Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



FRESHENED, pp. Deprived of saltiness; sweetened.


1. The mingling of fresh water with salt water in rivers or bays, or the increased current of an ebb tide by means of a flood of fresh water, flowing towards or into the sea, and discoloring the water.

2. A flood; an overflowing; an inundation; a freshet.


1. A flood or overflowing of a river, by means of heavy rains or melted snow; an inundation.

2. A stream of fresh water.


1. Newly; in the former state renewed; in a new or fresh state.

2. With a healthy look; ruddily.

3. Briskly; strongly.

4. Coolly.


1. A novice; one in the rudiments of knowledge.

2. In colleges, one of the youngest class of students.

FRESHMANSHIP, n. The state of a freshman.


1. Newness; vigor; spirit; the contrary to vapidness; as the freshness of liquors or odors.

2. Vigor; liveliness; the contrary to a faded state; as the freshness of plants or of green fields.

3. Newness of strength; renewed vigor; opposed to weariness or fatigue.

The Scots had the advantage both for number and freshness of men.

4. Coolness; invigorating quality or state.

And breathe the freshness of the open air.

5. Color of youth and health; ruddiness.

Her cheeks their freshness lose and wonted grace.

6. Freedom from saltiness; as the freshness of water or flesh.

7. A new or recent state or quality; rawness.

8. Briskness, as of wind.

FRESHNEW, a. Unpracticed. [Not used.]


1. Accustomed to sail on freshwater only, or in the coasting trade; as a freshwater sailor.

2. Raw; unskilled.

FRESHWATERED, a. Newly watered; supplied with fresh water.

FRET, v.t. [L. rodo, rosi, rado, to scrape. To fret or gnaw gives the sense of unevenness, roughness, in substances; the like appearance is given to fluids by agitation.]

1. To rub; to wear away a substance by friction; as, to fret cloth; to fret a piece of gold or other metal.

2. To corrode; to gnaw; to ear away; as, a worm frets the planks of a ship.

3. To impair; to wear away.

By starts, his fretted fortunes give him hope and fear.

4. To form into raised work.

5. To variegate; to diversify.

Yon gray lines that fret the clouds are messengers of day.

6. To agitate violently.

7. To agitate; to disturb; to make rough; to cause to ripple; as, to fret the surface of water.

8. To tease; to irritate; to vex; to make angry.

Fret not thyself because of evil doers. Psalm 37:1.

9. To wear away; to chafe; to gall. Let not a saddle or harness fret the skin of your horse.

FRET, v.i.

1. To be worn away; to be corroded. Any substance will in time fret away by friction.

2. To eat or wear in; to make way of attrition or corrosion.

Many wheels arose, and fretted one into another with great excoriation.

3. To be agitated; to be in violent commotion; as the rancor that frets in the malignant breast.

4. To be vexed; to be chafed or irritated; to be angry; to utter peevish expressions.

He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground.

FRET, n.

1. The agitation of the surface of a fluid by fermentation or other cause; a rippling on the surface of water; small undulations continually repeated.

2. Work raised in protuberances; or a kind of knot consisting of two lists or small fillets interlaced, used as an ornament in architecture.

3. Agitation of mind; commotion of temper; irritation; as, he keeps his mind in a continual fret.

Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret.

4. A short piece of wire fixed on the fingerboard of a guitar, etc., which being pressed against the strings varies the tone.

5. In heraldry, a bearing composed of bars crossed and interlaced.

FRET, v.t. To furnish with frets, as an instrument of music.
FRET, n. [L. fretum.] A frith, which see.

FRETFUL, a. Disposed to fret; ill-humored; peevish; angry; in a state of vexation; as a fretful temper.

FRETFULLY, adv. Peevishly; angrily.

FRETFULNESS, n. Peevishness; ill-humor; disposition to fret and complain.

FRETT, n. With miners, the worn side of the bank of a river.

FRETTED, pp. Eaten; corroded; rubbed or worn away; agitated; vexed; made rough on the surface; variegated; ornamented with fretwork; furnished with frets.

FRETTER, n. That which frets.

FRETTING, ppr. Corroding; wearing away; agitating; vexing; making rough on the surface; variegating.

FRETTING, n. Agitation; commotion.

FRETTY, a. Adorned with fretwork.

FRETUM, n. [L.] An arm of the sea.

FRETWORK, n. Raised work; work adorned with frets.

FRIABILITY, FRIABLENESS, n. [See Friable.] The quality of being easily broken, crumbled and reduced to powder.

