Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



GARDENING, ppr. Cultivating or tilling a garden.

G`ARDENING, n. The act of laying out and cultivating gardens; horticulture.

GARDEN-PLOT, n. The plot or plantation of a garden.

GARDEN-STUFF, n. Plants growing in a garden; vegetables for the table. [A word in popular use.]

GARDEN-WARE, n. The produce of gardens. [Not in use.]

GARDON, n. A fish of the roach kind.

GARE, n. Coarse wool growing on the legs of sheep.

GARGARISM, n. [L. gargarismus; Gr. to wash the mouth; allied probably to gorge, the throat.]

A gargle; any liquid preparation used to wash the mouth and throat, to cure inflammations or ulcers, etc.

GARGARIZE, v.t. [L. gargarizo.] To wash or rinse the mouth with any medicated liquor.

GARGET, n. [See Gorge.] A distemper in cattle, consisting in a swelling of the throat and the neighboring parts.

GARGIL, n. A distemper in geese, which stops the head and often proves fatal.

GARGLE, v.t. [Eng. to gurgle.]

1. To wash the throat and mouth with a liquid preparation, which is kept from descending into the stomach by a gentle expiration of air.

2. To warble; to play in the throat. [Unusual.]

GARGLE, n. Any liquid preparation for washing the mouth and throat.

GARGLION, n. An exsudation of nervous juice from a bruise, which indurates into a tumor.

GARGOL, n. A distemper in swine.

GARISH. [See Gairish.]

GARLAND, n. [L. gyrus. It seems to denote something round or twisted, for in Spanish it is used for a wreath or cordage or puddening.]

1. A wreath or chaplet made of branches, flowers, fethers and sometimes of precious stones, to be worn on the head like a crown.

2. A ornament of flowers, fruits and leaves intermixed, anciently used at the gates of temples where feasts and solemn rejoicings were held.

3. The top; the principal thing, or thing most prized.

4. A collection of little printed pieces.

5. In ships, a sort of net used by sailors instead of a locker or cupboard.

GARLAND, v.t. To deck with a garland.

GARLIC, n. A plant of the genus Allium, having a bulbous root, a very strong smell, and an acrid, pungent taste. Each root is composed of several lesser bulbs, called cloves of garlic, inclosed in a common membranous coat and easily separable.

GARLICEATER, n. A low fellow.

GARLICPEAR-TREE, n. A tree in Jamaica, the Crateva, bearing a fruit which has a strong scent of garlic.

GARMENT, n. Any article of clothing, as a coat, a gown, etc. Garments, in the plural, denotes clothing in general; dress.

No man putteth a piece of new cloth to an old garment. Matthew 9:16.

GARNER, n. A granary; a building or place where grain is stored for preservation.

GARNER, v.t. To store in a granary.

GARNET, n. [L. granatus, from granum, or granatum, the pomegranate.]

1. A mineral usually occurring in crystals more or less regular. The crystals have numerous sides, from twelve to sixty or even eighty four. Its prevailing color is red of various shades, but often brown, and sometimes green, yellow or black. It sometimes resembles the hyacinth, the leucite, and the idocrase. Of this gem there are several varieties, as the precious or oriental, the pyrope, the topazolite, the succinite, the common garnet, the melanite, the pyreneite, the grossular, the allochroite, and the colophonite.

2. In ships, a sort of tackle fixed to the main stay, and used to hoist in and out the cargo.


1. To adorn; to decorate with appendages; to set off.

All within with flowers was garnished.

2. To fit with fetters; a cant term.

3. To furnish; to supply; as a fort garnished with troops.

4. In law, to warn; to give notice. [See Garnishee.]

GARNISH, n. Ornament; something added for embellishment; decoration.

Matter and figure they produce;

For garnish this, and that for use.

1. In jails, fetters; a cant term.

2. Pensiuncula carceraria; a fee; an acknowledgment in money when first a prisoner goes to jail.

GARNISHED, pp. Adorned; decorated; embellished.

