Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



HEPATIZED, pp. Impregnated or combined with sulphurated hydrogen gas.

On the right of the river were two wells of hepatized water.

HEPATOSCOPY, n. [Gr. the liver, and to view.] The art or practice of divination by inspecting the liver of animals.

HEPS, n. The berries of the hep-tree, or wild dog-rose.

HEPTACAPSULAR, a. [Gr. seven, and L. capsula, a cell.]

Having seven cells or cavities for seeds; a term in botany.

HEPTACHORD, n. [Gr. seven, and chord.] A system of seven sounds. In ancient poetry, verses sung or played on seven chords or different notes. In this sense the word was applied to the lyre, when it had but seven strings. One of the intervals is also called a heptachord, as containing the same number of degrees between the extremes.

HEPTAGON, n. [Gr. seven, and an angle.]

In geometry, a figure consisting of seven sides and as many angles.

In fortification, a place that has seven bastions for defense.

HEPTAGONAL, a. Having seven angles or sides. Heptagonal numbers, in arithmetic, a sort of polygonal numbers, wherein the difference of the terms of the corresponding arithmetical progression is 5. One of the properties of these numbers is, that if they are multiplied by 40, and 9 is added to the product, the sum will be a square number.

HEPTAGYN, n. [Gr. seven, and a female.] In botany, a plant that has seven pistils.

HEPTAGYNIAN, a. Having seven pistils.

HEPTAHEXAHEDRAL, a. [Gr. seven, and hexahedral.] Presenting seven ranges of faces one above another, each range containing six faces.

HEPTAMEREDE, n. [Gr. seven, and part.]

That which divides into seven parts.

HEPTANDER, n. [Gr. seven, and a male.] In botany, a plant having seven stamens.

HEPTANDRIAN, a. Having seven stamens.

HEPTANGULAR, a. [Gr. seven, and angular.] Having seven angles.

HEPTAPHYLLOUS, a. [Gr. seven, and a leaf.] Having seven leaves.

HEPTARCHIC, a. Denoting a sevenfold government.

HEPTARCHIST, n. A ruler of one division of a heptarchy.

HEPTARCHY, n. [Gr. seven and rule.] A government by seven persons, or the country governed by seven persons. But the word is usually applied to England, when under the government of seven kings, or divided into seven kingdoms; as the Saxon heptarchy, which comprehended the whole of England, when subject to seven independent princes. These petty kingdoms were those of Kent, the South Saxons [Sussex,] West Saxons, East Saxons [Essex,] the East Angles, Mercia, and Northumberland.

HEPTATEUCH, n. [Gr. seven, and book.] The first seven books of the Old Testament. [Little used.]

HEP-TREE, n. The wild dog-rose, a species of Rosa.

HER, pronounced hur, an adjective, or pronominal adjective of the third person. [L. suus.]

1. Belonging to a female; as her face; her head.

2. It is used before neuter nouns in personification.

Wisdom’s ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace. Proverbs 3:17.

Her is also used as a pronoun or substitute for a female in the objective case, after a verb or preposition.

She gave also to her husband with her, and he did eat. Genesis 3:6.

Hers is primarily the objective or genitive case, denoting something that belongs to a female. But it stands as a substitute in the nominative or objective case.

And what his fortune wanted, hers could mend.

Here hers stands for her fortune, but it must be considered as the nominative to could mend. I will take back my own book and give you hers. Here hers is the object after give.


1. An officer whose business was to denounce or proclaim war, to challenge to battle, to proclaim peace, and to bear messages from the commander of an army. Hence,

2. A proclaimer; a publisher; as the herald of another’s fame.

3. A forerunner; a precursor; a harbinger.

It was the lark, the herald of the morn.

4. An officer in Great Britain, whose business is to marshal, order and conduct royal cavalcades, ceremonies at coronations, royal marriages, installations, creations of dukes and other nobles, embassies, funeral processions, declarations of war, proclamations of peace, etc.; also, to record and blazon the arms of the nobility and gentry, and to regulate abuses therein.

5. Formerly applied by the French to a minstrel.

HERALD, v.t. To introduce, as by a herald.

HERALDIC, a. Pertaining to heralds or heraldry; as heraldic delineations.

