Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



HYDROPHOBIC, a. Pertaining to a dread of water, or canine madness.

HYDROPIC, HYDROPICAL, a. [L. hydrops; Gr. dropsy; water.]

1. Dropsical; diseased with extravasated water.

2. Containing water; caused by extravasated water; as a hydropic swelling.

3. Resembling dropsy.

Every lust is a kind of hydropic distemper, and the more we drink the more we shall thirst.

HYDROPNEUMATIC, a. [Gr. water, and inflated, breath, spirit.]

An epithet given to a vessel of water, with other apparatus for chimical experiments.

HYDROPSY. [See Dropsy.]

HYDROSCOPE, n. [Gr. water, and to view.] A kind of water clock, or instrument used anciently for measuring time, consisting of a cylindrical tube, conical at the bottom, perforated at the vertex, and the whole tube graduated.

HYDROSTATIC, HYDROSTATICAL, a. [Gr. water, and static, standing or settling.]

Relating to the science of weighing fluids, or hydrostatics.

HYDROSTATICALLY, adv. According to hydrostatics, or to hydrostatic principles.

HYDROSTATICS, n. The science which treats of the weight, motion, and equilibriums of fluids, or of the specific gravity and other properties of fluids, particularly of water.

Hydrostatics is that branch of the science of hydrodynamics which treats of the properties of fluids at rest.

HYDROSULPHATE, n. The same as hydrosulphuret.

HYDROSULPHURET, n. [hydrogen and sulphuret.] A combination of sulphureted hydrogen with an earth, alkali or metallic oxyd.

HYDROSULPHURETED, a. Combined with sulphureted hydrogen.

Hydrosulphuric acid, is called also hydrothionic acid, or sulphureted hydrogen.

HYDROTHORAX, n. [Gr. water.] Dropsy in the chest.

HYDROTIC, a. [Gr. water.] Causing a discharge of water.

HYDROTIC, n. A medicine that purges off water or phlegm.

HYDROXANTHATE, n. [Gr. water, and yellow.] In chimistry, a compound of hydroxanthic acid with a base.

HYDROXANTHIC, a. A term used to denote a new acid, formed by the action of alkalies on the bisulphuret of carbon. It is called also carbo-sulphuric acid.

HYDRURET, n. A combination of hydrogen with sulphur, or of sulphur and sulphureted hydrogen.

HYDRUS, n. [Gr. water.] A water snake; also, a constellation of the southern hemisphere.

HYEMAL, a. [L. hiems, winter.] Belonging to winter; done in winter.

HYEMATE, v.i. To winter at a place. [Not in use.]

HYEMATION, n. [L. hiemo, to winter.] The passing or spending of a winter in a particular place.

HYENA, n. [L. hyaena.] A quadruped of the genus Canis, having small naked ears, four toes on each foot, a straight jointed tail, and erect hair on the neck; an inhabitant of Asiatic Turkey, Syria, Persia and Barbary. It is a solitary animal, and feeds on flesh; it preys on flocks and herds, and will open graves to obtain food. It is a fierce, cruel and untamable animal, and is sometimes called the tiger-wolf.

HYGROMETER, n. [Gr. moist, and measure.] An instrument for measuring the degree of moisture of the atmosphere.

HYGROMETRICAL, a. Pertaining to hygrometry; made by or according to the hygrometer.

HYGROMETRY, n. The act or art of measuring the moisture of the air.

HYGROSCOPE, n. [Gr. moist, and to view.] The same as hygrometer. The latter is now chiefly used.

HYGROSCOPIC, a. Pertaining to the hygroscope; capable of imbibing moisture.

HYGROSTATICS, n. [Gr. moist.] The science of comparing degrees of moisture.

HYKE, n. A blanket or loose garment.

HYLARCHICAL, a. [Gr. matter, and rule.] Presiding over matter.

HYLOZOIC, n. [Gr. matter and life.] One who holds matter to be animated.

HYM, n. A species of dog.

HYMEN, n. [L. from Gr. membrana, pellicula, hymen.]

1. In ancient mythology, a fabulous deity, the son of Bacchus and Venus, supposed to preside over marriages.

2. In anatomy, the virginal membrane.

3. In botany, the fine pellicle which incloses a flower in the bud.

HYMENEAL, HYMENEAN, a. Pertaining to marriage.

