Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



HEART-BURNED, a. Having the heart inflamed.

HEART-BURNING, a. Causing discontent.

HEART-BURNING, n. Heart-burn, which see.

1. Discontent; secret enmity.

HEART-CHILLED, a. Having the heart chilled.

HEART-CONSUMING, a. Destroying peace of mind.

HEART-CORRODING, a. Preying on the heart.

HEART-DEAR, a. Sincerely beloved.

HEART-DEEP, a. Rooted in the heart.

HEART-DISCOURAGING, a. [See Courage.] Depressing the spirits.

HEART-EASE, n. Quiet; tranquillity of mind.

HEART-EASING, a. Giving quiet to the mind.

HEART-EATING, a. Preying on the heart.

HEART-EXPANDING, a. Enlarging the heart; opening the feelings.

HEART-FELT, a. Deeply felt; deeply affecting, either as joy or sorrow.

HEART-GRIEF, n. Affliction of the heart.

HEART-HARDENED, a. Obdurate; impenitent; unfeeling.

HEART-HARDENING, a. Rendering cruel or obdurate.

HEART-HEAVINESS, n. Depression of spirits.

HEART-OFFENDING, a. Wounding the heart.

HEART-PEA, n. A plant, the Cardiospermum, with black seeds, having the figure of a heart of a white color on each.

HEART-QUELLING, a. Conquering the affection.

HEART-RENDING, a. Breaking the heart; overpowering with anguish; deeply afflictive.

HEART-ROBBING, a. Depriving of thought; ecstatic.

1. Stealing the heart; winning.

HEART’S-BLOOD, HEART-BLOOD, n. The blood of the heart; life; essence.

HEART’S-EASE, n. A plant, a species of Viola.

HEART-SEARCHING, a. Searching the secret thoughts and purposes.

HEART-SICK, a. Sick at heart; pained in mind; deeply afflicted or depressed.

HEART-SORE, n. That which pains the heart.

HE`ART-SORE, a. Deeply wounded.

HEART-SORROWING, a. Sorrowing deeply in heart.

HEART-STRING, n. A nerve or tendon, supposed to brace and sustain the heart.

HEART-STRUCK, a. Driven to the heart; infixed in the mind.

1. Shocked with fear; dismayed.

HEART-SWELLING, a. Rankling in the heart.

HEART-WHOLE, a. [See Whole.] Not affected with love; not in love, or not deeply affected.

1. Having unbroken spirits, or good courage.

HEART-WOUNDED, a. Wounded with love or grief; deeply affected with some passion.

HEART-WOUNDING, a. Piercing with grief.

HEARTED, a. Taken to heart. [Not used.]

1. Composed of hearts. [Not used.]

2. Laid up in the heart.

This word is chiefly used in composition, as hard-hearted, faint-hearted, stout-hearted, etc.

HEARTEN, v.t. h`artn. To encourage; to animate; to incite or stimulate courage.

1. To restore fertility or strength to; as, to hearten land. [Little used.]

HEARTENER, n. He or that which gives courage or animation.

HEARTH, n. harth. A pavement or floor of brick or stone in a chimney, on which a fire is made to warm a room, and from which there is a passage for the smoke to ascend.

HEARTH-MONEY, HEARTH-PENNY, n. A tax on hearths.

HEARTILY, adv. [from hearty.] From the heart; with all the heart; with sincerity; really.

I heartily forgive them.

1. With zeal; actively; vigorously. He heartily assisted the prince.

2. Eagerly; freely; largely; as, to eat heartily.

HEARTINESS, n. Sincerity; zeal; ardor; earnestness.

1. Eagerness of appetite.

HEARTLESS, a. Without courage; spiritless; faint-hearted.

Heartless they fought, and quitted soon their ground.

HEARTLESSLY, adv. Without courage or spirit; faintly; timidly; feebly.

HEARTLESSNESS, n. Want of courage or spirit; dejection of mind; feebleness.

HEARTY, a. Having the heart engaged in any thing; sincere; warm; zealous; as, to be hearty in support of government.