HERALDRY, n. The art or office of a herald. Heraldry is the art, practice or science of recording genealogies, and blazoning arms or ensigns armorial. It also teaches whatever relates to the marshaling of cavalcades, processions and other public ceremonies.

HERALDSHIP, n. The office of a herald.

HERB, n. erb. [L. herba.]

1. A plant or vegetable with a soft or succulent stalk or stem, which dies to the root every year, and is thus distinguished from a tree and a shrub, which have ligneous or hard woody stems.

2. In the Linnean botany, that part of a vegetable which springs from the root and is terminated by the fructification, including the stem or stalk, the leaves, the fulcra or props, and the hibernacle.

The word herb comprehends all the grasses, and numerous plants used for culinary purposes.

HERB-CHRISTOPHER, n. A plant, of the genus Actaea.

HERB-ROBERT, n. A plant, a species of Geranium. [See also Robert.]

HERBACEOUS, a. [L. herbaceus.] Pertaining to herbs. Herbaceous plants are such as perish annually down to the root; soft, succulent vegetables. So, a herbaceous stem is one which is soft, not woody. Herbaceous, applied to animals by Derham, is not authorized. [See Herbivorous.]

HERBAGE, n. Herbs collectively; grass; pasture; green food for beasts.

The influence of true religion is mild, soft and noiseless, and constant, as the descent of the evening dew on the tender herbage.

1. In law, the liberty or right of pasture in the forest or grounds of another man.

HERBAGED, a. Covered with grass.

HERBAL, n. A book that contains the names and descriptions of plants, or the classes, genera, species and qualities of vegetables.

1. A hortus siccus, or dry garden; a collection of specimens of plants, dried and preserved.

HERBAL, a. Pertaining to herbs.

HERBALIST, n. A person skilled in plants; one who makes collections of plants.

HERBAR, n. An herb.

HERBARIST, n. A herbalist. [Little used.]

HERBARIUM, n. A collection of dried plants.

HERBARIZE. [See Herborize.]

HERBARY, n. A garden of plants.

HERBELET, n. A small herb.

HERBESCENT, a. [L. herbescens.] Growing into herbs.

HERBID, a. [L. herbidus.] Covered with herbs. [Little used.]

HERBIVOROUS, a. [L. herba and voro, to eat.] Eating herbs; subsisting on herbaceous plants; feeding on vegetables. The ox and the horse are herbivorous animals.

HERBLESS, a. Destitute of herbs.

HERBORIST. [See Herbalist.]

HERBORIZATION, n. [from herborize.]

1. The act of seeking plants in the field; botanical research.

2. The figure of plants in mineral substances. [See Arborization.]

HERBORIZE, v.i. To search for plants, or to seek new species of plants, with a view to ascertain their characters and to class them.

He herborized as he traveled, and enriched the Flora Suecica with new discoveries.

HERBORIZE, v.t. To figure; to form the figures of plants in minerals. [See Arborize.]

HERBORIZED, pp. Figured; containing the figure of a plant; as a mineral body.

Daubenton has shown that herborized stones contain very fine mosses.

HERBORIZING, ppr. Searching for plants.

1. Forming the figures of plants in minerals.

HERBOUS, a. [L. herbosus.] Abounding with herbs.

HERBWOMAN, n. erb’woman. A woman that sells herbs.

HERBY, a. Having the nature of herbs. [Little used.]

HERCULEAN, a. [from Hercules.] Very great, difficult or dangerous; such as it would require the strength or courage of Hercules to encounter or accomplish; as Herculean labor or task.

1. Having extraordinary strength and size; as Herculean limbs.

2. Of extraordinary strength, force or power.

HERCULES, n. A constellation in the northern hemisphere, containing 113 stars.

HERCYNIAN, a. [from Hercynia.] Denoting an extensive forest in Germany, the remains of which are now in Swabia.

HERD, n.

1. A collection or assemblage; applied to beasts when feeding or driven together. We say, a herd of horses, oxen, cattle, camels, elephants, bucks, harts, and in Scripture, a herd of swine. But we say, a flock of sheep, goats, or birds. A number of cattle going to market is called a drove.

