Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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JASPER — JIB-BOOM

JASPER, n. [L. iaspis.] A mineral of the siliceous kind, and of several varieties. It is less hard than flint or even than common quartz, but gives fire with steel. It is entirely opake, or sometimes feebly translucent at the edges, and it presents almost every variety of color. Its varieties are common jasper, striped jasper, Egyptian jasper, etc. It admits of an elegant polish, and is used for vases, seals, snuff-boxes, etc.

Jasper is a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz, of five kinds, Egyptian, striped, porcelain, common, and agate jasper.

JASPERATED, a. Mixed with jasper; containing particles of jasper; as a jasperated agate.

JASPIDEAN, a. Like jasper; consisting of jasper, or partaking of jasper.

JASPONYX, n. The purest horn-colored onyx, with beautiful green zones, composed of genuine matter of the finest jaspers.

JAUNCE, v.i. To bustle; to jaunt.

JAUNDICE, n. j`andis. A disease which is characterized by a suffusion of bile over the coats of the eye and the whole surface of the body, by which they are tinged with a yellow color. Hence its name.

JAUNDICED, a. j`andised. Affected with the jaundice; suffused with a yellow color; as a jaundiced eye.

1. Prejudiced; seeing with discolored organs.

JAUNT. [See Jant.]

JAVEL, v.t. To bemire; and as a noun, a wandering or dirty fellow.

JAVELIN, n. A sort of spear about five feet and a half long, the shaft of which was of wood, but pointed with steel; used by horse or foot. Every Roman soldier carried seven javelins.

JAW, n.

1. The bones of the mouth in which the teeth are fixed. They resemble a horse shoe. In most animals, the under jaw only is movable.

2. The mouth.

3. In vulgar language, scolding, wrangling, abusive clamor.

JAW, v.i. To scold; to clamor. [Vulgar.]
JAW, v.t. To abuse by scolding. [Vulgar.]

JAWED, a. Denoting the appearance of the jaws.

JAWFALL, n. [jaw and fall.] Depression of the jaw; figuratively, depression of spirits.

JAWFALLEN, a. Depressed in spirits; dejected.

JAWN, v.i. To yawn. [Not in use. See Yawn.]

JAWY, a. Relating to the jaws.

JAY, n. A bird, the Corvus glandarius.

JAYET. [See Jet.]

JAZEL, n. A gem of an azure blue color.

JEALOUS, a. jel’us.

1. Suspicious; apprehensive of rivalship; uneasy through fear that another has withdrawn or may withdraw from one the affections of a person he loves, or enjoy some good which he desires to obtain; followed by of, and applied both to the object of love and to the rival. We say, a young man is jealous of the woman he loves, or jealous of his rival. A man is jealous of his wife, and the wife of her husband.

2. Suspicious that we do not enjoy the affection or respect of others, or that another is more loved and respected than ourselves.

3. Emulous; full of competition.

4. Solicitous to defend the honor of; concerned for the character of.

I have been very jealous for the Lord God of hosts. 1 Kings 19:10, 14.

5. Suspiciously vigilant; anxiously careful and concerned for.

I am jealous over you with a godly jealousy. 2 Corinthians 11:2.

6. Suspiciously fearful.

‘Tis doing wrong creates such doubts as these,

Renders us jealous and destroys our peace.

JEALOUSLY, adv. jel’usly. With jealousy or suspicion; emulously; with suspicious fear, vigilance or caution.

JEALOUSNESS, n. jel’usness. The state of being jealous; suspicion; suspicious vigilance.

JEALOUSY, n. jel’usy.

1. That passion of peculiar uneasiness which arises from the fear that a rival may rob us of the affection of one whom we love, or the suspicion that he has already done it; or it is the uneasiness which arises from the fear that another does or will enjoy some advantage which we desire for ourselves. A man’s jealousy is excited by the attentions of a rival to his favorite lady. A woman’s jealousy is roused by her husband’s attentions to another woman. The candidate for office manifests a jealousy of others who seek the same office. The jealousy of a student is awakened by the apprehension that his fellow will bear away the palm of praise. In short, jealousy is awakened by whatever may exalt others, or give them pleasures and advantages which we desire for ourselves. Jealousy is nearly allied to envy, for jealousy, before a good is lost by ourselves, is converted into envy, after it is obtained by others.

