Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



GINGER, n. [L. zinziber.] A plant, or the root of a species of Amomum, a native of the East and West Indies. The roots are jointed, and the stalks rise two or three feet, with narrow leaves. The flower stems arise by the side of these, immediately from the root, naked and ending in an oblong scaly spike. The dried roots are used for various purposes, in the kitchen and in medicine.

GINGERBREAAD, n. [ginger and bread.] A kind or cake, composed of flour with an admixture of butter, pearlash and ginger, sweetened.

GINGERLY, adv. Nicely; cautiously. [Not used.]

GINGERNESS, n. Niceness; tenderness. [Not used.]

GINGHAM, n. A kind or striped cotton cloth.

GINGING, n. In mining, the lining of a mine-shaft with stones or bricks for its support, called steining or staining, which I suppose is from Sax. stan, stone.

GINGIVAL, a. [L. gingiva, the gum.] Pertaining to the gums.


1. To make a sharp clattering sound; to ring as a little bell, or as small pieces of sonorous metal; as gingling halfpence.

2. To utter affected or chiming sounds in periods or cadence.

GINGLE, v.t. To shake so as to make clattering sounds in quick succession; to ring, as a little bell, or as small coins.

The bells she gingled, and the whistle blew.

GINGLE, n. A shrill clattering sound, or a succession of sharp sounds, as those made by a little bell or by small coins.

1. Affection in the sounds of periods in reading or speaking, or rather chiming sounds.

GINGLYMOID, a. [Gr. a hinge, and form.] Pertaining to or resembling a ginglymus.

GINGLYMUS, n. [Gr.] In anatomy, a species of articulation resembling a hinge. That species of articulation in which each bone partly receives and is partly received by the other, so as to admit only of flexion and extension, is called angular ginglymus.

GINNET, n. A nag. [See Jennet.]

GINSENG, n. [This word is probably Chinese, and it is said by Grosier, to signify the resemblance of a man, or man’s thigh. He observes also that the root in the language of the Iroquois is called garentoquen, which signifies legs and thighs separated.]

A plant, of the genus Panax, the root of which is in great demand among the Chinese. It is found in the Northern parts of Asia and America, and is an article of export from America to China. It has a jointed, fleshy, taper root, as large as a man’s finger, which when dry is of a yellowish white color, with a mucilaginous sweetness in the taste, somewhat resembling that of liquorice, accompanied with a slight bitterness.

GIP, v.t. To take out the entrails of herrings.

GIPSEY, n. The Gipseys are a race of vagabonds which infest Europe, Africa and Asia, strolling about and subsisting mostly by theft, robbery and fortune-telling. The name is supposed to be corrupted from Egyptian, as they were thought to have come from Egypt. But their language indicates that they originated in Hindoostan.

1. A reproachful name for a dark complexion.

2. A name of slight reproach to a woman; sometimes implying artifice or cunning.

A slave I am to Clara’s eyes:

The gipsey knows her power and flies.

GIPSEY, n. The language of the gipseys.

GIPSEYISM, n. The arts and practices of gipseys; deception; cheating; flattery.

1. The state of a gipsey.

GIRAFF, n. The camelopard, a quadruped. [See Camelopard.]

GIRANDOLE, n. A chandelier; a large kind of branched candlestick.

GIRASOL, n. [L. gyrus, a turn; L. sol, the sun.]

1. The turnsole, a plant of the genus Heliotropium.

2. A mineral usually milk white, bluish white or sky blue, but when turned towards the sun or any bright light, it constantly reflects a reddish color; hence its name. It sometimes resembles a translucid jelly.

GIRD, n. gurd. [Eng. a yard.]

1. A twitch or pang; a sudden spasm, which resembles the stroke of a rod or the pressure of a band.

2. In popular language, a severe stroke of a stick or whip.

GIRD, v.t. gurd. pret. and pp. girded or girt.

1. To bind by surrounding with any flexible substance, as with a twig, a cord, bandage or cloth; as, to gird the loins with sackcloth.