1. Proceeding from the heart; sincere; warm; as a hearty welcome.

2. Being full of health; sound; strong; healthy; as a hearty man.

3. Strong; durable; as hearty timber. [Not used in America.]

4. Having a keen appetite; eating much; as a hearty eater.

5. Strong; nourishing; as hearty food.

HEARTY-HALE, a. Good for the heart.

HEAT, n. [L. aestus, for haestus, or caestus.]

1. Heat, as a cause of sensation, that is, the matter of heat, is considered to be a subtil fluid, contained in a greater or less degree in all bodies. In modern chimistry, it is called caloric. It expands all bodies in different proportions, and is the cause of fluidity and evaporation. A certain degree of it is also essential to animal and vegetable life. Heat is latent, when so combined with other matter as not to be perceptible. It is sensible, when it is evolved and perceptible.

2. Heat, as a sensation, is the effect produced on the sentient organs of animals, by the passage of caloric, disengaged from surrounding bodies, to the organs. When we touch or approach a hot body, the caloric or heat passes from that body to our organs of feeling, and gives the sensation of heat. On the contrary, when we touch a cold body, the caloric passes from the hand to that body, and causes a sensation of cold.

Note. This theory of heat seems not to be fully settled.

3. Hot air; hot weather; as the heat of the tropical climates.

4. Any accumulation or concentration of the matter of heat or caloric; as the heat of the body; the heat of a furnace; a red heat; a white heat; a welding heat.

5. The state of being once heated or hot.

Give the iron another heat.

6. A violent action unintermitted; a single effort.

Many causes are required for refreshment between the heats.

7. A single effort in running; a course at a race. Hector won at the first heat.

8. Redness of the face; flush.

9. Animal excitement; violent action or agitation of the system. The body is all in a heat.

10. Utmost violence; rage; vehemence; as the heat of battle.

11. Violence; ardor; as the heat of party.

12. Agitation of mind; inflammation or excitement; exasperation; as the heat of passion.

13. Ardor; fervency; animation in thought or discourse.

With all the strength and heat of eloquence.

14. Fermentation.

HEAT, v.t. [L. odi, osus, for hodi, hosus; L aestus, for haestus, heat, tide; Gr. to burn, and the English haste and hoist are probably of the same family.]

1. To make hot; to communicate heat to, or cause to be hot; as, to heat an oven or a furnace; to heat iron.

2. To make feverish; as, to heat the blood.

3. To warm with passion or desire; to excite; to rouse into action.

A noble emulation heats your breast.

4. To agitate the blood and spirits with action; to excite animal action.

HEAT, v.i. To grow warm or hot by fermentation, or extrication of latent heat.

Green hay heats in a mow, and green corn in a bin.

1. To grow warm or hot. The iron or the water heats slowly.

HEAT, for heated, is in popular use and pronounced het; but it is not elegant.

HEATED, pp. Made hot; inflamed; exasperated.

HEATER, n. He or that which eats.

1. A triangular mass of iron, which is heated and put into a box-iron to heat it and keep it hot, for ironing or smoothing clothes. [This utensil is going into disuse.]


1. A plant of the genus Erica, of many species. It is a shrub which is used in Great Britain for brooms, thatch, beds for the poor, and for heating ovens. Its leaves are small and continue green all the year. It is called also ling.

2. A place overgrown with heath.

3. A place overgrown with shrubs of any kind.

HEATHCOCK, n. A large fowl which frequents heaths, a species of grouse.

HEATHPEA, n. A species of bitter vetch, Orobus.

HEATHPOUT, n. A bird, the same as the heath-cock.

HEATHROSE, n. A plant.

HEATHEN, n. [Gr. from heath, that is, one who lives in the country or woods, as pagan from pagus, a village.]

1. A pagan; a Gentile; one who worships idols, or is unacquainted with the true God. In the Scriptures, the word seems to comprehend all nations except the Jews or Israelites, as they were all strangers to the true religion, and all addicted to idolatry. The word may now be applied perhaps to all nations, except to Christians and Mohammedans.

Heathen, without the plural termination, is used plurally or collectively, for Gentiles or heathen nations.

Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance. Psalm 2:8.

Heathen, however, has a plural, expressing two or more individuals.

If men have reason to be heathens in Japan--

The precepts and examples of the ancient heathens.

2. A rude, illiterate, barbarous person.

HEATHEN, a. Gentile, pagan; as a heathen author.

