Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



IMBRUTE, v.t. [in and brute.] To degrade to the state of a brute; to reduce to brutality.

--And mix with bestial slime

This essence to incarnate and imbrute.

IMBRUTE, v.i. To sink to the state of a brute.

IMBRUTED, pp. Degraded to brutism.

IMBRUTING, ppr. Reducing to brutishness.

IMBUE, v.t. imbu’. [L. imbuo; in and the root of Eng. buck, to buck cloth, that is, to dip, drench or steep in water.]

1. To tinge deeply; to dye; as, to imbue cloth.

2. To tincture deeply; to cause to imbibe; as, to imbue the minds of youth with good principles.

IMBUED, pp. tinged; dyed; tinctured.

IMBUING, ppr. Tinging; dyeing; tincturing deeply.

IMITABILITY, n. [See Imitable, Imitate.] The quality of being imitable.

IMITABLE, a. [L. imitabilis. See Imitate.]

1. That may be imitated or copied. Let us follow our Savior in all his imitable conduct and traits of character. There are some works of the ancients that are hardly imitable. The dignified style of Johnson is scarcely imitable.

2. Worthy of imitation.

IMITATE, v.t. [L. imitor; allied perhaps to Gr. similar, equal.]

1. To follow in manners; to copy in form, color or quality. We imitate another in dress or manners; we imitate a statue, a painting, a sound, an action, when we make or do that which resembles it. We should seek the best models to imitate, and in morals and piety, it is our duty to imitate the example of our Savior. But as we cannot always make an exact similitude of the original, hence,

2. To attempt or endeavor to copy or resemble; as, to imitate the colors of the rainbow, or any of the beauties of nature. Cicero appears to have imitated the Greek orators.

3. To counterfeit.

This hand appear’d a shining sword to wield,

And that sustain’d an imitated shield.

4. To pursue the course of a composition, so as to use like images and examples.

IMITATED, pp. Followed; copied.

IMITATING, ppr. Following in manner; copying.

IMITATION, n. [L. imitatio; imitor, to imitate.]

1. The act of following in manner, or of copying in form; the act of making the similitude of any thing, or of attempting a resemblance. By the imitation of bad men or of evil examples, we are apt to contract vicious habits. In the imitation of natural forms and colors, we are often unsuccessful. Imitation in music, says Rousseau, is a reiteration of the same air, or of one which is similar, in several parts where it is repeated by one after the other, either in unison, or at the distance of a fourth, a fifth, a third, or any interval whatever. Imitation in oratory, is an endeavor to resemble a speaker or writer in the qualities which we propose to ourselves as patterns.

2. That which is made or produced as a copy; likeness; resemblance. We say, a thing is a true imitation of nature.

3. A method of translating, in which modern examples and illustrations are used for ancient, or domestic for foreign, or in which the translator not only varies the words and sense, but forsakes them as he sees occasion.

IMITATIVE, a. Inclined to follow in manner; as, man is an imitative being.

1. Aiming at resemblance; that is used in the business of forming resemblances. Painting is an initiative art.

2. Formed after a model, pattern or original.

This temple, less in form, with equal grace,

Was imitative of the first in Thrace.

Imitative music, is that which is intended to resemble some natural operation, the passions, and the like.

IMITATOR, n. One that follows in manners or deportment.

1. One that copies, or attempts to make the resemblance of any thing.

IMITATORSHIP, n. The office or state of an imitator.

IMMACULATE, n. [L. immaculatus; in and macula, a spot.]

1. Spotless; pure; unstained; undefiled; without blemish; as immaculate reputation; immaculate thoughts. Our Savior has set us an example of an immaculate life and conversation.

2. Pure; limpid; not tinged with impure matter; as an immaculate fountain.

Immaculate conception, the conception of our Savior by the virgin Mary.

IMMACULATELY, adv. With spotless purity.

IMMACULATENESS, n. Spotless purity.

IMMAILED, a. Wearing mail or armor.

IMMALLEABLE, a. [in and malleable.] Not malleable; that cannot be extended by hammering.

IMMANACLE, v.t. [in and manacle.] To put manacles on; to fetter or confine; to restrain from free action.

IMMANACLED, pp. Fettered; confined.

IMMANACLING, ppr. Fettering; confining.

IMMANE, a. [L. immanis.] Vast; huge; very great. [Little used.]

IMMANELY, adv. Monstrously; cruelly.

IMMANENCY, n. Internal dwelling.

IMMANENT, a. [L. in and manens, maneo, to abide.] Inherent; intrinsic; internal.

IMMANITY, n. [L. immanitas.] Barbarity; savageness.

IMMARCESSIBLE, a. [L. in and marcesco, to fade.] Unfading.