2. To make fast by binding; to put on; usually with on; as, to gird on a harness; to gird on a sword.

3. To invest; to surround.

The Son appeared,

Girt with omnipotence.

4. To clothe; to dress; to habit.

I girded thee about with fine linen. Ezekiel 16:10.

5. To furnish; to equip.

Girded with snaky wiles.

6. To surround; to encircle; to inclose; to encompass.

The Nyseian isle,

Girt with the river Triton.

7. To gibe; to reproach severly; to lash.

GIRD, v.i. To gibe; to sneer; to break a scornful jest; to utter severe sarcasms.

Men of all sorts take a pride to gird at me.

GIRDED, pp. Bound; surrounded; invested; put on.

GIRDER, n. In architecture, the principal piece of timber in a floor. Its end is usually fastened into the summers or breast summers, and the joists are framed in it at one end. In buildings entirely of timber, the girder is fastened by tenons into the posts.

1. A satirist.

GIRDING, ppr. Binding; surrounding; investing.

GIRDING, n. A covering. Isaiah 3:24.


1. A band or belt; something drawn round the waist of a person, and tied or buckled; as a girdle of fine lines; a leathern girdle.

2. Inclosure; circumference.

3. The zodiac.

4. A round iron plate for baking.

5. Among jewelers, the line which encompasses the stone, parallel to the horizon.

GIRDLE, v.t. To bind with a belt or sash; to gird.

1. To inclose; to enrivon; to shut in.

2. In America, to make a circular incision, like a belt, through the bark and alburnum of a tree to kill it.

GIRDLE-BELT, n. A belt that encircles the waist.

GIRDLER, n. One who girdles; a maker of girdles.

GIRDLE-STEAD, n. The part of the body where the girdle is worn.

GIRE, n. [L. gyrus.] A circle, or circular motion. [See Gyre.]

GIRL, n. gerl. [Low L. gerula, a young woman employed in tending children and carrying them about, from gero, to carry; a word probably received from the Romans while in England.]

1. A female child, or young woman. In familiar language, any young unmarried woman.

2. Among sportsmen, a roebuck of two years old.

GIRLHOOD, n. The state of a girl. [Little used.]

GIRLISH, a. Like a young woman or child; befitting a girl.

1. Pertaining to the youth of a female.

GIRLISHLY, adv. In the manner of a girl.

GIRROCK, n. A species of gar-fish, the lacertus.

GIRT, pret. and pp. of gird.

GIRT, v.t. To gird; to surround.

[This verb, if derived from the noun, girt, may be proper.]

GIRT, GIRTH, n. The band or strap by which a saddle or any burden on a horse’s back is made fast, by passing under his belly.

1. A circular bandage.

2. The compass measured by a firth or inclosing bandage.

He’s a lusty, jolly fellow, that lives well, at least three yards in the girth.

GIRTH, v.t. To bind with a girth.

GISE, v.t. To feed or pasture. [See Agist.]

GISLE, n. A pledge. [Not in use.]

GIST, n. In law, the main point of a question; the point on which an action rests.

GITH, n. Guinea pepper.

GITTERN, n. [L. cithara.] A guitar. [See Guitar.]

GITTERN, v.i. To play on a gittern.

GIVE, v.t. pret. gave; pp. given. [Heb. to give. The sense of give is generally to pass, or to transfer, that is, to send or throw.]

1. To bestow; to confer; to pass or transfer the title or property of a thing to another person without an equivalent or compensation.

For generous lords had rather give than pay.

2. To transmit from himself to another by hand, speech or writing; to deliver.

The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. Genesis 3:12.

3. To import; to bestow.

Give us of your oil, for our lamps are gone out. Matthew 25:8.

4. To communicate; as, to give an opinion; to give counsel or advice; to give notice.

5. To pass or deliver the property of a thing to another for an equivalent; to pay. We give the full value of all we purchase. A dollar is given for a day’s labor.

What shall a man give in exchange for this soul? Matthew 16:26.