2. A company of men or people, in contempt or detestation; a crowd; a rabble; as a vulgar herd.

HERD, n. A keeper of cattle; used by Spenser, and still used in Scotland, but in English now seldom or never used, except in composition, as a shepherd, a goatherd, a swineherd.
HERD, v.i. To unite or associate, as beasts; to feed or run in collections. Most kinds of beasts manifest a disposition to herd.

1. To associate; to unite in companies customarily.

2. To associate; to become one of a number or party.

HERD, v.t. To form or put into a herd.

HERDLESS, n. A shepherdess.

HERDGROOM, n. A keeper of a herd.

HERDING, ppr. Associating in companies.

HERDMAN, HERDSMAN, n. A keeper of herds; one employed intending herds of cattle.

1. Formerly, the owner of a herd.

HERE, adv. [See also Har.]

1. In this place; in the place where the speaker is present; opposed to there. Behold, here am I. Lodge here this night. Build here seven altars.

2. In the present life or state.

Thus shall you be happy here, and more happy hereafter.

3. It is used in making an offer or attempt.

Then here’s for earnest.

4. In drinking health.

Here’s to thee, Dick.

It is neither here nor there, it is neither in this place nor in that; neither in one place nor in another.

Here and there, in one place and another; in a dispersed manner or condition; thinly; or irregularly.

HEREABOUTREABOUTS, adv. About this place.

HEREAFTER, adv. In time to come; in some future time.

1. In a future state.

HERE`AFTER, n. A future state.

‘Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter.

HEREAT, adv. At this. He was offended hereat, that is, at this saying, that fact, etc.

HEREBY, adv. By this.

Hereby we became acquainted with the nature of things.

HEREIN, adv. In this.

Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit. John 15:8.

HEREINTO, adv. Into this.

HEREOF, adv. Of this; from this.

Hereof comes it that prince Harry is valiant.

HEREON, adv. On this.

HEREOUT, adv. Out of this place.

HERETOFORE, adv. In times before the present; formerly.

HEREUNTO, adv. To this.

HEREUPON, adv. On this.

HEREWITH, adv. With this.

Most of the compounds of here and a preposition, are obsolete or obsolescent, or at least are deemed inelegant. But hereafter and heretofore are in elegant use. Herein and hereby are frequently used in the present version of the Scriptures, and ought not perhaps to be discarded. Indeed some of these words seem to be almost indispensable in technical law language.

HEREDITABLE, a. [from the root of heir; L. haereditas.]

That may be inherited. [Not much used. See Inheritable.]

HEREDITABLY, adv. By inheritance; by right of descent.

The one-house-owners belong hereditably to no private person.

HEREDITAMENT, n. [L. haeres, haeredium. See Heir.]

Any species of property that may be inherited; lands, tenements, any thing corporeal or incorporeal, real, personal or mixed, that may descend to an heir.

A corporeal hereditament is visible and tangible; an incorporeal hereditament is an ideal right, existing in contemplation of law, issuing out of substantial corporeal property.

HEREDITARILY, adv. By inheritance; by descent from an ancestor.


1. That has descended from an ancestor. He is in possession of a large hereditary estate.

2. That may descend from an ancestor to an heir; descendible to an heir at law. The crown of Great Britain is hereditary.

3. That is or may be transmitted from a parent to a child; as hereditary pride; hereditary bravery; hereditary disease.

HEREMIT, n. A hermit.

HEREMITICAL, a. [It should rather be written hermitical.]

Solitary; secluded from society.

HERESIARCH, n. s as z. [Gr. heresy, and chief.] A leader in heresy; the chief of a sect of heretics.

HERESIARCHY, n. Chief heresy.

HERESY, n. [Gr. to take, to hold; L. haeresis.]

1. A fundamental error in religion, or an error of opinion respecting some fundamental doctrine of religion. But in countries where there is an established church, an opinion is deemed heresy, when it differs from that of the church. The Scriptures being the standard of faith, any opinion that is repugnant to its doctrines, is heresy; but as men differ in the interpretation of Scripture, an opinion deemed heretical by one body of christians, may be deemed orthodox by another. In Scripture and primitive usage, heresy meant merely sect, party, or the doctrines of a sect, as we now use denomination or persuasion, implying no reproach.