FRIABLE, a. [L. friabilis, from frio, to break or crumble. Heb. to break.]

Easily crumbled or pulverized; easily reduced to powder. Pumice and calcined stones are very friable.

FRIAR, n. [L. frater. See Brother.]

1. An appellation common to the monks of all orders; those who enter religious orders considering themselves as a fraternity or brotherhood. Friars are generally distinguished into four principal branches, viz: 1. Minors, gray friars or Franciscans; 2. Augustines; 3. Dominicans or black friars; 4. White Friars or Carmelites.

2. In a restricted sense, a monk who is not a priest; those friars who are in orders being called fathers.

FRIARLIKE, a. Like a friar; monastic; unskilled in the world.

FRIARLY, a. Like a friar; untaught in the affairs of life.

FRIAR’S-COWL, n. A plant, a species of Arum, with a flower resembling a cowl.

FRIAR’S-LANTERN, n. The ignis fatuus.

FRIARY, n. A monastery; a convent of friars.

FRIARY, a. Like a friar; pertaining to friars.

FRIBBLE, a. [L. frivolus.] Frivolous; trifling; silly.

FRIBBLE, n. A frivolous, trifling, contemptible fellow.
FRIBBLE, v.i. To trifle; also, to totter.

FRIBBLER, n. A trifler.

FRIBORG, n. [free and burg.] The same as frankpledge.

FRICACE, n. [See Fricassee.] Meat sliced and dressed with strong sauce; also, an unguent prepared by frying things together. Obs.

FRICASSEE, n. [L. frigo.]

A dish of food made by cutting chickens, rabbits or other small animals into pieces, and dressing them in a frying pan, or a like utensil.

FRICASSEE, v.t. To dress in fricassee.

FRICATION, n. [L. fricatio, from frico, to rub.] The act of rubbing; friction. [Little used.]

FRICTION, n. [L. frictio, frico, to rub.]

1. The act of rubbing the surface of one body against that of another; attrition. Many bodies by friction emit light, and friction generates or evolves heat.

2. In mechanics, the effect of rubbing, or the resistance which a moving body meets with from the surface on which it moves.

3. In medicine, the rubbing of the body with the hand, or with a brush, flannel, etc.; or the rubbing of a diseased part with oil, unguent or other medicament.


The sixth day of the week, formerly consecrated to Frigga.

FRIDGE, v.t. To move hastily. [Not in use.]

FRID-STOLE. [See Fred.]

FRIEND, n. frend.

1. One who is attached to another by affection; one who entertains for another sentiments of esteem, respect and affection, which lead him to desire his company, and to seek to promote his happiness and prosperity; opposed to foe or enemy.

A friend loveth at all times. Proverbs 17:17.

2. One not hostile; opposed to an enemy in war.

3. One reconciled after enmity. Let us be friends again.

4. An attendant; a companion.

5. A favorer; one who is propitious; as a friend to commerce; a friend to poetry; a friend to charitable institution.

6. A favorite. Hushai was David’s friend.

7. A term of salutation; a familiar compellation.

Friend, how camest thou in hither? Matthew 22:12.

So Christ calls Judas his friend, though a traitor. Matthew 26:50.

8. Formerly, a paramour.

9. A friend at court, one who has sufficient interest to serve another.

FRIEND, v.t. frend. To favor; to countenance; to befriend; to support or aid. [But we now use befriend.]

FRIENDED, pp. frend’ed.

1. Favored; befriended.

2. a. Inclined to love; well disposed.

FRIENDLESS, a. frend’less. Destitute of friends; wanting countenance or support; forlorn.

FRIENDLIKE, a. frend’like. Having the dispositions of a friend.

FRIENDLINESS, n. frend’liness.

1. A disposition to friendship; friendly disposition.

2. Exertion of benevolence or kindness.

FRIENDLY, a. frend’ly.

1. Having the temper and disposition of a friend; kind; favorable; disposed to promote the good of another.

Thou to mankind be good and friendly still, and oft return.

2. Disposed to peace.

3. Amicable. We are on friendly terms.

4. Not hostile; as a friendly power or state.

5. Favorable; propitious; salutary; promoting the good of; as a friendly breeze or gale. Excessive rains are not friendly to the ripening fruits. Temperance is friendly to longevity.

FRIENDLY, adv. frend’ly. In the manner of friends; amicably. [Not much used.]

FRIENDSHIP, n. frend’ship.