6. To yield; to lend; in the phrase to give ear, which signifies to listen; to hear.

7. To quit; in the phrase to give place, which signifies to withdraw, or retire to make room for another.

8. To confer; to grant.

What wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless? Genesis 15:2.

9. To expose; to yield to the power of.

Give to the wanton winds their flowing hair.

10. To grant; to allow; to permit.

It is given me once again to behold my friend.

11. To afford; to supply; to furnish.

Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings. Exodus 10:25.

12. To empower; to license; to commission.

Then give thy friend to shed the sacred wine.

But this and similar phrases are probably elliptical; give for give power or license. So in the phrases, give me to understand, give me to know, give the flowers to blow, that is, to give power, to enable.

13. To pay or render; as, to give praise, applause or approbation.

14. To render; to pronounce; as, to give sentence or judgment; to give the word of command.

15. To utter; to vent; as, to give a shout.

16. To produce; to show; to exhibit as a product or result; as, the number of men divided by the number of ships, gives four hundred to each ship.

17. To cause to exist; to excite in another; as, to give offense or umbrage; to give pleasure.

18. To send forth; to emit; as, a stone gives sparks with steel.

19. To addict; to apply; to devote one’s self, followed by the reciprocal pronoun. The soldiers give themselves to plunder. The passive participle is much used in this sense; as, the people are given to luxury and pleasure; the youth is given to study.

Give thyself wholly to them. 1 Timothy 4:15.

20. To resign; to yield up; often followed by up.

Who say, I care not, those I give for lost.

21. To pledge; as, I give my word that the debt shall be paid.

22. To present for taking or acceptance; as, I give you my hand.

23. To allow or admit by way of supposition.

To give away, to alienate the title or property of a thing; to make over to another; to transfer.

Whatsoever we employ in charitable uses, during our lives, is given away from ourselves.

To give back, to return; to restore.

To give forth, to publish; to tell; to report publicly.

To give the hand, to yield preeminence, as being subordinate or inferior.

To give in, to allow by way of abatement or deduction from a claim; to yield what may be justly demanded.

To give over, to leave; to quit; to cease; to abandon; as, to give over a pursuit.

1. To addict; to attach to; to abandon.

When the Babylonians had given themselves over to all manner of vice.

2. To despair of recovery; to believe to be lost, or past recovery. The physician had given over the patient, or given the patient over.

3. To abandon.

To give out, to utter publicly; to report; to proclaim; to publish. It was given out that parliament would assemble in November.

1. To issue; to send forth; to publish.

The night was distinguished by the orders which he gave out to his army.

2. To show; to exhibit in false appearance.

3. To send out; to emit; as, a substance gives out steam or odors.

To give up, to resign; to quit; to yield as hopeless; as, to give up a cause; to give up the argument.

1. To surrender; as, to give up a fortress to an enemy.

2. To relinquish, to cede. In this treaty the Spaniards gave up Louisiana.

3. To abandon; as, to give up all hope. They are given up to believe a lie.

4. To deliver.

And Joab gave up the sum of the number of the people to the king. 2 Samuel 24:9.

To give one’s self up, to despair of one’s recovery; to conclude to be lost.

1. To resign or devote.

Let us give ourselves wholly up to Christ in heart and desire.

2. To addict; to abandon. He gave himself up to intemperance.

To give way, to yield; to withdraw to make room for. Inferiors should give way to superiors.

1. To fail; to yield or force; to break or fall. The ice gave way and the horses were drowned. The scaffolding gave way. The wheels or axletree gave way.

2. To recede; to make room for.

3. In seamen’s language, give way is an order to a boat’s crew to row after ceasing, or to increase their exertions.

GIVE, v.i. giv. To yield to pressure. The earth gives under the feet.

1. To begin to melt; to thaw; to grow soft, so as to yield to pressure.

2. To move; to recede.

Now back he gives, then rushes on amain.

To give in, to be back; to give way. [Not in use.]

To give into, to yield assent; to adopt.

