies love.

There is no man whose kindness we may not sometime want, or by whose malice we may not sometime suffer.

2. Act of good will; beneficence; any act of benevolence which promotes the happiness or welfare of others. Charity, hospitality, attentions to the wants of others, etc., are deemed acts of kindness, or kindnesses. Acts 28:2.

KINDRED, n. [from kin, kind.]

1. Relation by birth; consanguinity.

Like her, of equal kindred to the throne.

2. Relation by marriage; affinity.

3. Relatives by blood or marriage, more properly the former.

Thou shalt go unto my country and to my kindred. Genesis 24:4.

4. Relation; suit; connection in kind.

KINDRED, a. Related; congenial; of the like nature or properties; as kindred souls; kindred skies.

KINE, plu. of cow. But cows, the regular plural, is now in general use.

KING, n.

1. The chief or sovereign of a nation; a man invested with supreme authority over a nation, tribe or country; a monarch. Kings are absolute monarchs, when they possess the powers of government without control, or the entire sovereignty over a nation; they are limited monarchs, when their power is restrained by fixed laws; and they are absolute, when they possess the whole legislative, judicial, and executive power, or when the legislative or judicial powers, or both, are vested in other bodies of men. Kings are hereditary sovereigns, when they hold the powers of government by right of birth or inheritance, and elective, when raised to the throne by choice.

Kings will be tyrants from policy, when subjects are rebels from principle.

2. A sovereign; a prince; a ruler. Christ is called the king of his church. Psalm 2:6

3. A card having the picture of a king; as the king of diamonds.

4. The chief piece in the game of chess.

King at arms, an officer in England of great antiquity, and formerly of great authority, whose business is to direct the heralds, preside at their chapters, and have the jurisdiction of armory. There are three kings at arms, garter, clarencieux, and norroy. The latter [northroy] officiates north of the Trent.

KING, v.t. In ludicrous language, to supply with a king, or to make royal; to raise to royalty.

KINGAPPLE, n. A kind of apple, so called.

KING’S BENCH, n. A high court or tribunal in England; so called because the king used to sit there in person. It is the supreme court of common law, consisting of a chief justice and three other justices.

KINGBIRD, n. A fowl of the genus Paradisea; also, a species of the genus Muscicapa, so called from its courage in attacking larger fowls.

KINGCRAFT, n. The craft of kings; the act of governing; usually in a bad sense.

KINGCUP, n. A flower, crowfoot.

KING’S-EVIL, n. A disease of the scrofulous kind.

KINGFISHER, n. A fowl of the genus Alcedo.

KING’S-SPEAR, n. A plant of the genus Asphodelus.

KINGSTONE, n. A fish.

KINGDOM, n. [king and dom, jurisdiction.]

1. The territory or country subject to a king; an undivided territory under the dominion of a king or monarch. The foreign possessions of a king are not usually included in the term kingdom. Thus we speak of the kingdom of England, of France or of Spain, without including the East or West Indies.

2. The inhabitants or population subject to a king. The whole kingdom was alarmed.

3. In natural history, a division; as the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms.

4. A region; a tract; the place where any thing prevails and holds sway; as the watery kingdom.

5. In Scripture, the government or universal dominion of God. 1 Chronicles 29:11; Psalm 145:11-13.

6. The power of supreme administration. 1 Samuel 18:8.

7. A princely nation or state.

Ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests. Exodus 19:6.

8. Heaven. Matthew 26:29.

9. State of glory in heaven. Matthew 5:3, 10, 19-20.

10. The reign of the Messiah. Matthew 3:2.

11. Government; rule; supreme administration.

KINGDOMED, a. Proud of royalty.

KINGHOOD, n. State of being a king.

KINGLESS, a. Having no king.

KINGLIKE, a. Like a king.

KINGLING, n. A little king.

KINGLY, a. Belonging to a king; suitable to a king; as a kingly couch.

1. Royal; sovereign; monarchical; as a kingly government.

2. Noble; august; splendid; becoming a king; as kingly magnificence.

KINGLY, adv. With an air of royalty; with a superior dignity.

Low bow’d the rest; he, kingly, did but nod.

KINGSHIP, n. Royalty; the state, office or dignity of a king.