1. An attachment to a person, proceeding from intimate acquaintance, and a reciprocation of kind offices, or from a favorable opinion of the amiable and respectable qualities of his mind. Friendship differs from benevolence, which is good will to mankind in general, and from that love which springs from animal appetite. True friendship is a noble and virtuous attachment, springing from a pure source, a respect for worth or amiable qualities. False friendship may subsist between bad men, as between thieves and pirates. This is a temporary attachment springing from interest, and may change in a moment to enmity and rancor.

There can be no friendship without confidence, and no confidence without integrity.

There is little friendship in the world.

The first law of friendship is sincerity.

2. Mutual attachment; intimacy.

If not in friendship, live at least in peace.

3. Favor; personal kindness.

His friendships, still a few confined, were always of the middling kind.

4. Friendly aid; help; assistance.

5. Conformity; affinity; correspondence; aptness to unite.

We know those colors which have a friendship with each other.

[Not common and hardly legitimate.]

FRIEZE, n. freez. [Gr. to shiver or tremble with fear, whose elements are frg or frk.]

1. Properly, the nap on woolen cloth; hence, a kind of coarse woolen cloth or stuff, with a nap on one side.

2. In architecture, that part of the entablature of a column which is between the architrave and cornice. It is a flat member or face, usually enriched with figures of animals or other ornaments of sculpture, whence its name.

Cornice or frieze with bossy sculptures graven.

FRIEZED, a. Napped; shaggy with nap or frieze.

FRIEZELIKE, a. Resembling frieze.

FRIGATE, n. [Gr. signifies not fortified. L. aphractum, an open ship or vessel.]

1. A ship of war, of a size larger than a sloop or brig, and less than a ship of the line; usually having two decks and carrying from thirty to forty four guns. But ships mounting a less number than thirty guns are sometimes called frigates; as are ships carrying a larger number.

2. Any small vessel on the water. [Not used.]

FRIGATE-BUILT, a. Having a quarter deck and forecastle raised above the main deck.

FRIGATOON, n. A Venetian vessel with a square stern, without a foremast, having only a mainmast and mizenmast.

FRIGEFACTION, n. [L. frigus, cold, and facio, to make.] The act of making cold. [Little used.]

FRIGHT, n. frite. [Gr. to fear, that is, to shrink or shiver.]

Sudden and violent fear; terror; a passion excited by the sudden appearance of danger. It expresses more than fear, and is distinguished from fear and dread, by its sudden invasion and temporary existence; fright being usually of short duration, whereas fear and dread may be long continued.

FRIGHT, FRIGHTEN, v.t. To terrify; to scare; to alarm suddenly with danger; to shock suddenly with the approach of evil; to daunt; to dismay.

Nor exile or danger can fright a brave spirit.

FRIGHTED, FRIGHTENED, pp. Terrified; suddenly alarmed with danger.

FRIGHTFUL, a. Terrible; dreadful; exciting alarm; impressing terror; as a frightful chasm or precipice; a frightful tempest.


1. Terribly; dreadfully; in a manner to impress terror and alarm; horribly.

2. Very disagreeably; shockingly. She looks frightfully to day.

FRIGHTFULNESS, n. The quality of impressing terror.

FRIGID, a. [L. frigidus, from frigeo, to be or to grow cold; rigeo, to be stiff or frozen. Gr.]

1. Cold; wanting heat or warmth; as the frigid zone.

2. Wanting warmth of affection; unfeeling; as a frigid temper or constitution.

3. Wanting natural heat or vigor sufficient to excite the generative power; impotent.

4. Dull; jejune; unanimated; wanting the fire of genius or fancy; as a frigid style; frigid rhymes.

5. Stiff; formal; forbidding; as a frigid look or manner.

6. Wanting zeal; dull; formal; lifeless; as frigid services.


1. Coldness; want of warmth. But not applied to the air or weather.

2. Want of natural heat, life and vigor of body; impotency; imbecility; as the frigidity of old age.

3. Coldness of affection.

4. Dullness; want of animation or intellectual fire; as the frigidity of sentiments or style.

FRIGIDLY, adv. Coldly; dully; without affection.

FRIGIDNESS, n. Coldness; dullness; want of heat or vigor; want of affection. [See Frigidity.]

FRIGORIFIC, a. [L. frigorificus; frigus, cold, and facio, to make.]

Causing cold; producing or generating cold.

FRILL, n. [infra.] An edging of fine linen on the bosom of a shirt or other similar thing; a ruffle.

FRILL, v.i.

To shake; to quake; to shiver as with cold; as, the hawk frills.