IMMARTIAL, a. [in and martial.] Not martial; not warlike.

IMMASK, v.t. [in and mask.] To cover, as with a mask; to disguise.

IMMASKED, pp. Covered; masked.

IMMASKING, ppr. Covering; disguising.

IMMATCHABLE, a. That cannot be matched; peerless.


1. Incorporeal; not material; not consisting of matter; as immaterial spirits. The mind or soul is immaterial.

2. Unimportant; without weight; not material; of no essential consequence.

IMMATERIALISM, n. The doctrine of the existence or state of immaterial substances or spiritual beings.

IMMATERIALIST, n. One who professes immateriality.

IMMATERIALITY, n. The quality of being immaterial, or not consisting of matter; destitution of matter; as the immateriality of the soul.

IMMATERIALIZED, a. Rendered or made immaterial.

IMMATERIALLY, adv. In a manner not depending on matter.

1. In a manner unimportant.

IMMATERIALNESS, n. The state of being immaterial; immateriality.

IMMATERIATE, a. Not consisting of matter; incorporeal; immaterial. [Little used.]

IMMATURE, a. [L. immaturus; in and maturus.]

1. Not mature or ripe; unripe; that has not arrived to a perfect state; applied to fruit.

2. Not perfect; not brought to a complete state; as immature plans or counsels.

3. Hasty; too early; that comes before the natural time.

[In this sense, premature is generally used.]

IMMATURELY, adv. Too soon; before ripeness or completion; before the natural time.

IMMATURENESS, IMMATURITY, n. Unripeness; incompleteness; the state of a thing which has not arrived to perfection.

IMMEABILITY, n. [L. in and meo, to pass.] Want of power to pass.

The proper sense is, the quality of not being permeable, or not affording a passage through the pores. [Little used.]

IMMEASURABLE, a. immezh’urable. [in and measure.]

That cannot be measured; immense; indefinitely extensive; as an immeasurable distance or space; an immeasurable abyss.

IMMEASURABLY, adv. To an extent not to be measured; immensely; beyond all measure.

IMMEASURED, a. Exceeding common measure.

IMMECHANICAL, a. [in and mechanical.] Not consonant to the laws of mechanics.

IMMEDIACY, n. [from immediate.] Power of acting without dependence.

IMMEDIATE, a. [L. in and medius, middle.]

1. Proximate; acting without a medium, or without the intervention of another cause or means; producing its effect by its own direct agency. An immediate cause is that which is exerted directly in producing its effect, in opposition to a mediate cause, or one more remote.

2. Not acting by second causes; as the immediate will of God.

3. Instant; present; without the intervention of time. We must have an immediate supply of bread.

Immediate are my needs--

Death--inflicted--by an immediate stroke.

IMMEDIATELY, adv. Without the intervention of any other cause or event; opposed to mediately.

The transfer, whether accepted immediately by himself, or mediately by his agent, vests in him the property.

1. Instantly; at the present time; without delay, or the intervention of time.

And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will, be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. Matthew 8:3.

IMMEDIATENESS, n. Presence with regard to time.

1. Exemption from second or intervening causes.

IMMEDICABLE, a. [L. immedicabilis; in and medicabilis, from medico, to heal.] Not to be healed; incurable.

IMMELODIOUS, a. Not melodious.

IMMEMORABLE, a. [L. immemorabilis; in and memorabilis. See Memory.]

Not to be remembered; not worth remembering.

IMMEMORIAL, a. [L. in and memor, memoria.]

Beyond memory; an epithet given to time or duration, etc., whose beginning is not remembered, or cannot be traced and ascertained; as when it is said a man has possessed an estate in fee from time immemorial, or time out of mind. Such possession constitutes prescription, or prescriptive right. So we speak of immemorial use, custom or practice. In England, a thing is said to be immemorial, when it commenced before the reign of Edward II.

IMMEMORIALLY, adv. Beyond memory.

IMMENSE, a. immens’. [L. immensus; in and mensus, metior, to measure.]

1. Unlimited; unbounded; infinite.

O goodness infinite! goodness immense!

2. Vast in extent; very great; as an immense distance.

3. Huge in bulk; very large; as the immense body of Jupiter.

IMMENSELY, adv. immens’ly. Infinitely; without limits or measure.

1. Vastly; very greatly.

IMMENSITY, n. Unlimited extension; an extent not to be measured; infinity.

By the power we find in ourselves of repeating, as often as we will, any idea of space, we get the idea of immensity.

1. Vastness in extent or bulk; greatness.

IMMENSURABILITY, n. [from immensurable.] The quality of not being capable of measure; impossibility to be measured.

IMMENSURABLE, a. [L. in and mensurabilis, from mensura, measure; mensus, metior.] Not to be measured; immeasurable.

