Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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INGENUOUS — INISLE

INGENUOUS, a. [L. ingenuus.] Open; frank; fair; candid; free from reserve, disguise, equivocation or dissimulation; used of persons or things. We speak of an ingenuous mind; an ingenuous man; an ingenuous declaration or confession.

1. Noble; generous; as an ingenuous ardor or zeal; ingenuous detestation of falsehood.

2. Of honorable extraction; freeborn; as ingenuous blood or birth.

INGENUOUSLY, adv. Openly; fairly; candidly; without reserve or dissimulation.

INGENUOUSNESS, n. Openness of heart; frankness; fairness; freedom from reserve or dissimulation; as, to confess our faults with ingenuousness.

1. Fairness; candidness; as the ingenuousness of a confession.

INGENY, n. Wit; ingenuity.

INGEST, v.t. [L. ingestus, from ingero; in and gero, to bear.]

To throw into the stomach. [Little used.]

INGESTION, n. The act or throwing into the stomach; as the ingestion of milk or other food.

INGLE, n. [L. igniculus, ignis.] Flame; blaze. [Not in use.]

1. In Scottish, a fire, or fireplace.

INGLORIOUS, a. [L. inglorius; in and gloria.]

1. Not glorious; not bringing honor or glory; not accompanied with fame or celebrity; as an inglorious life of ease.

2. Shameful; disgraceful. He charged his troops with inglorious flight.

INGLORIOUSLY, adv. With want of glory; dishonorably; with shame.

INGOT, n. A mass or wedge of gold or silver cast in a mold; a mass of unwrought metal.

INGRAFT, v.t. [in and graff. The original word is ingraff or graff, but it is corrupted beyond recovery.]

1. To insert a cion of one tree or plant into another for propagation; as, to ingraft the cion of an apple-tree on a pear-tree, as its stock; to ingraft a peach on a plum.

2. To propagate by incision.

3. To plant or introduce something foreign into that which is native, for the purpose of propagation.

This fellow would ingraft a foreign name

Upon our stock.

4. To set or fix deep and firm.

Ingrafted love he bears to Caesar.

INGRAFTED, pp. Inserted into a stock for growth and propagation; introduced into a native stock; set or fixed deep.

INGRAFTING, ppr. Inserting, as cions in stocks; introducing and inserting on a native stock what is foreign; fixing deep.

INGRAFTMENT, n. The act of ingrafting.

1. The thing ingrafted.

INGRAIN, v.t. [in and grain.] To dye in the grain, or before manufacture.

INGRAINED, pp. Dyed in the grain or in the raw material; as ingrained carpets.

INGRAINING, ppr. Dyeing in the raw material.

INGRAPPLED, a. Grappled; seized on; entwined.

INGRATE, INGRATEFUL, a. [L. ingratus; in and gratus.]

1. Ungrateful; unthankful; not having feelings of kindness for a favor received.

2. Unpleasing to the sense.

He gives no ingrateful food.

INGRATE, n. An ungrateful person.

INGRATEFULLY, adv. Ungratefully.

INGRATEFULNESS, n. Ungratefulness.

INGRATIATE, v.t. ingra’shate. [L. in and gratia, favor.]

1. To commend one’s self to another’s good will, confidence or kindness. It is always used as a reciprocal verb, and followed by with, before the person whose favor is sought. Ministers and courtiers ingratiate themselves with their sovereign. Demagogues ingratiate themselves with the populace.

2. To recommend; to render easy; used of things.

INGRATIATING, ppr. Commending one’s self to the favor of another.

INGRATIATING, n. The act of commending one’s self to another’s favor.

INGRATITUDE, n.

1. Want of gratitude or sentiments of kindness for favors received; insensibility to favors, and want of a disposition to repay them; unthankfulness.

Ingratitude is abhorred by God and man.

No man will own himself guilty of ingratitude.

2. Retribution of evil for good.

Nor was it with ingratitude returned.

INGRAVE, v.t. To bury. [Not used.]

INGRAVIDATE, v.t. [L. gravidus.] To impregnate.