HYMENEAL, HYMENEAN, n. A marriage song.

HYMENOPTER, HYMENOPTERA, n. [Gr. a membrane, and a wing.] In entomology, the hymenopters are an order of insects, having four membranous wings, and the tail of the female mostly armed with a sting.

HYMENOPTERAL, a. Having four membranous wings.

HYMN, n. hym. [L. hymnus; Eng. hum.] song or ode in honor of God, and among pagans, in honor of some deity. A hymn among christians is a short poem, composed for religious service, or a song of joy and praise to God. The word primarily expresses the tune, but it is used for the ode or poem.

And when the had sung a hymn, they went out to the mount of Olives. Matthew 26:30.

HYMN, v.t. hym. To praise in song; to worship by singing hymns.

1. To sing; to celebrate in song. They hymn their maker’s praise.

HYMN, v.i. hym. To sing in praise or adoration.

HYMNED, pp. Sung; praised; celebrated in song.

HYMNING, ppr. Praising in song; singing.

HYMNIC, a. Relating to hymns.

HYMNOLOGIST, n. A composer of hymns.

HYMNOLOGY, n. A collection of hymns.

HYOSCIAMA, n. A new vegetable alkali, extracted from the Hyoscyamus nigra, or henbane.

HYP, n. [a contraction of hypochondria.] A disease; depression of spirits.

HYP, v.t. To make melancholy; to depress the spirits.

HYPALLAGE, n. hypal’largy. [Gr. change, to change.]

In grammar, a figure consisting of mutual change of cases. Thus in Virgil, dare classibus austros, for dare classes austris.

Hypallage is a species of hyperbaton.

HYPASPIST, n. [Gr. a shield.] A soldier in the armies of Greece, armed in a particular manner.

HYPER, Eng. over, is used in composition to denote excess, or something over or beyond.

1. A hypercritic. [Not used.]

HYPERASPIST, n. [Gr. a shield.] A defender.

HYPERBATON, HYPERBATE, n. [Gr. to transgress, or go beyond.]

In grammar, a figurative construction, inverting the natural and proper order of words and sentences. The species are the anastrophe, the hysteron proteron, the hypallage, the synchysis, the tmesis, the parenthesis, and the proper hyperbaton, which last is a long retention of the verb which completes the sentence.

HYPERBOLA, n. [Gr. over, beyond, and to throw.]

In conic sections and geometry, a curve formed by cutting a cone in a direction parallel to its axis.

A section of a cone, when the cutting plane makes a greater angle with the base than the side of the cone makes.

The latter definition is the most correct.

HYPERBOLE, n. hyper’boly. [Gr. excess, to throw beyond, to exceed.]

In rhetoric, a figure of speech which expresses much more or less than the truth, or which represents things much greater or less, better or worse than they really are. An object uncommon in size, either great or small, strikes us with surprise, and this emotion produces a momentary conviction that the object is greater or less than it is in reality. The same effect attends figurative grandeur or littleness; and hence the use of the hyperbole, which expresses this momentary conviction. The following are instances of the use of this figure.

He was owner of a piece of ground not larger than a Lacedemonian letter.

If a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered. Genesis 13:16.

Ipse arduus, alta que pulsat Sidera.

He was so gaunt, the case of a flagellet was a mansion for him.

HYPERBOLIC, HYPERBOLICAL, n. Belonging to the hyperbola; having the nature of the hyperbola.

1. Relating to or containing hyperbole; exaggerating or diminishing beyond the fact; exceeding the truth; as a hyperbolical expression.

Hyperbolic space, in geometry, the space or content comprehended between the curve of a hyperbole and the whole ordinate.

HYPERBOLICALLY, adv. In the form of a hyperbola.

1. With exaggeration; in a manner to express more or less than the truth.

Scylla--is hyperbolically described by Homer as inaccessible.

HYPERBOLIFORM, a. [hyperbola and form.] Having the form, or nearly the form of a hyperbola.

HYPERBOLIST, n. One who uses hyperboles.

HYPERBOLIZE, v.i. To speak or write with exaggeration.

HYPERBOLIZE, v.t. To exaggerate or extenuate.

