Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



HOOPOE, HOOPOO, n. [L. upupa, epops.] A bird of the genus Upupa, whose head is adorned with a beautiful crest, which it can erect or depress at pleasure.

HOORA, HOORAW, exclam. A shout of joy or exultation. [This is the genuine English word, for which we find in books most absurdly written, huzza, a foreign word never or rarely used.]

HOOT, v.i.

1. To cry out or shout in contempt.

Matrons and girls shall hoot at thee no more.

2. To cry, as an owl.

The clamorous owl, that nightly hoots.

HOOT, v.t. To drive with cries or shouts uttered in contempt.

Partridge and his clan may hoot me for a cheat.

HOOT, n. A cry or shout in contempt.

HOOTING, n. A shouting; clamor.

HOP, v.i.

1. To leap, or spring on one leg; applied to persons.

2. To leap; to spring forward by leaps; to skip, as birds.

Hopping from spray to spray.

3. To walk lame; to limp; to halt. [We generally use hobble.]

4. To move by leaps or starts, as the blood in the veins. [Not used.]

5. To spring; to leap; to frisk about.

6. To dance.

HOP, n. A leap on one leg; a leap; a jump; a spring.

1. A dance.

HOP, n. A plant constituting the genus Humulus. The stalk or vine, which grows to a great length, is weak and requires to be supported. In growing, it climbs or winds round a pole or other support. This plant is of great importance in brewing, as it tends to preserve malt liquors, and renders them more aperient, diuretic and salubrious.
HOP, v.t. To impregnate with hops.

HOPBIND, n. The stalk or vine on which hops grow.

HOPOAST, n. In Kent, a kiln for drying hops.

HOPPOLE, n. A pole used to support hops.

HOP-PICKER, n. One that picks hops.

HOPVINE, n. The stalk of hops.

HOP-YARD, HOP-GARDEN, n. A field or inclosure where hops are raised.

HOPE, n. [L. cupio.]

1. A desire of some good, accompanied with at least a slight expectation of obtaining it, or a belief that it is obtainable. Hope differs from wish and desire in this, that it implies some expectation of obtaining the good desired, or the possibility of possessing it. Hope therefore always gives pleasure or joy; whereas wish and desire may produce or be accompanied with pain and anxiety.

The hypocrite’s hope shall perish. Job 8:13.

He wish’ed, but not with hope--

Sweet hope! kind cheat!

He that lives upon hope, will die fasting.

2. Confidence in a future event; the highest degree of well founded expectation of good; as a hope founded on God’s gracious promises; a scriptural sense.

A well founded scriptural hope, is, in our religion, the source of ineffable happiness.

3. That which gives hope; he or that which furnishes ground of expectation, or promises desired good. The hope of Israel is the Messiah.

The Lord will be the hope of his people. Joel 3:16.

4. An opinion or belief not amounting to certainty, but grounded on substantial evidence. The christian indulges a hope, that his sins are pardoned.

HOPE, v.i.

1. To cherish a desire of food, with some expectation of obtaining it, or a belief that it is obtainable.

Hope for good success.

Be sober and hope to the end. 1 Peter 1:13.

Hope humbly then, with trembling pinions soar.

2. To place confidence in; to trust in with confident expectation of good.

Why art thou cast down, O my soul, and why art thou disquieted within me? Hope thou in God. Psalm 43:5.

HOPE, v.t. To desire with expectation of good, or a belief that it may be obtained. But as a transitive verb, it is seldom used, and the phrases in which it is so used are elliptical, for being understood.

So stands the Thracian herdsman with his spear,

Full in the gap, and hopes the hunted bear.

HOPE, n. A sloping plain between ridges of mountains. [Not in use.]

HOPED, pp. Desired with expectation.

HOPEFUL, a. Having qualities which excite hope; promising or giving ground to expect good or success; as a hopeful youth; a hopeful prospect.

1. Full of hope or desire, with expectation.

I was hopeful the success of your first attempts would encourage you to the trial of more nice and difficult experiments.

HOPEFULLY, adv. In a manner to raise hope; in a way promising good. He prosecutes his scheme hopefully.

1. In a manner to produce a favorable opinion respecting some good at the present time. The young man is hopefully pious.

2. With hope; with ground to expect.

HOPEFULNESS, n. Promise of good; ground to expect what is desirable.

HOPELESS, a. Destitute of hope; having no expectation of that which is desirable; despairing.

I am a woman, friendless, hopeless.

1. Giving no ground of hope or expectation of good; promising nothing desirable; desperate; as a hopeless condition.

HOPELESSLY, adv. Without hope.