KINIC, a. Pertaining to cinchona; as the kinic acid.

KINK, n. [L. cingo.] The twist of a rope or thread, occasioned by a spontaneous winding of the rope or thread when doubled, that is, by an effort of hard twisted ropes or threads to untwist, they wind about each other.

KINK, v.i. To wind into a kink; to twist spontaneously.

KINKHAUST, n. The chincough. [Not used.]

KINO, n. An astringent resin obtained from an African tree.

Kino consists of tannin and extractive.

KINSFOLK, n. [kin and folk.] Relations; kindred; persons of the same family.

KINSMAN, n. [kin and man.] A man of the same race or family; one related by blood.

KINSWOMAN, n. A female relation.

KIPPER, n. A term applied to a salmon, when unfit to be taken, and to the time when they are so considered.

KIRK, n. kurk. In Scotland, a church. This is the same word as church, differently written and pronounced. [See Church.]

KIRKMAN, n. One of the church of Scotland.

KIRTLE, n. ker’tl.

1. An upper garment; a gown; a petticoat; a short jacket; a mantle.

2. A quantity of flax, about a hundred pounds.

[I know not that this word is used in America.]

KIRTLED, a. Wearing a kirtle.

KISS, v.t.

1. To salute with the lips.

2. To treat with fondness; to caress.

The hearts of princes kiss obedience.

3. To touch gently.

When the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees.

KISS, n. A salute given with the lips; a common token of affection.

KISSED, pp. Saluted with a kiss.

KISSER, n. One that kisses.

KISSING, ppr. Saluting with the lips.

KISSING-COMFIT, n. Perfumed sugar plums to sweeten the breath.

KISSING-CRUST, n. In cookery, the crust of a loaf that touches another.

KIST, n. A chest. [Not used.]

KIT, n. A large bottle.

1. A small fiddle.

2. A kind of fish-tub, and a milk-pail.

[I know not that this word is used in America.]

KIT-CAT, n. A term applied to a club in London, to which Addison and Steele belonged; so called from Christopher Cat, a pastry cook, who served the club with mutton pies; applied also to a portrait three fourths less than a half length, placed in the club-room.

KITCHEN, n. [L. coquina; from the root of L. coquo, to cook.]

1. A cook-room; the room of a house appropriated to cookery.

A fat kitchen makes a lean will.

2. In ships, the galley or caboose.

3. A utensil for roasting meat; as a tin kitchen.

KITCHEN-GARDEN, n. A garden or piece of ground appropriated to the raising of vegetables for the table.

KITCHEN-MAID, n. A female servant whose business is to clean the kitchen and utensils of cookery, or in general, to do the work of a kitchen.

KITCHEN-STUFF, n. Fat collected form pots and dripping pans.

KITCHEN-WENCH, n. The woman who cleans the kitchen and utensils of cookery.

KITCHEN-WORK, n. Work done in the kitchen; as cookery, washing, etc.

KITE, n. A rapacious fowl of the genus Falco or hawk, remarkable for gliding through the air without frequently moving its wings; hence called glide.

1. A name of reproach, denoting rapacity.

2. A light frame of wood and paper constructed for flying in the air for the amusement of boys.

KITE, n. In the north of England, the belly.

KITEFOOT, n. A sort of tobacco, so called.

KITESFOOT, n. A plant.

KITH, n. Acquaintance.

KITLING, n. [L. catulus.] A whelp; the young of a beast.

KITTEN, n. kit’n. A young cat, or the young of the cat.

KITTEN, v.i. kit’n. To bring forth young, as a cat.

KITTIWAKE, n. A fowl of the genus Larus, or gull kind.

KITTLE, v.t. To tickle. [Not used.]

KLICK, v.i. [a different orthography or diminutive of clack.]

1. To make a small, sharp sound by striking two things together.

2. In Scotland, to pilfer, by taking with a snatch.

KLICK, n. A stroke or blow. [A word in vulgar use.]

KNAB, v.t. nab. To bite; to gnaw; to nibble. [This word may belong to the root of nibble, and it properly signifies to catch or seize suddenly with the teeth.]

KNABBLE, v.i. To bite or nibble. [Not used.]