HEATHENISH, a. Belonging to Gentiles or pagans; as heathenish rites.

1. Rude; illiterate; wild; uncivilized.

2. Barbarous; savage; cruel; rapacious.

HEATHENISHLY, adv. After the manner of heathens.

HEATHENISM, n. Gentilism; paganism; ignorance of the true God; idolatry; the rites or system of religion of a pagan nation.

1. Rudeness; barbarism; ignorance.

HEATHENIZE, v.t. To render heathen or heathenish.

HEATHER, n. Heath.

HEATHY, a. [from heath.] Full of heath; abounding with heath; as heathy land.

HEATING, ppr. Making warm or hot; inflaming; rousing the passions; exasperating.

1. Tending to impart heat to; promoting warmth or heat; exciting action; stimulating; as heating medicines or applications.

HEATLESS, a. Destitute of heat; cold.

HEAVE, v.t. heev. pret. heaved, or hove; pp. heaved, hove, formerly hoven. [Gr. to breathe.]

1. To lift; to raise; to move upward.

So stretch’d out huge in length the arch fiend lay,

Chain’d on the burning lake, nor ever hence

Had ris’n, or heaved his head.

2. To cause to swell.

The glittering finny swarms

That heave our friths and crowd upon our shores.

3. To raise or force from the breast; as, to heave a sigh or groan, which is accompanied with a swelling or expansion of the thorax.

4. To raise; to elevate; with high.

One heaved on high.

5. To puff; to elate.

6. To throw; to cast; to send; as, to heave a stone. This is a common use of the word in popular language, and among seamen; as, to heave the lead.

7. To raise by turning a windlass; with up; as, to heave up the anchor. Hence,

8. To turn a windlass or capstern with bars or levers. Hence the order, to heave away.

To heave ahead, to draw ship forwards.

To heave astern, to cause to recede; to draw back.

To heave down, to throw or lay down on one side; to careen.

To heave out, to throw out. With seamen, to loose or unfurl a sail, particularly the stay-sails.

To heave in stays, in tacking, to bring a ship’s head to the wind.

To heave short, to draw so much of a cable into the ship, as that she is almost perpendicularly above the anchor.

To heave a strain, to work at the windlass with unusual exertion.

To heave taught, to turn a capstern, etc. till the rope becomes straight. [See Taught and Tight.]

To heave to, to bring the ship’s head to the wind, and stop her motion.

To heave up, to relinquish; [so to throw up;] as, to heave up a design. [Vulgar.]

HEAVE, v.i. heev. To swell, distend or dilate; as, a horse heaves in panting. Hence,

1. To pant; to breathe with labor or pain; as, he heaves for breath.

2. To keck; to make an effort to vomit.

3. To rise in billows, as the sea; to swell.

4. To rise; to be lifted; as, a ship heaves.

5. To rise or swell, as the earth at the breaking up of frost.

To heave in sight, to appear; to make its first appearance; as a ship at sea, or as a distant object approaching or being approached.

We observe that this verb has often the sense of raising or rising in an arch or circular form, as in throwing and in distention, and from this sense is derived its application to the apparent arch over our heads, heaven.

HEAVE, n. heev. A rising or swell; an exertion or effort upward.

None could guess whether the next heave of the earthquake would settle or swallow them.

1. A rising swell, or distention, as of the breast.

These profound heaves.

2. An effort to vomit.

3. An effort to rise.

HEAVEN, n. hev’n.

1. The region or expanse which surrounds the earth, and which appears above and around us, like an immense arch or vault, in which are seen the sun, moon and stars.

2. Among christians, the part of space in which the omnipresent Jehovah is supposed to afford more sensible manifestations of his glory. Hence this is called the habitation of God, and is represented as the residence of angels and blessed spirits. Deuteronomy 26:15.

The sanctified heart loves heaven for its purity, and God for his goodness.

3. Among pagans, the residence of the celestial gods.

4. The sky or air; the region of the atmosphere; or an elevated place; in a very indefinite sense. Thus we speak of a mountain reaching to heaven; the fowls of heaven; the clouds of heaven; hail or rain from heaven. Jeremiah 9:10; Job 35:5, 11.