1. Furnished.

2. Warned; notified.

GARNISHEE, n. In law, one in whose hands the property of an absconding or absent debtor is attached, who is warned or notified of the demand or suit, and who may appear and defend in the suit, in the place of the principal.

GARNISHING, ppr. Adorning; decorating; warning.

GARNISHMENT, n. Ornament; embellishment.

1. Warning; legal notice to the agent or attorney of an absconding debtor.

2. A fee.

GARNITURE, n. Ornamental appendages; embellishment; furniture; dress.

GAROUS, a. [L. garum, pickle.] Resembling pickle made of fish.

GARRAN, GARRON, n. A small horse; a highland horse; a hack; a jade; a galloway. [Not used in America.]


1. That part of a house which is on the upper floor, immediately under the roof.

2. Rotten wood. [Not in use.]

GARRETED, a. Protected by turrets.

GARRETEER, n. An inhabitant of a garret; a poor author.

GARRISON, n. [English, garnish; warren, and from this root we have warrant and guaranty, as well as guard and regard, all from one source.]

1. A body of troops stationed in a fort or fortified town, to defend it against an enemy, or to keep the inhabitants in subjection.

2. A fort, castle or fortified town, furnished with troops to defend it.

3. The state of being placed in a fortification for its defense; as troops laid in garrison.

GARRISON, v.t. To place troops in a fortress for its defense; to furnish with soldiers; as, to garrison a fort or town.

1. To secure or defend by fortresses manned with troops; as, to garrison a conquered territory.

GARRULITY, n. [L. garrulitas, from garrio, to prate.]

Talkativeness; loquacity; the practice or habit of talking much; a babbling or tattling.

GARRULOUS, a. Talkative; prating; as garrulous old age.


1. A string or band used to tie a stocking to the leg.

2. The badge of an order of knighthood in Great Britain, called the order of the garter, instituted by Edward III. This order is a college or corporation.

3. The principal king at arms.

4. The term in heraldry, signifying the half of a bend.

G`ARTER, v.t. To bind with a garter.

1. To invest with the order of the garter.

GARTERFISH, n. A fish having a long depressed body, like the blade of a sword; the Lepidopus.


1. A dam or wear for catching fish.

2. A close; a little backside; a yard; a croft; a garden. [Not used.]

GAS, n.

In chimistry, a permanently elastic aeriform fluid, or a substance reduced to the state of an aeriform fluid by its permanent combination with caloric.

Gases are invisible except when colored, which happens in two or three instances.

GASCON, n. A native of Gascony in France.

GASCONADE, n. A boast or boasting; a vaunt; a bravado; a bragging.

GASCONADE, v.i. To boast; to brag; to vaunt; to bluster.

GASEOUS, a. In the form of gas or an aeriform fluid.

GASH, n. [I know not through what channel we have received this word. It may be allied to chisel.]

A deep and long cut; an incision of considerable length, particularly in flesh.

GASH, v.i. To make a gash, or long, deep incision; applied chiefly to incisions in flesh.

GASHED, pp. Cut with a long, deep incision.

GASHFUL, a. Full of gashes; hideous.

GASHING, ppr. Cutting long, deep incision.

GASIFICATION, n. [See Gasify.] The act or process of converting into gas.

GASIFIED, pp. Converted into an aeriform fluid.

GASIFY, v.t. [gas and L. facio, to make.] To convert into gas or an aeriform fluid by combination with caloric.

GASIFYING, ppr. Converting into gas.

GASKET, n. A plaited cord fastened to the sail-yard of a ship, and used to furl or tie the sail to the yard.

GASKINS, n. plu. Galligaskins; wide open hose. [See Galligaskins.]

GASLIGHT, n. Light produced by the combustion of carbureted hydrogen gas. Gaslights are now substituted for oil lights, in illuminating streets and apartments in houses.

GASOMETER, n. [gas] In chimistry, an instrument or apparatus, intended to measure, collect, preserve or mix different gases.

An instrument for measuring the quantity of gas employed in an experiment; also, the place where gas is prepared for lighting streets.