Jealousy is the apprehension of superiority.

Whoever had qualities to alarm our jealousy, had excellence to deserve our fondness.

2. Suspicious fear or apprehension.

3. Suspicious caution or vigilance, an earnest concern or solicitude for the welfare or honor of others. Such was Paul’s godly jealousy for the Corinthians.

4. Indignation. God’s jealousy signifies his concern for his own character and government, with a holy indignation against those who violate his laws, and offend against his majesty. Psalm 79:5.

JEARS, n. In sea-language, an assemblage of tackles by which the lower yards of a ship are hoisted or lowered. Hoisting is called swaying, and lowering is called striking. This word is sometimes written geers or gears. [See Gear.]

JEAT, n. A fossil of a fine black color. [See Jet.]

JEE. [See Gee.]

JEER, v.i. To utter severe, sarcastic reflections; to scoff; to deride; to flout; to make a mock of; as, to jeer at one in sport.

JEER, v.t. To treat with scoffs or derision.
JEER, n. Railing language; scoff; taunt; biting jest; flout; jibe; mockery; derision; ridicule with scorn.

Midas exposed to all their jeers,

Had lost his art, and kept his ears.

JEERED, pp. Railed at; derided.

JEERER, n. A scoffer; a railer; a scorner; a mocker.

JEERING, ppr. Scoffing; mocking; deriding.

JEERING, n. Derision.

JEERINGLY, adv. With raillery; scornfully; contemptuously; in mockery.

JEFFERSONITE, n. A mineral occurring in crystalline masses, of a dark olive green color passing into brown, found imbedded in Franklinite and garnet, in New Jersey.

JEGGET, n. A kind of sausage. [Not in use.]

JEHOVAH, n. The Scripture name of the Supreme Being. If, as is supposed, this name is from the Hebrew substantive verb, the word denotes the Permanent Being, as the primary sense of the substantive verb in all languages, is to be fixed, to stand, to remain or abide. This is a name peculiarly appropriate to the eternal Spirit, the unchangeable God, who describes himself thus, I am that I am. Exodus 3:14.

JEHOVIST, n. Among critics, one who maintains that the vowel-points annexed to the word Jehovah in Hebrew, are the proper vowels of the word and express the true pronunciation. The Jehovists are opposed to the Adonists, who hold that the points annexed to the word Jehovah, are the vowels of the word Adonai.

JEJUNE, a. [L. jejunus, empty, dry.]

1. Wanting; empty; vacant.

2. Hungry; not saturated.

3. Dry; barren; wanting interesting matter; as a jejune narrative.

JEJUNENESS, n. Poverty, barrenness; particularly, want of interesting matter; a deficiency of matter that can engage the attention and gratify the mind; as the jejuneness of style or narrative. [Jejunity is not used.]

JELLIED, a. [See Jelly and Gelly.] Brought to the consistence of jelly.

JELLY, n. [L. gelo, to congeal. See Gelly.]

1. The inspissated juice of fruit, boiled with sugar.

2. Something viscous or glutinous; something of the consistency of jelly; a transparent sizy substance, obtained from animal substances by decoction; portable soup.

JELLYBAG, n. A bag through which jelly is distilled.

JENITE, n. A different orthography of yenite, which see.

JENNET, n. A small Spanish horse, properly genet.

JENNETING, n. [said to be corrupted from juneting, an apple ripe in June, or at St. Jean.] A species of early apple.

JENNY, n. A machine for spinning, moved by water or steam and used in manufactories.

JENTLING, n. A fish, the blue chub, found in the Danube.

JEOFAIL, n. jef’fail. An oversight in pleading or other proceeding at law; or the acknowledgment of a mistake.

JEOPARD, v.t. jep’ard. [See Jeopardy.] To hazard; to put in danger; to expose to loss or injury.