2. Heresy, in law, is an offense against christianity, consisting in a denial of some of its essential doctrines, publicly avowed and obstinately maintained.

3. An untenable or unsound opinion or doctrine in politics.


1. A person under any religion, but particularly the christian, who holds and teaches opinions repugnant to the established faith, or that which is made the standard of orthodoxy. In strictness, among christians, a person who holds and avows religious opinions contrary to the doctrines of Scripture, the only rule of faith and practice.

2. Any one who maintains erroneous opinions.

HERETICAL, a. Containing heresy; contrary to the established faith, or to the true faith.

HERETICALLY, adv. In an heretical manner; with heresy.

HERETOG, HERETOCH, n. [L. duco, dux; Eng. to tug.] Among our Saxon ancestors, the leader or commander of an army, or the commander of the militia in a county or district. This officer was elected by the people in folkmote.

HERIOT, n. In English law, a tribute or fine payable to the lord of the fee on the decease of the owner, landholder, or vassal. Originally this tribute consisted of military furniture, or of horses and arms, as appears by the laws of Canute, C. 69. But as defined by modern writers, a heriot is a customary tribute of goods and chattels, payable to the lord of the fee on the decease of the owner of the land; or a render of the best beast or other movables to the lord on the death of the tenant. Heriots were of two sorts; heriot service, which was due by reservation in a grant or lease of lands; and heriot custom, which depended solely on immemorial usage.

HERIOTABLE, a. Subject to the payment of a heriot.

HERISSON, n. In fortification, a beam or bar armed with iron spikes pointing outwards, and a turning on a pivot; used to block up a passage.

HERITABLE, a. [from the root of heir, L. haeres.]

1. Capable of inheriting, or taking by descent.

By the canon law this son shall be legitimate and heritable.

2. That may be inherited. [This is the true sense.]

3. Annexed to estates of inheritance. In Scot’s law, heritable rights are all rights that affect lands or other immovables.


1. Inheritance; an estate that passes from an ancestor to an heir by descent or course of law; that which is inherited. In Scot’s law, it sometimes signifies immovable estate, in distinction from movable.

2. In Scripture, the saints or people of God are called his heritage, as being claimed by him, and the objects of his special care. 1 Peter 5:3.

HERMAPHRODEITY, n. Hermaphrodism.

HERMAPHRODISM, n. [infra.] The union of the two sexes in the same individual.

HERMAPHRODITE, n. [Gr. Mercury, and Venus.]

1. A human being, having the parts of generation both of male and female. The term is applied also to other animals characterized by a similar formation.

2. In botany, a flower that contains both the anther and the stigma, or the supposed male and female organs of generation, within the same calyx or on the same receptacle.

3. A plant that has only hermaphrodite flowers.

HERMAPHRODITE, a. Designating both sexes in the same animal, flower or plant.

HERMAPHRODITIC, a. Partaking of both sexes.

HERMAPHRODITICALLY, adv. After the manner of hermaphrodites.

HERMENEUTIC, HERMENEUTICAL, a. [Gr. an interpreter, from Mercury.]

Interpreting; explaining; unfolding the signification; as hermeneutic theology, the art of expounding the Scriptures.

HERMENEUTICALLY, adv. According to the true art of interpreting words.

HERMENEUTICS, n. The art of finding the meaning of an author’s words and phrases, and of explaining it to others.

HERMETIC, HERMETICAL, a. [Gr. Mercury, the fabled inventor of chimistry.]

1. Designating chimistry; chimical; as the hermetic art.

2. Designating that species of philosophy which pretends to solve and explain all the phenomena of nature from the three chimical principles, salt, sulphur and mercury; as the hermetic philosophy.

3. Designating the system which explains the causes of diseases and the operations of medicine, on the principles of the hermetical philosophy, and particularly on the system of an alkali and acid; as hermetical physic or medicine.

4. Perfectly close, so that no air, gas, or spirit can escape; as a hermetic seal. The hermetic seal is formed by heating the neck of a vessel till it is soft, and then twisting it, till the aperture or passage is accurately closed.

Hermetic books, books of the Egyptians which treat of astrology.

Books which treat of universal principles, of the nature and orders of celestial beings, of medicine and other topics.