HYPERBOLOID, n. [hyperbola, and Gr. form.] A hyperbolic conoid; a solid formed by the revolution of a hyperbola about its axis.

HYPERBOREAN, a. [L. hyperboreus; Gr. beyond, and the north.]

1. Northern; belonging to or inhabiting a region very far north; most northern.

2. Very cold; frigid.

HYPERBOREAN, n. An inhabitant of the most northern region of the earth. The ancients gave this denomination to the people and places to the northward of the Scythians, people and regions of which they had little or no knowledge. The Hyperboreans then are the Laplanders, the Samoiedes, and the Russians near the White Sea.

HYPERCARBURETED, a. Supercarbureted; having the largest proportion of carbon.

HYPERCATALECTIC, a. [Gr. termination.] A hypercatalectic verse, in Greek and Latin poetry, is a verse which has a syllable or two beyond the regular and just measure.

HYPERCRITIC, n. [Gr. beyond, and critical. See Critic.]

One who is critical beyond measure or reason; an over rigid critic; a captious censor.

HYPERCRITIC, HYPERCRITICAL, a. Over critical; critical beyond use or reason; animadverting on faults with unjust severity; as a hypercritical reader.

1. Excessively nice or exact; as a hypercritical punculio.

HYPERCRIT-ICISM, n. Excessive rigor of criticism.

HYPERDULIA, n. [Gr. beyond, and service.] Super-service in the Romish church, performed to the virgin Mary.

HYPERICON, n. John’s wort.

HYPERMETER, n. [Gr. beyond, and measure.] Anything greater than the ordinary standard of measure.

A verse is called a hypermeter, when it contains a syllable more than the ordinary measure. When this is the case, the following line begins with a vowel, and the redundant syllable of the former line blends with the first of the following, and they are read as one syllable.

HYPERMETRICAL, a. Exceeding the common measure; having a redundant syllable.

HYPEROXYD, a. Acute to excess, as a crystal.

HYPEROXYGENATED, HYPEROXYGENIZED, a. [Gr. beyond, and oxygenated, or oxygenized.]

Super-saturated with oxygen.

HYPEROXYMURIATE, n. The same as chlorate.

HYPEROXYMURIATIC, a. The hyperoxymuriatic acid is the chloric acid.

HYPERPHYSICAL, a. Supernatural.

HYPERSTENE, HYPERSTHENE, n. A mineral, Labrador hornblend, or schillerspar. Its color is between grayish and greenish black, but nearly copper-red on the cleavage. So named from its difficult frangibility.

HYPHEN, n. [Gr. under one, or to one.] A mark or short line made between two words to show that they form a compound word, or are to be connected; as in pre-occupied; five-leafed; ink-stand. In writing and printing, the hyphen is used to connect the syllables of a divided word, and is placed after the syllable that closes a line, denoting the connection of that syllable or part of a word with the first syllable of the next line.

HYPNOTIC, a. [Gr. sleep.] Having the quality of producing sleep; tending to produce sleep; narcotic; soporific.

HYPNOTIC, n. A medicine that produces, or tends to produce sleep; an opiate; a narcotic; a soporific.

HYPO, a Greek preposition, under, beneath; used in composition. Thus, hyposulphuric acid is an acid containing less oxygen than sulphuric acid.

HYPOBOLE, n. hypob’oly. [Gr. under, and to cast.]

In rhetoric, a figure in which several things are mentioned that seem to make against the argument or in favor of the opposite side, and each of them is refuted in order.

HYPOCAUST, n. [Gr. to burn.]

1. Among the Greeks and Romans, a subterraneous place where was a furnace to heat baths.

2. Among the moderns, the place where a fire is kept to warm a stove or a hot-house.


HYPOCHONDRIA, n. plu. [Gr. a cartilage.]

1. In anatomy, the sides of the belly under the cartilages of the spurious ribs; the spaces on each side of the epigastric region.

2. Hypochondriac complaints.

HYPOCHONDRIAC, a. Pertaining to the hypochondria, or the parts of the body so called; as the hypochondriac region.

1. Affected by a disease, attended with debility, depression of spirits or melancholy.

2. Producing melancholy, or low spirits.

HYPOCHONDRIAC, n. A person affected with debility, lowness of spirits or melancholy.

HYPOCHONDRIACAL, a. The same as hypochondriac.