Zebulon and Naphtali were a people that jeoparded their lives to the death in the high places of the field. Judges 5:18.

JEOPARDER, n. jep’arder. One who puts to hazard.

JEOPARDIZE, v.t. jep’ardize. To expose to loss or injury; to jeopard. [This is a modern word, used by respectable writers in America, but synonymous with jeopard and therefore useless.]

JEOPARDOUS, a. jep’ardous. Exposed to danger; perilous; hazardous.

JEOPARDOUSLY, adv. jep’ardously. With risk or danger.

JEOPARDY, n. jep’ardy. Exposure to death, loss or injury; hazard; danger; peril.

They were filled with water and were in jeopardy. Luke 8:23.

JERBOA, n. A quadruped having very short fore legs.

JERK, v.t. [This is probably the Ch. Heb. to reach, to spit, that is, to throw out with a sudden effort.]

1. To thrust out; to thrust with a sudden effort; to give a sudden pull, twitch, thrust or push, as, to jerk one under the ribs; to jerk one with the elbow.

2. To throw with a quick, smart motion; as, to jerk a stone. We apply this word to express the mode of throwing to a little distance by drawing the arm back of the body, and thrusting it forward against the side or hip, which stops the arm suddenly.

JERK, v.t. To accost eagerly. [Not in use.]
JERK, n. A short sudden thrust, push or twitch; a striking against something with a short quick motion; as a jerk of the elbow.

His jade gave him a jerk,

1. A sudden spring.

Lobsters swim by jerks.

JERKIN, n. A jacket; a short coat; a close waistcoat.

1. A kind of hawk.

JERSEY, n. [from the island so called.]

1. Fine yarn of wool.

2. The finest of wool separated from the rest; combed wool.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE, n. A plant, a species of Helianthus or Sunflower.

JESS, n. Short straps of leather tied round the legs of a hawk, by which she is held on the fist.

1. A ribbon that hangs down from a garland or crown in falconry.

JESSAMIN, n. A genus of plants and their flowers. [See Jasmin.]

JESSE, n. A large brass candlestick branched into many sconces, hanging down in the middle of a church or choir.

JESSED, a. Having jesses on; a term in heraldry.

JEST, n. [L. gestio.]

1. A joke; something ludicrous uttered and meant only to excite laughter. Religion should never be the subject of jest.

2. The object of laughter or sport; a laughing stock.

Then let me be your jest, I deserve it.

In jest, for mere sport or diversion; not in truth and reality; not in earnest.

--And given in earnest what I begged in jest.

3. A mask.

4. A deed; an action.

JEST, v.i. To divert or make merry by words or actions; to joke.

Jest not with a rude man, lest thy ancestors be disgraced.

1. To utter in sport; to say what is not true, merely for diversion.

2. To play a part in a mask.

JESTER, n. A person given to jesting, sportive talk and merry pranks.

--He rambled up and down

With shallow jesters.

1. One given to sarcasm.

Now, as a jester, I accost you.

2. A buffoon; a merry-andrew, a person formerly retained by princes to make sport for them.

JESTING, ppr. Joking; talking for diversion or merriment.

JESTING, n. A joking; concise wit; wit that consists in a trope or verbal figure, in a metaphorical sense of words, or in a double sense of the same word, or in similitude of sound in different words.

JESTINGLY, adv. In a jocose manner; not in earnest.

JESTING-STOCK, n. A laughing stock; a butt of ridicule.

JESUIT, n. s as z. One of the society of Jesus, so called, founded by Ignatius Loyola; a society remarkable for their cunning in propagating their principles.

JESUITED, a. Conforming to the principles of the Jesuits.

JESUITESS, n. A female Jesuit in principle.

JESUITIC, JESUITICAL, a. Pertaining to the Jesuits or their principles and arts.

1. Designing; cunning; deceitful; prevaricating.

JESUITICALLY, adv. Craftily.

JESUITISM, n. The arts, principles and practices of the Jesuits.