GASOMETRY, n. The science, art or practice of measuring gases. It teaches also the nature and properties of these elastic fluids.

GASP, v.i.

1. To open the mouth wide in catching the breath or in laborious respiration; particularly in dying.

2. To long for. [Not in use.]

G`ASP, v.t. To emit breath by opening wide the mouth.

And with short sobs he gasps away his breath.

G`ASP, n. The act of opening the mouth to catch the breath.

1. The short catch of the breath in the agonies of death.

GASPING, ppr. Opening the mouth to catch the breath.

GAST, GASTER, v.t. To make aghast; to frighten. [Not used.]

GASTNESS, n. Amazement; fright. [Not used.]

GASTRIC, a. [from Gr. the belly or stomach.]

Belonging to the belly, or rather to the stomach. The gastric juice is a thin, pellucid liquor, separated by the capillary exhaling arteries of the stomach, which open upon its internal tunic. It is the principal agent in digestion.

GASTRILOQUIST, n. [Gr. belly, and L. loquor, to speak.]

Literally, one who speaks from his belly or stomach; hence, one who so modified his voice that it seems to come from another person or place.

GASTROCELE, [Gr. the stomach, and a tumor.] A rupture of the stomach.

GASTROMANCY, n. [Gr. belly, and divination.]

A kind of divination among the ancients by means of words seeming to be uttered from the belly.

GASTRORAPHY, n. [Gr. belly, and a sewing or suture.]

The operation of sewing of wounds of the abdomen.

GASTROTOMY, n. [Gr. belly, and to cut.]

The operation of cutting into or opening the abdomen.

GAT, pret. of get.

GATE, n.

1. A large door which gives entrance into a walled city, a castle, a temple, palace or other large edifice. It differs from door chiefly in being larger. Gate signifies both the opening or passage, and the frame of boards, planks or timber which closes the passage.

2. A frame of timber which opens or closes a passage into any court, garden or other inclosed ground; also, the passage.

3. The frame which shuts or stops the passage of water through a dam into a flume.

4. An avenue; an opening; a way.

In scripture, figuratively, power, dominion. “Thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;” that is, towns and fortresses. Genesis 22:17.

The gates of hell, are the power and dominion of the devil and his instruments. Matthew 16:18.

The gates of death, are the brink of the grave. Psalm 9:13.

GATED, a. Having gates.

GATEVEIN, n. The vena portae, a large vein which conveys the blood from the abdominal viscera into the liver.

GATEWAY, n. A way through the gate of some inclosure.

1. A building to be passed at the entrance of the area before a mansion.

GATHER, v.t.

1. To bring together; to collect a number of separate things into one place or into one aggregate body.

Gather stones; and they took stones, and made a heap. Genesis 31:46.

2. To get in harvest; to reap or cut and bring into barns or stores. Leviticus 25:3-20.

3. To pick up; to glean; to get in small parcels and bring together.

Gather out the stones. Isaiah 62:10.

He must gather up money by degrees.

4. To pluck; to collect by cropping, picking or plucking.

Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Matthew 7:16.

5. To assemble; to congregate; to bring persons into one place. Ezekiel 22:19.

6. To collect in abundance; to accumulate; to amass.

I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings. Ecclesiastes 2:8.

7. To select and take; to separate from others and bring together.

Save us, O Lord our God, and gather us from among the heathen. Psalm 106:47.

8. To sweep together.

The kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind. Matthew 13:47.

9. To bring into one body or interest.

Yet will I gather others to him. Isaiah 56:8.

10. To draw together from a state of expansion or diffusion; to contract.

Gathering his flowing robe he seemed to stand,

In act to speak, and graceful stretch’d his hand.

11. To gain.

He gathers ground upon her in the chase.

12. To pucker; to plait.

13. To deduce by inference; to collect or learn by reasoning. From what I hear I gather that he was present.

After he had seen the vision, immediately we endeavored to go into Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord had called us to preach the gospel to them. Acts 16:10.

14. To coil as a serpent.

To gather breath, to have respite.