HOPELESSNESS, n. A state of being desperate, or affording no hope.

HOPER, n. One that hopes.

HOPING, ppr. Having hope; indulging desire of good with the expectation of obtaining it, or a belief that it is obtainable.

1. Confiding in.

HOPINGLY, adv. With hope or desire of good, and expectation of obtaining it.

HOPLITE, n. [Gr. a weapon.] In ancient Greece, a heavy-armed soldier.

HOPPER, n. [See Hop.] One who hops, or leaps on one leg.

1. Properly, a wooden trough through which grain passes into a mill; so named from its moving or shaking. But we give the name to a box or frame of boards, which receives the grain before it passes into the trough, and also to a similar box which receives apples for conducting them into a mill.

1. A vessel in which seed-corn is carried for sowing.

HOPPERS, n. A play in which persons hop or leap on one leg.

HOPPING, ppr. Leaping on one leg; dancing.

HOPPING, n. A dancing; a meeting for dancing.

HOPPLE, v.t. To tie the feet near together to prevent leaping; as, to hopple an unruly horse.

HORAL, a. [L. hora, an hour. See Hour.]

Relating to an hour, or to hours.

HORALLY, adv. Hourly. [Not in use.]

HORARY, a. [L. horarius; L. hora hour.]

1. Pertaining to an hour; noting the hours; as the horary circle.

2. Continuing an hour.

HORD, HORDE, n. A company of wandering people dwelling in tents or wagons, and migrating from place to place to procure pasturage for their cattle. Such are some tribes of the Tartars in the north of Asia. A hord usually consists of fifty or sixty tents.

HORE, n. A woman, married or single, who indulges unlawful sexual intercourse; also, a prostitute; a common woman; a harlot; a woman of ill fame. [This word comprehends adultress and fornicatrix, and all lewd women whether paid for prostitution or not.]

HORE, v.i. To indulge unlawful sexual commerce, as a male or female; to be habitually lewd.

HOREDOM, n. The practice of unlawful sexual commerce; habitual or customary lewdness of males or females.

1. In Scripture, idolatry.

HOREMASTER, HOREMONGER, n. A man who is addicted to lewdness, or frequently indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse.

HORESON, n. [hore and son.] A bastard; the son of a hore; a term of reproach or contempt, sometimes used in a ludicrous sense expressing dislike.

HORISH, a. Lewd, unchaste; loose; given to unlawful sexual intercourse; applied to females only.

HORISHLY, adv. Lewdly; unchastely.

HOREHOUND, n. The name of several plants of different genera. The common horehound is the Marrubium vulgare. It has a bitter taste, and is used as an attenuant.

HORIZON, n. [Gr. to bound, a limit.] The line that terminates the view, when extended on the surface of the earth; or a great circle of the sphere, dividing the world into two parts or hemispheres; the upper hemisphere which is visible, and the lower which is hid. The horizon is sensible, and rational or real. The sensible, apparent, or visible horizon, is a lesser circle of the sphere, which divides the visible part of the sphere from the invisible. It is eastern or western; the eastern is that wherein the sun and stars rise; the western, that wherein they set. The rational, true, or astronomical horizon, is a great circle whose plane passes through the center of the earth, and whose poles are the zenith and nadir. This horizon would bound the sight, if the eye could take in the whole hemisphere.

HORIZONTAL, a. Pertaining to the horizon, or relating to it.

1. Parallel to the horizon; on a level; as a horizontal line or surface.

2. Near the horizon; as horizontal misty air.

HORIZONTALLY, adv. In a direction parallel to the horizon; on a level; as a ball carried horizontally.

HORIZONTALITY, n. The state of being horizontal.

HORN, n. [L. cornu]

1. A hard substance growing on the heads of certain animals, and particularly on cloven-footed quadrupeds; usually projecting to some length and terminating in a point. Horns are generally bent or curving, and those of some animals are spiral. They serve for weapons of offense and defense. The substance of horns is gelatinous, and in Papin’s digester it may be converted into jelly.

Horn is an animal substance, chiefly membranous, consisting of coagulated albumen, with a little gelatin and phosphate of lime.

The horns of deer possess exactly the properties of bone, and are composed of the same constituents, only the proportion of cartilage is greater.

2. A wind instrument of music, made of horn; a trumpet. Such were used by the Israelites.

3. In modern times, a wind instrument made of metal.

4. An extremity of the moon, when it is waxing or waning, and forming a crescent.

5. The feeler or antenna of an insect.

6. The feeler of a snail, which may be withdrawn; hence, to pull or draw in the horns, is to repress one’s ardor, or to restrain pride.