This consideration may induce a translator to give in to those general phrases.

To give off, to cease; to forbear. [Little used.]

To give on, to rush; to fall on. [Not in use.]

To give out, to publish; to proclaim.

1. To cease from exertion; to yield; applied to persons. He labored hard, but gave out at last.

To give over, to cease; to act no more; to desert.

It would be well for all authors, if they knew when to give over, and to desist from any further pursuits after fame.

GIVEN, pp. giv’n. Bestowed; granted; conferred; imparted; admitted or supposed.

GIVER, n. One who gives a donor; a bestower; a grantor; one who imparts or distributes.

It is the giver, and not the gift, that engrosses the heart of the christian.

GIVES, n. plu. Fetters or shackles for the feet. [See Gyve.]

GIVING, ppr. Bestowing; conferring; imparting; granting; delivering.

GIVING, n. The act of conferring.

1. An alleging of what is not real.

GIZZARD, n. The strong musculus stomach of a fowl.

To fret the gizzard, to harass; to vex one’s self, or to be vexed.

GLABRIATE, v.t. [L. glabro.] To make smooth. [Not used.]

GLABRITY, n. Smoothness. [Not used.]

GLABROUS, a. [L. glaber, allied to Eng. glib.]

Smooth; having an even surface.

GLACIAL, a. [L. glacialis, from glacies, ice.]

Icy; consisting of ice; frozen.

GLACIATE, v.i. To turn to ice.

GLACIATION, n. [supra.] The act of freezing; ice formed.

GLACIER, n. A field or immense mass of ice, formed in deep but elevated valleys, or on the sides of the Alps or other mountains. These masses of ice extend many miles in length and breadth, and remain undissolved by the heat of summer.

GLACIOUS, a. Like ice; icy.

GLACIS, n. In building, or gardening, an easy, insensible slope.

1. In fortification, a sloping bank; that mass of earth which serves as a parapet to the covered way, having an easy slope or declivity towards the champaign or field.

GLAD, a. [L. loetus, without a prefix.]

1. Pleased; affected with pleasure or moderate joy; moderately happy.

A wise son maketh a glad father. Proverbs 10:1.

It is usually followed by of. I am glad of an opportunity to oblige my friend.

It is sometimes followed by at.

He that is glad at calamities shall not be unpunished. Proverbs 17:5.

It is sometimes followed by with.

The Trojan, glad with sight of hostile blood--

With, after glad, is unusual, and in this passage at would have been preferable.

2. Cheerful; joyous.

They blessed the king, and went to their tents, joyful and glad of heart. 1 Kings 8:66.

3. Cheerful; wearing the appearance of joy; as a glad countenance.

4. Wearing a gay appearance; showy; bright.

The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them. Isaiah 35:1.

Glad evening and glad morn crown’d the fourth day.

5. Pleasing; exhilarating.

Her conversation

More glad to me than to a miser money is.

6. Expressing gladness or joy; exciting joy.

Hark! a glad voice the lonely desert cheers.

GLAD, v.t. [The pret. and pp. gladed is not used. See Gladden.]

To make glad; to affect with pleasure; to cheer; to gladden; to exhilarate.

Each drinks the juice that glads the heart of man.

GLADDEN, v.t. glad’n. To make glad; to cheer; to please; to exhilarate. The news of peace gladdens our hearts.

Churches will every where gladden his eye,

and hymns of praise vibrate upon his ear.

GLADDEN, v.i. glad’n. To become glad; to rejoice.

So shall your country ever gladden at the sound of your voice.

GLADDER, n. One that makes glad, or gives joy.

GLADDING, ppr. Making glad; cheering; giving joy.

GLADE, n. An opening or passage made through a wood by lopping off the branches of the trees. Locally, in the U. States, a natural opening or open place in a forest.

There interspersed in lawns and opening glades.

1. In New England, an opening in the ice of rivers or lakes, or a place left unfrozen.

GLADE, n. Smooth ice.