HYPOCHONDRIACISM, n. A disease of men, characterized by languor or debility, depression of spirits or melancholy, with dyspepsy.

HYPOCHONDRIASIS, n. Hypochondriacism.

HYPOCIST, n. [Gr. sub cisto, under the distus.] An inspissated juice obtained from the sessile asarum [Cytinus hypocistis,] resembling the true Egyptian acacia. The juice is expressed from the unripe fruit and evaporated to the consistence of an extract, formed into cakes and dried in the sun. It is an astringent, useful in diarrheas and hemorrhages.

HYPOCRATERIFORM, a. [Gr. under, a cup, and form.]

Salver-shaped; tubular, but suddenly expanding into a flat border at top; applied to a monopetalous corol.

HYPOCRISY, n. [L. hypocrisis; Gr. simulation; to feign; to separate, discern or judge.]

1. Simulation; a feigning to be what one is not; or dissimulation, a concealment of one’s real character or motives. More generally, hypocrisy is simulation, or the assuming of a false appearance of virtue or religion; a deceitful show of a good character, in morals or religion; a counterfeiting of religion.

Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. Luke 12:1.

2. Simulation; deceitful appearance; false pretence.

Hypocrisy is the necessary burden of villainy.


1. One who feigns to be what he is not; one who has the form of godliness without the power, or who assumes an appearance of piety and virtue, when he is destitute of true religion.

And the hypocrite’s hope shall perish. Job 8:13.

2. A dissembler; one who assumes a false appearance.

Fair hypocrite, you seek to cheat in vain.

HYPOCRITIC, HYPOCRITICAL, a. Simulating; counterfeiting a religions character; assuming a false and deceitful appearance; applied to persons.

1. Dissembling; concealing one’s real character or motives.

2. Proceeding from hypocrisy, or marking hypocrisy; as a hypocritical face or look.

HYPOCRITICALLY, adv. With simulation; with a false appearance of what is good; falsely; without sincerity.

HYPOGASTRIC, a. [Gr. under, and the belly.]

1. Relating to the hypogastrium, or middle part of the lower region of the belly.

2. An appellation given to the internal branch of the iliac artery.

HYPOGASTROCELE, n. [Gr. tumor.] A hernia or rupture of the lower belly.

HYPOGEUM, n. [Gr. under, and the earth.] A name given by ancient architects to all the parts of a building which were under ground, as the cellar, etc.

HYPOGYNOUS, a. [Gr. under, and a female.] A term applied to plants that have their corols and stamens inserted under the pistil.

HYPOPHOSPHOROUS, n. [Gr. phosphorus.] The hypophosphorous acid contains less oxygen than the phosphorous, and is obtained from the phosphuret of baryte. It is a liquid which may be concentrated by evaporation, till it becomes viscid. It has a very sour taste, reddens vegetable blues, and does not crystalize.

HYPOPHOSPHITE, n. A compound of hypophosphorous acid and a salifiable base.

HYPOSTASIS, HYPOSTASY, n. [L. hypostasis; Gr. to stand.] Properly, subsistence or substance. Hence it is used to denote distinct substance, or subsistence of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, in the Godhead, called by the Greek christians, three hypostases. The Latins more generally used persona to express the sense of hypostasis, and this is the modern practice. We say, the Godhead consists of three persons.

HYPOSTATIC, HYPOSTATICAL, a. Relating to hypostasis; constitutive.

Let our Carneades warn men not to subscribe to the grand doctrine of the chimists, touching their three hypostatical principles, till they have a little examined it.

1. Personal, or distinctly personal; or constituting a distinct substance.

HYPOSULPHATE, n. A compound of hyposulphuric acid and a base.

HYPOSULPHITE, n. A compound of hyposulphurous acid and a salifiable base.

HYPOSULPHURIC, a. Hyposulphuric acid, is an acid combination of sulphur and oxygen, intermediate between sulphurous and sulphuric acid.

HYPOSULPHUROUS, a. Hyposulphurous acid is an acid containing less oxygen than sulphurous acid. This acid is known only in combination with salifiable bases.

HYPOTENUSE, n. [Gr. to subtend.] In geometry, the subtense or longest side of a right-angled triangle, or the line that subtends the right angle.