7. A drinking cup; horns being used anciently for cups.

8. A winding stream.

9. Horns, in the plural, is used to characterize a cuckold. He wears the horns.

10. In Scripture, horn is a symbol of strength or power.

The horn of Moab is cut off. Jeremiah 48:25.

Horn is also an emblem of glory, honor, dignity.

My horn is exalted in the Lord. 1 Samuel 2:1.

In Daniel, horn represents a kingdom or state.

HORNBEAK, n. A fish. [See Hornfish.]

HORNBEAM, n. [See Beam.] A genus of trees, the Carpinus, so named from the hardness of the wood.

HORNBILL, n. A fowl of the genus Buceros, which has a flat bony forehead with two horns; a native of the E. Indies.

HORNBLEND, n. A mineral of several varieties, called by Hauy amphibole. It is sometimes in regular distinct crystals; more generally the result of confused crystallization, appearing in masses, composed of lamins, acicular crystals or fibers, variously aggregated. Its prevailing colors are black and green.

HORNBLOWER, n. One that blows a horn.

HORNBOOK, n. The first book of children, or that in which they learn their letters and rudiments; so called from its cover of horn. [Now little used.]

HORN-DISTEMPER, n. A disease of cattle, affecting the internal substance of the horn.

HORNED, a. Furnished with horns; as horned cattle.

1. Shaped like a crescent, or the new moon.

HORNEDNESS, n. The appearance of horns.

HORNER, n. One who works or deals in horns.

1. One who winds or blows the horn.

HORNET, n. An insect of the genus Vespa or wasp, the Vespa crabro. It is much larger and stronger than the wasp, and its sting gives severe pain. This insect constructs a nest of leaves or other substance which resembles brown paper of a light color. This is attached to the branches of trees, and often of the size of a half-peck measure.

HORNFISH, n. The garfish or sea-needle, of the genus Esox.

HORNFOOT, a. Having a hoof; hoofed.

HORNIFY, v.t. To bestow horns upon. [Not used or vulgar.]

HORNING, n. Appearance of the moon when increasing, or in the form of a crescent.

HORNISH, a. Somewhat like horn; hard.

HORNLESS, a. Having no horns.

HORNMERCURY, n. Muriate of mercury.

HORNOWL, n. A species of owl, so called from two tufts of feathers on its head like horns.

HORNPIPE, n. An instrument of music in Wales, consisting of a wooden pipe with horns at the ends; one to collect the wind blown from the mouth; the other to carry off the sounds as modulated by the performer.

1. An air or tune of triple time, with six crotchets in a bar; four to the descending beat, and two to the ascending.

HORNSHAVINGS, n. Scrapings or raspings of the horns of deer.

HORNSILVER, n. Muriate of silver, or chlorid of silver.

HORNSPOON, n. A spoon made of horn.

HORNSLATE, n. A gray siliceous stone.

HORNSTONE, n. A siliceous stone, a subspecies of quartz. It is divided by Jameson into splintery, conchoidal, and wood-stone. [See Chert.]

HORNWORK, n. In fortification, an outwork composed of two demi-bastions joined by a curtain.

HORNY, a. Consisting of horn or horns.

1. Resembling horn.

2. Hard; callous.

HOROGRAPHY, n. [Gr. hour, and to write.]

1. An account of hours.

2. The art of constructing dials.

HOROLOGE, n. [L. horologium; Gr. hour, and to tell.]

An instrument that indicates the hour of the day. But chronometer is now generally used.

HOROLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to the horologe, or to horology.

HOROLOGIOGRAPHIC, a. Pertaining to the art of dialling.

HOROLOGIOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. hour, discourse, and to describe.]

An account of instruments that show the hour of the day; also, of the art of constructing dials.

HOROLOGY, n. [Gr. hour, and to indicate. See Horologe.]

The art of constructing machines for measuring and indicating portions of time, as clocks, watches, etc.

HOROMETRICAL, a. [from horometry.] Belonging to horometry, or to the measurement of time by hours and subordinate divisions.

HOROMETRY, n. [Gr. hour, and measure.]

The art or practice of measuring time by hours and subordinate divisions.

HOROSCOPE, n. [Gr. hour, and to view or consider.]

1. In astrology, a scheme or figure of the twelve houses, or twelve signs of the zodiac, in which is marked the disposition of the heavens at a given time, and by which astrologers formerly told the fortunes of persons, according to the position of the stars at the time of their birth.