Their cities are walled to heaven. Deuteronomy 1:28.

5. The Hebrews acknowledged three heavens; the air or aerial heavens; the firmament in which the stars are supposed to be placed; and the heaven of heavens, or third heaven, the residence of Jehovah.

6. Modern philosophers divide the expanse above and around the earth into two parts, the atmosphere or aerial heaven, and the etherial heaven beyond the region of the air, in which there is supposed to be a thin, unresisting medium called ether.

7. The Supreme Power; the Sovereign of heaven; god; as prophets sent by heaven.

I have sinned against heaven. Luke 15:18, 21.

Shun the impious profaneness which scoffs at the institution of heaven.

8. The pagan deities; celestials.

And show the heavens more just.

9. Elevation; sublimity.

O! for a muse of fire, that would ascend

The brightest heaven of invention.

10. Supreme felicity; great happiness.

HEAVEN-ASPIRING, a. Aspiring to heaven.

HEAVEN-BANISHED, a. Banished from heaven.

HEAVEN-BEGOT, a. Begot by a celestial being.

HEAVEN-BORN, a. Born from heaven; native of heaven, or of the celestial regions; as heaven-born sisters.

HEAVEN-BRED, a. Produced or cultivated in heaven; as heaven-bred poesy.

HEAVEN-BUILT, a. Built by the agency or favor of the gods; as a heaven-built wall.

HEAVEN-DIRECTED, a. Pointing to the sky; as a heaven-directed spire.

1. Taught or directed by the celestial powers; as heaven-directed hands.

HEAVEN-FALLEN, a. Fallen from heaven; having revolted from God.

HEAVEN-GIFTED, a. Bestowed by heaven.

HEAVEN-INSPIRED, a. Inspired by heaven.

HEAVEN-INSTRUCTED, a. Taught by heaven.

HEAVENIZE, v.t. hev’nize. To render like heaven. [Unauthorized.]

HEAVEN-KISSING, a. Touching as it were the sky.

HEAVENLINESS, n. [from heavenly.] Supreme excellence.

HEAVEN-LOVED, a. Beloved by heaven.

HEAVENLY, a. Pertaining to heaven; celestial; as heavenly regions; heavenly bliss.

1. Resembling heaven; supremely excellent; as a heavenly lyre; a heavenly temper.

The love of heaven makes one heavenly.

2. Inhabiting heaven; as a heavenly race; the heavenly throng.

HEAVNELY, adv. In a manner resembling that of heaven.

Where heavenly pensive contemplation dwells.

1. By the influence or agency of heaven.

Our heavenly guided soul shall climb.

HEAVENLY-MINDED, a. Having the affections place on heaven, and on spiritual things.

HEAVENLY-MINDEDNESS, n. The state of having the affections placed on heavenly things and spiritual objects.

HEAVEN-SALUTING, a. Touching the sky.

HEAVENWARD, adv. Toward heaven.

HEAVEN-WARRING, a. Warring against heaven.

HEAVE-OFFERING, n. Among the Jews, an offering consisting of the tenth of the tithes which the Levites received, or of the first of the dough, etc. which was to be heaved or elevated. Numbers 15:19-21 and Numbers 18:8-29.

HEAVER, n. One who heaves or lifts.

Among seamen, a staff for a lever.

HEAVES, n. heevz. A disease of horses, characterized by difficult and laborious respiration.

HEAVILY, adv. hev’ily. [from heavy.] With great weight; as, to bear heavily on a thing; to be heavily loaded.

1. With great weight of grief; grievously; afflictively. When calamities fall heavily on the christian, he finds consolation in Christ.

2. Sorrowfully; with grief.

I came hither to transport the tidings,

Which I have heavily borne.

3. With an air of sorrow or dejection.

Why looks your Grace so heavily to day?

4. With weight; oppressively. Taxes sometimes bear heavily on the people.

5. Slowly and laboriously; with difficulty; as, to move heavily.

So they drove them heavily. Exodus 14:25.

HEAVINESS, n. hev’iness. Weight; ponderousness; gravity; the quality of being heavy; as the heaviness of a body.

1. Sadness; sorrow; dejection of mind; depression of spirits.

Heaviness in the heart of man maketh it stoop. Proverbs 12:25.

Ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season ye are in heaviness, through manifold temptations. 1 Peter 1:6.

2. Sluggishness; torpidness; dullness of spirit; languidness; languor; lassitude.

What means this heaviness that hangs upon me?

3. Weight; burden; oppression; as, the heaviness of taxes.

4. That which it requires great strength to move or overcome; that which creates labor and difficulty; as the heaviness of a draught.

5. Thickness; moistness; deepness; as the heaviness of ground or soil.

6. Thickness; moistness; as of air.

HEAVING, ppr. Lifting; swelling; throwing; panting; making an effort to vomit.

HEAVING, n. A rising or swell; a panting.

HEAVY, a. hev’y.

1. Weighty; ponderous; having great weight; tending strongly to the center of attraction; contrary to light; applied to material bodies; as a heavy stone; a heavy load.

2. Sad; sorrowful; dejected; depressed in mind.

A light wife makes a heavy husband.

So is he that singeth songs to a heavy heart. Proverbs 25:20.

3. Grievous; afflictive; depressing to the spirits; as heavy news; a heavy calamity.

4. Burdensome; oppressive; as heavy taxes.

Make thy father’s heavy yoke--lighter. 1 Kings 12:4.

5. Wanting life and animation; dull.

My heavy eyes you say confess

A heart to love and grief inclined.

6. Drowsy; dull.

Their eyes were heavy. Matthew 26:43; Luke 9:32.

7. Wanting spirit or animation; destitute of life or rapidity of sentiment; dull; as a heavy writer; a heavy style.

8. Wanting activity or vivacity; indolent.

But of a heavy, dull, degenerate mind.

9. Slow; sluggish.

He walks with a heavy gait.

10. Burdensome; tedious; as heavy hours.

Time lies heavy on him who has no employment.

11. Loaded; encumbered; burdened.

He found his men heavy, and laden with booty.

12. Lying with weight on the stomach; not easily digested; as, oily food is heavy to the stomach.

13. Moist; deep; soft; miry; as heavy land; a heavy soil. We apply heavy to soft loamy or clayey land, which makes the draught of a plow or wagon difficult and laborious. So we say, a heavy road.

14. Difficult; laborious; as a heavy draught.

15. Weary; supported with pain or difficulty.

And the hands of Moses were heavy. Exodus 17:12.

16. Inflicting severe evils, punishments or judgments.

The hand of the Lord was heavy on them of Ashdod. 1 Samuel 5:6.

17. Burdensome; occasioning great care.

This thing is too heavy for thee. Exodus 18:18.

18. Dull; not hearing; inattentive.

Neither his ears heavy, that he cannot hear. Isaiah 59:1.

19. Large, as billows; swelling and rolling with great force; as a heavy sea.

20. Large in amount; as a heavy expense; a heavy debt.

21. Thick; dense; black; as a heavy cloud.

22. Violent; tempestuous; as a heavy wind or gale.

23. Large; abundant; as a heavy fall of snow or rain.

24. Great; violent; forcible; as a heavy fire of cannon or small arms.

25. Not raised by leaven or fermentation; not light; clammy; as heavy bread.

26. Requiring much labor or much expense; as a heavy undertaking.

27. Loud; as heavy thunder.

Heavy metal, in military affairs, signifies large guns, carrying balls of a large size, or it is applied to large balls themselves.

HEAVY, adv. hev’y. With great weight; used in composition.
HEAVY, v.t. hev’y. To make heavy. [Not in use.]

HEAVY-HANDED, a. Clumsy; not active or dexterous.

HEAVY-LADEN, a. Laden with a heavy burden.

HEAVY SPAR, n. [See Baryte.] A genus of minerals of four species, viz. rhomboidal, prismatic, di-prismatic and axifrangible.

HEBDOMAD, n. [Gr. seven days; L. hebdomada.]

A week; a period of seven days. [Not used.]

HEBDOMADAL, HEBDOMADARY, a. Weekly; consisting of seven days, or occurring every seven days.

HEBDOMADARY, n. A member of a chapter or convent, whose week it is to officiate in the choir, rehearse the anthems and prayers, and perform other services, which on extraordinary occasions are performed by the superiors.