INGREAT, v.t. To make great. [Not in use.]

INGREDIENT, n. [L. ingrediens, entering into; ingredior; in and gradior. See Grade.]

That which enters into a compound, or is a component part of any compound or mixture. It is particularly applied to the simples in medicinal compositions, but admits of a very general application. We say, an ointment or a decoction is composed of certain ingredients; and Addison wondered that learning was not thought a proper ingredient in the education of a woman of quality or fortune.

INGRESS, n. [L. ingerssus, ingredior, supra.]

1. Entrance; as the ingress of air into the lungs. It is particularly applied to the entrance of the moon into the shadow of the earth in eclipses, the sun’s entrance into a sign, etc.

2. Power of entrance; means of entering. All ingress was prohibited.

INGRESSION, n. [L. ingressio, ingredior.]

The act of entering; entrance.

INGUINAL, a. [L. inguen, the groin.]

Pertaining to the grain; as an inguinal tumor.

INGULF, v.t. [in and gulf.] To swallow up in a vast deep, gulf or whirlpool.

1. To cast into a gulf.

INGULFED, pp. Swallowed up in a gulf or vast deep; cast into a gulf.

INGULFING, ppr. Swallowing up in a gulf, whirlpool or vast deep.

INGURGITATE, v.t. [L. ingurgito; in and gurges, a gulf.]

To swallow greedily or in great quantity.

INGURGITATE, v.i. To drink largely; to swill.

INGURGITATION, n. The act of swallowing greedily, or in great quantity.

INGUSTABLE, a. [L. in and gusto, to taste.]

That cannot be tasted. [Little used.]

INHABILE, a. [L. inhabilis; in and habilis, apt, fit.]

1. Not apt or fit; unfit; not convenient; as inhabile matter.

2. Unskilled; unready; unqualified; used of persons. [Little used. See Unable.]

INHABILITY, n. [from inhabile.] Unaptness; unfitness; want of skill. [Little used. See Inability.]

INHABIT, v.t. [L. inhabito; in and habito, to dwell.]

To live or dwell in; to occupy as a place of settled residence. Wild beasts inhabit the forest; fishes inhabit the ocean, lakes and rivers; men inhabit cities and houses.

Thus saith the high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eternity-- Isaiah 57:15.

INHABIT, v.i. To dwell; to live; to abide.

They say wild beasts inhabit here.

INHABITABLE, a. [from inhabit.] Habitable; that may be inhabited; capable of affording habitation to animals. The stars may be inhabitable worlds. Some regions of the earth are not inhabitable by reason of cold or sterility. A building may be too old and decayed to be inhabitable.

1. Not habitable. [L. inhabitabilis.] [Not in use.]

INHABITANCE, n. Residence of dwellers. [Little used.]

INHABITANCY, n. Residence; habitancy; permanent or legal residence in a town, city or parish; or the domiciliation which the law required to entitle a pauper to demand support from the town, city or parish in which he lives, otherwise called a legal settlement, which subjects a town to support a person, if a pauper.

INHABITANT, n. A dweller; one who dwells or resides permanently in a place, or who has a fixed residence, as distinguished from an occasional lodger or visitor; as the inhabitant of a house or cottage; the inhabitants of a town, city, county or state. So brute animals are inhabitants of the regions to which their natures are adapted; and we speak of spiritual beings, as inhabitants of heaven.

1. One who has a legal settlement in a town, city or parish. The conditions or qualifications which constitute a person an inhabitant of a town or parish, so as to subject the town or parish to support him, if a pauper, are defined by the statutes of different governments or states.

INHABITATION, n. The act of inhabiting, or state of being inhabited.

1. Abode; place of dwelling.

2. Population; whole mass of inhabitants.

[This word is little use.]

INHABITED, pp. Occupied by inhabitants, human or irrational.

INHABITER, n. One who inhabits; a dweller; an inhabitant.

INHABITING, ppr. Dwelling in; occupying as a settled or permanent inhabitant; residing in.

INHABITRESS, n. A female inhabitant.