2. The degree or point of the heavens arising above the eastern point of the horizon at any given time when a prediction is to be made of a future event.

HOROSCOPY, n. The art or practice of predicting future events by the disposition of the stars and planets.

HORRENT, a. [L. horrens. See Horror.] Bristled; standing erect as bristles; pointing outward.

With bright emblazonry and horrent arms.

HORRIBLE, a. [L. horribilis. See Horror.] Exciting or tending to excite horror; dreadful; terrible; shocking; hideous; as a horrible figure or sight; a horrible story.

A dungeon horrible on all sides round.

HORRIBLENESS, n. The state or qualities that may excite horror; dreadfulness; terribleness; hideousness.

HORRIBLY, adv. In a manner to excite horror; dreadfully; terribly; as horribly loud; horribly afraid.

HORRID, a. [L. horridus. See Horror.]

1. That does or may excite horror; dreadful; hideous; shocking; as a horrid spectacle or sight; horrid sympathy.

2. Rough; rugged. This is the literal and primary sense.

Horrid with fern, and intricate with thorn.

3. Shocking; very offensive; a colloquial sense.

HORRIDLY, adv. In a manner to excite horror; dreadfully; shockingly.

HORRIDNESS, n. The qualities that do or may excite horror; hideousness; enormity.

HORRIFIC, a. [L. horrificus.] Causing horror.

HORRISONOUS, a. [L. horrisonus; horreo, to shake, and sonus, sound.] Sounding dreadfully; uttering a terrible sound.

HORROR, n. [L. from horreo, to shake or shiver, or to set up the bristles, to be rough.]

1. A shaking, shivering or shuddering, as in the cold fit which precedes a fever. This ague is usually accompanied with a contraction of the skin into small wrinkles, giving it a kind of roughness.

2. An excessive degree of fear, or a painful emotion which makes a person tremble; terror; a shuddering with fear; but appropriately, terror or a sensation approaching it, accompanied with hatred or detestation. Horror is often a passion compounded of fear and hatred or disgust. The recital of a bloody deed fills us with horror.

A horror of great darkness fell on Abram. Genesis 15:12.

Horror hath taken hold on me, because of the wicked that forsake thy law. Psalm 119:53.

3. That which may excite horror or dread; gloom; dreariness.

And breathes a browner horror on the woods.

4. Dreadful thoughts.

5. Distressing scenes; as the horrors of war or famine.

HORSE, n. hors.

1. A species of quadrupeds of the genus Equus, having six erect and parallel fore-teeth in the upper jaw, and six somewhat prominent in the under jaw; the dog teeth are solitary, and the feet consist of an undivided hoof. The horse is a beautiful animal, and of great use for draught or conveyance on his back. Horse, in English, is of common gender, and may comprehend the male and female.

2. A constellation.

3. Cavalry; a body of troops serving on horseback. In this sense, it has no plural termination. We say, a thousand horse, a regiment of horse.

4. A machine by which something is supported; usually a wooden frame with legs. Various machines used in the arts are thus called.

5. A wooden machine on which soldiers ride by way of punishment; sometimes called a timber-mare.

6. In seamen’s language, a rope extending from the middle of a yard to its extremity, to support the sailors while they loose, reef or furl the sails, also, a thick rope extended near the mast for hoisting a yard or extending a sail on it.

To take horse to set out to ride on horseback.

1. To be covered, as a mare.

HORSE, v.t. To mount on a horse.

1. To carry on the back.

The keeper, horsing a deer.

2. To ride astride; as ridges horsed.

3. To cover a mare, as the male.

HORSEBACK, n. hors’back. The state of being on a horse; the posture of riding on a horse.

I saw them salute on horseback.

HORSEBEAN, n. A small bean usually given to horses.

HORSEBLOCK, n. A block or state that assists persons in mounting and dismounting from a horse.

HORSEBOAT, n. A boat used in conveying horses over a river or other water.

1. A boat moved by horses; a new species of ferry-boat.

HORSEBOY, n. A boy employed in dressing and tending horses; a stable boy.

HORSEBREAKER, n. One whose employment is to break horses, or to teach them to draw or carry.

HORSE-CHESTNUT, n. A large nut, the fruit of a species of Aesculus; or the tree that produces it. The tree is much cultivated for shade.

HORSECLOTH, n. A cloth to cover a horse.

HORSECOURSER, n. One that runs horses, or keeps horses for the race.

1. A dealer in horses.

HORSECRAB, n. A crustaceous fish.