GLADEN, GLADER, n. [L. glaldius, a sword.] Swordgrass; the general name of plants that rise with a broad blade like sedge.

GLADFUL, a. Full of gladness.

GLADFULNESS, n. Joy; gladness.

GLADIATE, a. [L. gladius, a sword.] Sword-shaped; resembling the form of a sword; as the legume of a plant.

GLADIATOR, n. [L. from gladius, a sword.]

A sword-player; a prize-fighter. The gladiators, in Rome, were men who fought in the arena, for the entertainment of the people.

GLADIATORIAL, a. Pertaining to gladiators, or to combats for the entertainment of the Roman people.

GLADIATORY, a. Relating to gladiators.

GLADIATURE, n. Sword-play; fencing. [Not in use.]

GLADIOLE, n. [L. gladiolus, a dagger.] A plant, the sword-lily, of the genus Gladiolus. The water gladiole is of the genus Butomus or flowering rush, and also of the genus Lobelia or cardinal flower.

GLADLY, adv. [See Glad.] With pleasure; joyfully; cheerfully.

The common people heard him gladly. Mark 12:37.

GLADNESS, n. [See Glad.] Joy, or a moderate degree of joy and exhilaration; pleasure of mind; cheerfulness.

They--did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. Acts 2:46.

[Gladness is rarely or never equivalent to mirth, merriment, gayety and triumph, and it usually expresses less than delight. It sometimes expresses great joy. Esther 8:15-17; Esther 9:17-19.]

GLADSOME, a. Pleased; joyful; cheerful.

1. Causing joy, pleasure or cheerfulness; having the appearance of gayety; pleasing.

Of opening heaven they sung, and gladsome day.

GLADSOMELY, adv. With joy; with pleasure of mind.

GLADSOMENESS, n. Joy, or moderate joy; pleasure of mind.

1. Showiness.

GLADWIN, n. A plant of the genus Iris.

GLAIR, n. [Eng. clear, L. clarus, and with Eng. glare, and L. gloria; perhaps with L. glarea, gravel, or pieces of quartz.]

1. The white of an egg. It is used as a varnish for preserving paintings.

2. Any viscous transparent substance, resembling the white of an egg.

3. A kind of halbert.

GLAIR, v.t. To smear with the white of an egg; to varnish.

GLAIRY, a. Like glair, or partaking of its qualities.

GLANCE, n. [The primary sense is to shoot, to throw, to dart.]

1. A sudden shoot of light or splendor.

2. A shoot or darting of sight; a rapid or momentary view or cast; a snatch of sight; as a sudden glance; a glance of the eye.

GL`ANCE, v.i. To shoot or dart a ray of light or splendor.

When through the gloom the glancing lightnings fly.

1. To fly off in an oblique direction; to dart aside. The arrow struck the shield and glanced. So we say, a glancing ball or shot.

2. To look with a sudden rapid cast of the eye; to snatch a momentary or hasty view.

Then sit again, and sigh and glance.

3. To hint; to cast a word or reflection; as to glance at a different subject.

4. To censure by oblique hints.

GL`ANCE, v.t. To shoot or dart suddenly or obliquely; to cast for a moment; as, to glance the eye.

GLANCE-COAL, n. Anthracite; a mineral composed chiefly of carbon. [See Anthracite.]

GLANCING, pp. Shooting; darting; casting suddenly; flying off obliquely.

GLANCINGLY, adv. By glancing; in a glancing manner; transiently.

GLAND, n. [L. glans, a nut; glandula, a gland.]

1. In anatomy, a distinct soft body, formed by the convolution of a great number of vessels, either constituting a part of the lymphatic system, or destined to secrete some fluid from the blood. Glands have been divided into conglobate and conglomerate, from their structure; but a more proper division is into lymphatic and secretory. The former are found in the course of the lymphatic vessels, and are conglobate. The latter are of various structure. They include the mucous follicles, the conglomerate glands, properly so called, such as the parotid glands and the pancreas, the liver, kidneys, etc. The term has also been applied to other bodies of a similar appearance, neither lymphatic nor secretory; such as the thymus and thyroid glands, whose use is not certainly known, certain portions of the brain, as the pineal and pituitary glands, etc. [See Conglobate and Conglomerate.]