INHALE, v.t. [L. inhalo; in and halo, to breathe.]

To draw into the lungs; to inspire; as, to inhale air; opposed to exhale and expire.

Martin was walking forth to inhale the fresh breeze of the evening.

INHALED, pp. Drawn into the lungs.

INHALER, n. One who inhales.

1. In medicine, a machine for breathing or drawing warm steam into the lungs, as a remedy for coughs and catarrhal complaints.

INHALING, ppr. Drawing into the lungs; breathing.

INHARMONIC, INHARMONICAL, a. Unharmonious; discordant.

INHARMONIOUS, a. [in and harmonious.]

Not harmonious; unmusical; discordant.

INHARMONIOUSLY, adv. Without harmony; discordantly.

INHERE, v.i. [L. inhoereo; in and hoereo, to hang.]

To exist or be fixed in something else; as, colors inhere in cloth; a dart inheres in the flesh.

INHERENCE, n. Existence in something; a fixed state of being in another body or substance.

INHERENT, a. Existing in something else, so as to be inseparable from it.

Inherent baseness.

1. Innate; naturally pertaining to; as the inherent qualities of the magnet; the inherent right of men to life, liberty and protection.

INHERENTLY, adv. By inherence.

INHERING, ppr. Existing or fixed in something else.

INHERIT, v.t. [L. hoeres, an heir. See Heir.]

1. To take by descent from an ancestor; to take by succession, as the representative of the former possessor; to receive, as a right or title descendible by law from an ancestor at his decease. The heir inherits the lands or real estate of his father; the eldest son of the nobleman inherits his father’s title, and the eldest son of a king inherits the crown.

2. To receive by nature from a progenitor. The son inherits the virtues of his father; the daughter inherits the temper of her mother, and children often inherit the constitutional infirmities of their parents.

3. To possess; to enjoy; to take as a possession, by gift or divine appropriation; as, to inherit everlasting life; to inherit the promises.

--That thou mayest live, and inherit the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee. Deuteronomy 16:20.

The meek shall inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5.

INHERIT, v.i. To take or have possession or property.

--Thou shall not inherit in our father’s house. Judges 11:2.

INHERITABLE, a. That may be inherited; transmissible or descendible from the ancestor to the heir by course of law; as an inheritable estate or title.

1. That may be transmitted from the parent to the child; as inheritable qualities or infirmities.

2. Capable of taking by inheritance, or of receiving by descent.

By attainder--the blood of the person attainted is so corrupted as to be rendered no longer inheritable.

INHERITABLY, adv. By inheritance.

INHERITANCE, n. An estate derived from an ancestor to an heir by succession or in course of law; or an estate which the law casts on a child or other person, as the representative of the deceased ancestor.

1. The reception of an estate by hereditary right, or the descent by which an estate or title is cast on the heir; as, the heir received the estate by inheritance.

2. The estate or possession which may descend to an heir, though it has not descended.

And Rachel and Leah answered and said, is there yet any portion or inheritance for us in our father’s house? Genesis 31:14.

3. An estate given or possessed by donation or divine appropriation. Numbers 26:53-55.

4. That which is possessed or enjoyed.

Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance. Psalm 2:8.

INHERITED, pp. Received by descent from an ancestor; possessed.

INHERITING, ppr. Taking by succession or right of representation; receiving from ancestors; possessing.

INHERITOR, n. An heir; one who inherits or may inherit.

INHERITRESS, INHERITRIX, n. An heiress; a female who inherits or is entitled to inherit, after the death of her ancestor.

INHERSE, v.t. inhers. [in and herse.]

To inclose in a funeral monument.

INHESION, n. s as z. [L. inhoesio, inhoereo.]

Inherence; the state of existing or being fixed in something.

INHIATION, n. [L. inhiatio.] A gaping after; eager desire. [Not used.]

INHIBIT, v.t. [L. inhibeo; in and habeo, to hold, properly to rush or drive.]

1. To restrain; to hinder; to check or repress.

Their motions also are excited or inhibited--by the objects without them.