1. Cunning, deceit; hypocrisy; prevarication; deceptive practices to effect a purpose.

JESUITS’-BARK, n. Peruvian bark; the bark of the Cinchona, a tree of Peru.

JET, n. [L. gagates.] A solid, dry, black, inflammable fossil substance, harder than asphalt, susceptible of a good polish, and glossy in its fracture, which is conchoidal or undulating. It is found not in strata or continued masses, but in unconnected heaps. It is wrought into toys, buttons, mourning jewels, etc.

Jet is regarded as a variety of lignite, or coal originating in wood.

JET, n. [L. jactus.]

1. A spout, spouting or shooting of water; a jet d’eau.

2. A yard. Tusser. Drift; scope. [Not in use or local.]

JET, v.i. [See the Noun.] To shoot forward; to shoot out; to project; to jut; to intrude.

1. To strut; to throw or toss the body in haughtiness.

2. To jerk; to jolt; to be shaken.

[This orthography is rarely used. See Jut.]

JETTEAU, n. jet’to. A throw or spout of water.

JETSAM, JETSON, JETTISON, n. In law and commerce, properly, the throwing of goods overboard in order to lighten a ship in a tempest for her preservation. The word may however be used for the goods thus thrown away, or adverbially.

Jetsam is where goods are cast into the sea, and there sink and remain under water; flotsam, is where they continue swimming; ligan is where they are sunk in the sea, but tied to a cork or buoy.

JETTEE, n. A projection in a building.

JETTY, v.i. To jut.

JETTY, n. A small pier or projection into a river for narrowing it and raising the water above that place.
JETTY, a. Made of jet, or black as jet.

JETTYHEAD, n. The projecting part of a wharf; the front of a wharf whose side forms one of the cheeks of a dock.

JEW, n. [a contraction of Judas of Judah.] A Hebrew or Israelite.

JEWEL, n. [Low L. jocale.]

1. An ornament worn by ladies, usually consisting of a precious stone, or set with one or more; a pendant worn in the ear.

2. A precious stone.

3. A name expressive of fondness. A mother calls her child, her jewel.

JEWEL, v.t. To dress or adorn with jewels.

JEWEL-HOUSE, JEWEL-OFFICE, n. The place where the royal ornaments are reposited.

JEWEL-LIKE, a. Brilliant as a jewel.

JEWELED, pp. Adorned with jewels.

JEWELER, n. One who makes or deals in jewels and other ornaments.

JEWELING, ppr. Adorning with jewels.

JEWELRY, n. Jewels in general.

JEWESS, n. A Hebrew woman. Acts 24:24.

JEWISH, a. Pertaining to the Jews or Hebrews. Titus 1:14.

JEWISHLY, adv. In the manner of the Jews.

JEWISHNESS, n. The rites of the Jews.

JEWRY, n. Judea; also, a district inhabited by Jews, whence the name of a street in London.

JEWS-EAR, n. The name of a species of Fungus, the Peziza auricula, bearing some resemblance to the human ear.

JEWS-FRANKINCENSE, n. A plant, a species of Styrax.

JEWS-HARP, n. [Jew and harp.] An instrument of music shaped like a harp, which, placed between the teeth and by means of a spring struck by the finger, gives a sound which is modulated by the breath into soft melody. It is called also Jews-trump.

JEWS-MALLOW, n. A plant, species of Corchorus.

JEWS-PITCH, n. Asphaltum, which see.

JEWS-STONE, n. The clavated spine of a very large egg-shaped sea urchin petrified. It is a regular figure, oblong and rounded, about three quarters of an inch in length, and half an inch in diameter. Its color is a pale dusky gray, with a tinge of dusky red.

JEZEBEL, n. An impudent, daring, vitious woman.

JIB, n. The foremost sail of a ship, being a large stay-sail extended from the outer end of the jib-boom towards the fore-top-mast-head. In sloops, it is on the bow-sprit, and extends towards the lower mast-head.

JIB-BOOM, n. A spar which is run out from the extremity of the bowsprit, and which serves as a continuation of it. Beyond this is sometimes extended the flying-jib-boom.