2. In botany, a gland or glandule is an excretory or secretory duct or vessel in a plant. Glands are found on the leaves, petioles, peduncles and stipules.

GLANDERED, a. Affected with glanders.

GLANDERS, n. [from gland.] In farriery, the running of corrupt slimy matter from the nose of a horse.

GLANDIFEROUS, a. [L. glandifer; glans, an acorn, and fero, to bear.]

Bearing acorns or other nuts; producing nuts or mast. The beech and the oak are glandiferous trees.

GLANDIFORM, a. [L. glans and forma, form.]

In the shape of a gland or nut; resembling a gland.

GLANDULAR, a. Containing glands; consisting of glands; pertaining to glands.

GLANDULATION, n. In botany, the situation and structure of the secretory vessels in plants.

Glandulation respects the secretory vessels, which are either glandules, follicles or utricles.

GLANDULE, n. [L. glandula.] A small gland or secreting vessel.

GLANDULIFEROUS, a. [L. glandula and fero, to bear.]

Bearing glands.

GLANDULOSITY, n. A collection of glands. [Little used.]

GLANDULOUS, a. [L. glandulosus.] Containing glands; consisting of glands; pertaining to glands; resembling glands.


1. A bright dazzling light; clear, brilliant luster or splendor, that dazzles the eyes.

The frame of burnished steel that cast a glare.

2. A fierce, piercing look.

--About them round,

A lion now he stalks with fiery glare.

3. A viscous transparent substance. [See Glair.]

GLARE, v.i. To shine with a clear, bright, dazzling light; as glaring light.

The cavern glares with new admitted light.

1. To look with fierce, piercing eyes.

They glared, like angry lions.

2. To shine with excessive luster; to be ostentatiously splendid; as a glaring dress.

She glares in balls, front boxes and the ring.

GLARE, v.t. To shoot a dazzling light.

GLAREOUS, a. Resembling the white of an egg; viscous and transparent or white.

GLARING, ppr. Emitting a clear and brilliant light; shining with dazzling luster.

1. Clear; notorious; open and bold; barefaced; as a glaring crime.

GLARINGLY, adv. Openly; clearly; notoriously.

GLASS, n. [L. glastum; glesid, blueness. Greenness is usually named from vegetation or growing, as L. viridis, from vireo.]

1. A hard, brittle, transparent, factitious substance, formed by fusing sand with fixed alkalies.

In chimistry, a substance or mixture, earthy, saline or metallic, brought by fusion to the state of a hard, brittle, transparent mass, whose fracture is conchoidal.

2. A glass vessel of any kind; as a drinking glass.

3. A mirror; a looking-glass.

4. A vessel to be filled with sand for measuring time; as an hour-glass.

5. The destined time of man’s life. His glass is run.

6. The quantity of liquor that a glass vessel contains. Drink a glass of wine with me.

7. A vessel that shows the weight of the air.

8. A perspective glass; as an optic glass.

9. The time which a glass runs, or in which it is exhausted of sand. The seamen’s watch-glass is half an hour. We say, a ship fought three glasses.

10. Glasses, in the plural, spectacles.

GL`ASS, a. Made of glass; vitreous; as a glass bottle.
GL`ASS, v.t. To see as in a glass. [Not used.]

1. To case in glass. [Little used.]

2. To cover with glass; to glaze.

[In the latter sense, glaze is generally used.]

GLASSBLOWER, n. One whose business is to blow and fashion glass.

GLASSFULL, n. As much as a glass holds.

GLASSFURNACE, n. A furnace in which the materials of glass are melted.

GLASS-GAZING, a. Addicted to viewing one’s self in a glass or mirror; finical.

GLASSGRINDER, n. One whose occupation is to grind and polish glass.