2. To forbid; to prohibit; to interdict.

All men were inhibited by proclamation at the dissolution so much as to mention a parliament.

INHIBITED, pp. Restrained; forbid.

INHIBITING, ppr. Restraining; repressing; prohibiting.

INHIBITION, n. [L. inhibitio.]

1. Prohibition; restraint; embargo.

2. In law, a writ to forbid or inhibit a judge from farther proceedings in a cause depending before him; commonly, a writ issuing from a higher ecclesiastical court to an inferior one, on appeal.

INHOLD, v.t. pret. and pp. inheld. [in and hold.]

To have inherent; to contain in itself. [Little used.]

INHOLDER, n. An inhabitant.

INHOOP, v.t. [in and hoop.] To confine or inclose in any place.

INHOSPITABLE, a. [in and hospitable.]

1. Not hospitable; not disposed to entertain strangers gratuitously; declining to entertain guests, or entertaining them with reluctance; as an inhospitable person or people.

2. Affording no conveniences, subsistence or shelter to strangers; as inhospitable desserts or rocks.

INHOSPITABLY, adv. Unkindly to strangers.

INHOSPITABLENESS, INHOSPITALITY, n. Want of hospitality or kindness to strangers; refusal or unwillingness to entertain guests or strangers without reward.

INHUMAN, a. [L. inhumanus; in and humanus, humane.]

1. Destitute of the kindness and tenderness that belong to a human being; cruel; barbarous; savage; unfeeling; as an inhuman person or people.

2. Marked with cruelty; as an inhuman act.

INHUMANITY, n. Cruelty in disposition; savageness of heart; used of persons.

1. Cruelty in act; barbarity; used of actions.

INHUMANLY, adv. With cruelty; barbarously.

INHUMATE, INHUME, v.t. [L. inhumo, humo, to bury.]

1. To bury; to inter; to deposit in the earth, as a dead body.

2. To digest in a vessel surrounded with warm earth.

INHUMATION, n. The act of burying; interment.

1. In chimistry, a method of digesting substances by burying the vessel containing them in warm earth, or a like substance.

INHUMED, pp. Buried; interred.

INHUMING, ppr. Burying; interring.

INIMAGINABLE, a. Unimaginable; inconceivable.

INIMICAL, a. [L. inimiens; in and amicus, a friend.]

1. Unfriendly; having the disposition or temper of an enemy; applied to private enmity, as hostile is to public.

2. Adverse; hurtful; repugnant.

--Savage violences inimical to commerce.

INIMITABILITY, n. [from inimitable.] The quality of being incapable of imitation.

INIMITABLE, a. [L. inimitabilis; in and imitabilis, from imitor, to imitate.] That cannot be imitated or copied; surpassing imitation; as inimitable beauty or excellence; an inimitable description; inimitable eloquence.

INIMITABLY, adv. In a manner not to be imitated; to a degree beyond imitation.

Charms such as thine, inimitably great.

INIQUITOUS, a. [See Iniquity.] Unjust; wicked; as an iniquitous bargain; an iniquitous proceeding. [It is applied to things rather than to persons, but may be applied to persons.]

INIQUITY, n. [L. iniquitas; in and oequitas, equity.]

1. Injustice; unrighteousness; a deviation from rectitude; as the iniquity of war; the iniquity of the slave trade.

2. Want of rectitude in principle; as a malicious prosecution originating in the iniquity of the author.

3. A particular deviation from rectitude; a sin or crime; wickedness; any act of injustice.

Your iniquities have separated between you and your God. Isaiah 59:2.

4. Original want of holiness or depravity.

I was shapen in iniquity. Psalm 51:5.

INQUOUS, a. Unjust. [Not used.]

INIRRITABILITY, n. [in and irritability.] The quality of being inirritable, or not susceptible of contraction by excitement.

INIRRITABLE, a. [in and irritable.] Not irritable; not susceptible of irritation, or contraction by excitement.

INIRRITATIVE, a. Not accompanied with excitement; as an inirritative fever.

INISLE, v.t. ini’le. [in and isle.] To surround; to encircle. [Not in use.]