GATHER, v.i. To collect; to unite; to increase; to be condensed. The clouds gather in the west.

1. To increase; to grow larger by accretion of like matter.

Their snow ball did not gather as it went.

2. To assemble. The people gather fast.

3. To generate pus or matter. [See Gathering.]

GATHERABLE, a. That may be collected; that may be deduced. [Unusual.]

GATHERED, pp. Collected; assembled; contracted; plaited; drawn by inference.

GATHERER, n. One who gathers or collects; one who gets in a crop.

GATHERING, ppr. Collecting; assembling; drawing together; plaiting; wrinkling.

GATHERING, n. The act of collecting or assembling.

1. Collection; a crowd; an assembly.

2. Charitable contribution. 1 Corinthians 16:2.

3. A tumor suppurated or maturated; a collection of pus; an abscess.

GATHERS, n. Plaits; folds; puckers; wrinkles in cloth.

GATTERTREE, n. A species of Cornus or Cornelian cherry.

GAT-TOOTHED, a. Goat-toothed; having a lickerish tooth.

GAUD, v.i. [L. gaudeo, to rejoice.] To exult; to rejoice.

GAUD, n. [L. gaudium.] An ornament; something worn for adorning the person; a fine thing.

GAUDED, a. Adorned with trinkets; colored.

GAUDERY, n. Finery; fine things; ornaments.

GAUDILY, adv. Showily; with ostentation of fine dress.

GAUDINESS, n. Showiness; tinsel appearance; ostentatious finery.

GAUDY, a. Showy; splendid; gay.

A goldfinch there I saw, with gaudy pride

Of painted plumes--

1. Ostentatiously fine; gay beyond the simplicity of nature or good taste.

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,

But not express’d in fancy; rich, not gaudy.

GAUDY, n. A feast or festival; a word in the university.

GAUGE, v.t. gage.

1. To measure or to ascertain the contents of a cask or vessel, as a pipe, puncheon, hogshead, barrel, tierce or keg.

2. To measure in respect to proportion.

The vanes nicely gauged on each side--

GAUGE, n. gage. A measure; a standard of measure.

1. Measure; dimensions.

GAUGED, pp. Measured.

GAUGER, n. One who gauges; an officer whose business is to ascertain the contents of casks.

GAUGING, ppr. Measuring a cask; ascertaining dimensions or proportions of quantity.

GAUGING, n. The art of measuring the contents or capacities of vessels of any form.

GAUGING-ROD, n. An instrument to be used in measuring the contents of casks or vessels.

GAUL, n. [L. Gallia.] A name of ancient France; also, an inhabitant of Gaul.

GAULISH, a. Pertaining to ancient France or Gaul.

GAUNT, GANT, a. gant. Vacant; hollow; empty, as an animal after long fasting; hence, lean; meager; thin; slender.

GAUNTLY, adv. gant’ly. Leanly; meagerly.

GAUNTLET, n. [See Gantlet.]

GAUZE, n. [L. gausape, or gossipium.]

A very thin, slight, transparent stuff, of silk or linen.

GAUZELOOM, n. A loom in which gauze is wove.

GAUZY, a. Like gauze; thin as gauze.

GAVE, pret. of give.

GAVEL, n. In law, tribute; toll; custom. [See Gable.]


1. A small parcel of wheat, rye or other grain, laid together by reapers, consisting of two, three or more handfuls.

2. In England, a provincial word for ground.

GAVEL, for gable or gable-end. [See Gable.]

GAVELET, n. An ancient and special cessavit in Kent, in England, where the custom of gavelkind continues, by which the tenant, if he withdraws his rent and services due to his lord, forfeits his lands and tenements.

1. In London, a writ used in the hustings, given to lords or rents in the city.

GAVELKIND, n. A tenure in England, by which land descended from the father to all his sons in equal portions, and the land of a brother, dying without issue, descended equally to his brothers. This species of tenure prevailed in England before the Norman conquest, in many parts of the kingdom, perhaps in the whole realm; but particularly in Kent, where it still exists.