The law of nature--a term of immensurable extent.

IMMENSURATE, a. Unmeasured.

IMMERGE, v.t. immerj’. [L. immergo; in and mergo, to plunge.]

1. To plunge into or under a fluid. [See Immerse, which is generally used.]

2. v.i. To enter the light of the sun, as a star, or the shadow of the earth, as the moon.

IMMERIT, n. Want of worth. [Not used.]

IMMERITED, a. Unmerited. [Not used.]

IMMERITOUS, a. Undeserving. [Not used.]

IMMERSE, v.t. immers’. [L. immersus, from immergo; in and mergo, to plunge.]

1. To put under water or other fluid; to plunge; to dip.

2. To sink or cover deep; to cover wholly; as, to be immersed in a wood.

3. To plunge; to overwhelm; to involve; to engage deeply; as, to immerse in business or cares.

It is impossible for a man to have a lively hope in another life, and yet be deeply immersed in the enjoyment of this.

IMMERSED, pp. Put into a fluid; plunged; deeply engaged; enveloped in the light of the sun, as a star, or in the shadow of the earth, as the moon.

IMMERSING, ppr. Plunging into a fluid; dipping; overwhelming; deeply engaging.

IMMERSION, n. The act of putting into a fluid below the surface; the act of plunging into a fluid till covered.

1. The state of sinking into a fluid.

2. The state of being overwhelmed or deeply engaged; as an immersion in the affairs of life.

3. In astronomy, the act of entering into the light of the sun, as a star, so as to be enveloped and invisible to the eye; or the state of being so enveloped. Also, the entrance of the moon into the shadow of the earth, at the commencement of an eclipse; or the state of being enveloped in the shadow. It is opposed to emersion.

The time when a star or planet is so near the sun as to be invisible; also, the moment when the moon begins to be darkened, and to enter the shadow of the earth.

IMMESH, v.t. [in and mesh.] To entangle in the meshes of a net, or in a web. Observe whether the fly is completely immeshed. The spider used his efforts to immesh the scorpion.

IMMESHED, pp. Entangled in meshes or webs.

IMMESHING, ppr. Entangling in meshes or webs.

IMMETHODICAL, a. [in and methodical. See Method.]

Having no method; without systematic arrangement; without order or regularity; confused.

IMMETHODICALLY, adv. Without order or regularity; irregularly.

IMMETHODICALNESS, n. Want of method; confusion.

IMMIGRANT, n. A person that removes into a country for the purpose of permanent residence.

IMMIGRATE, v.i. [L. immigro; in and migro, to migrate.]

To remove into a country for the purpose of permanent residence. [See Emigrate.]

IMMIGRATION, n. The passing or removing into a country for the purpose of permanent residence.

IMMINENCE, n. [L. imminentia, immineo, to hang over.]

Properly, a hanging over, but used by Shakespeare for impending evil or danger. [Little used.]

IMMINENT, a. [L. imminens, from immineo, to hang over; in and minor, to threaten. See Menace.]

Literally, shooting over; hence, hanging over; impending; threatening; near; appearing as if about to fall on; used of evils; as imminent danger; imminent judgments, evils or death.

IMMINGLE, v.t. [in and mingle.] To mingle; to mix; to unite with numbers.

IMMINGLED, pp. Mixed; mingled.

IMMINGLING, ppr. Mixing; mingling.

IMMINUTION, n. [L. imminutio, imminuo; in and minuo, to lessen.] A lessening; diminution; decrease.

IMMISCIBILITY, n. [L. immisceo; in and misceo, to mix.] Incapacity of being mixed.

IMMISCIBLE, a. [in and miscible.] Not capable of being mixed.

IMMISSION, n. [L. immissio, immitto; in and mitto, to send.]

The act of sending or thrusting in; injection; contrary to emission.

IMMIT, v.t. [L. immitto; in and mitto, to send.] To send in; to inject.

IMMITIGABLE, a. [in and mitigate.] That cannot be mitigated or appeased.

IMMIX, v.t. [in and mix.] To mix; to mingle.

IMMIXABLE, a. Not capable of being mixed.

IMMIXED, IMMIXT, a. Unmixed.

IMMOBILITY, n. [L. immobilitas, from immobilis; in and mobilis, from moveo, to move.] Unmovableness; fixedness in place or state; resistance to motion.

IMMODERACY, n. Excess.

IMMODERATE, a. [L. immoderatus; in and moderatus. See Moderate.]

Exceeding just or usual bounds; not confined to suitable limits; excessive; extravagant; unreasonable; as immoderate demands; immoderate passions, cares or grief.

IMMODERATELY, adv. Excessively; to an undue degree; unreasonably; as, to weep immoderately.

IMMODERATENESS, n. Excess; extravagance.