FRIM, a. Flourishing. [Not in use.]

FRINGE, n. frinj. [L. frango, to break.]

1. An ornamental appendage to the borders of garments or furniture, consisting of loose threads.

The golden fringe ev’n set the ground on flame.

2. Something resembling fringe; an open broken border.

FRINGE, v.t. To adorn or border with fringe or a loose edging.

FRINGED, pp. Bordered with fringe.

FRINGEMAKER, n. One who makes fringe.

FRINGING, ppr. Bordering with fringe.

FRINGY, a. Adorned with fringes.

FRIPPERER, n. [See Frippery.] One who deals in old cloths.


1. Old clothes; cast dresses; clothes thrown aside, after wearing. Hence, waste matter; useless things; trifles; as the frippery of wit.

2. The place where old clothes are sold.

3. The trade or traffic in old clothes.

FRISEUR, n. A hair dresser.

FRISK, v.i.

1. To leap; to skip; to spring suddenly one way and the other.

The fish fell a frisking in the net.

2. To dance, skip and gambol in frolic and gaiety.

The frisking satyrs on the summits danced.

In vain to frisk or climb he tries.

FRISK, a. Lively; brisk; blithe.
FRISK, n. A frolic; a fit of wanton gaiety.

FRISKAL, n. A leap or caper. [Not in use.]

FRISKER, n. One who leaps or dances in gaiety; a wanton; an inconstant or unsettled person.

FRISKET, n. [See Frisk.]

In printing, the light frame in which a sheet of paper is confined to be laid on the form for impression.

FRISKFUL, a. Brisk; lively.

FRISKINESS, n. Briskness and frequency of motion; gaiety; liveliness; a dancing or leaping in frolic.

FRISKING, ppr. Leaping; skipping; dancing about; moving with life and gaiety.

FRISKY, a. Gay; lively.

FRIT, n. [L. frictus, frigo, Eng. to fry.]

In the manufacture of glass, the matter of which glass is made after it has been calcined or baked in a furnace. It is a composition of silex and fixed alkali, occasionally with other ingredients.

FRITH, n. [L. freetum; Gr. from to pass over, or to pass; properly, a passage, a narrow channel that is passable or passed.]

1. A narrow passage of the sea; a strait. It is used for the opening of a river into the sea; as the frith of Forth, or of Clyde.

2. A kind of wear for catching fish.


1. A forest; a woody place.

2. A small field taken out of a common.

[Not used in America.]

FRITHY, a. Woody. [Not in use.]

FRITILLARY, n. [L. fritillus, a dice-box.]

The crown imperial, a genus of plants, called in the Spanish dictionary checkered lily.

FRITTER, n. [L. frictus, fried.]

1. A small pancake; also, a small piece of meat fried.

2. A fragment; a shred; a small piece.

And cut whole giants into fritters.


1. To cut meat into small pieces to be fried.

2. To break into small pieces or fragments.

Break all their nerves, and fritter all their sense.

To fritter away, is to diminish; to pare off; to reduce to nothing by taking away a little at a time.

FRIVOLITY, n. [See Frivolousness.]

FRIVOLOUS, a. [L. frivlus, from the root of frio, to break into small pieces, to crumble; tero, trivi, to rub or wear out.]

Slight; trifling; trivial; of little weight, worth or importance; not worth notice; as a frivolous argument; a frivolous objection or pretext.

FRIVOLOUSNESS, n. The quality of being trifling or of very little worth or importance; want of consequence.

FRIVOLOUSLY, adv. In a trifling manner.

FRIZ, v.t. [See Frieze.]

1. To curl; to crisp to form into small curls with a crisping-pin.

2. To form the nap of cloth into little hard burs, prominences or knobs.

FRIZED, pp. Curled; formed into little burs on cloth.

FRIZING, ppr. Curling; forming little hard burs on cloth.

FRIZZLE, v.t. To curl; to crisp; as hair.

FRIZZLED, pp. Curled; crisped.

FRIZZLER, n. One who makes short curls.

FRIZZLING, ppr. Curling; crisping.

FRO, adv. [In some languages it is a prefix, having the force of a negative.]

From; away; back or backward; as in the phrase, to and fro, that is, to and from, forward or toward and backward, hither and thither.


An upper coat, or an outer garment. The word is now used for a loose garment or shirt worn by men over their other clothes, and for a kind of gown open behind, worn by females. The frock was formerly a garment worn by monks.

FROG, n. [L. rana, from the root of rend, from its broken shape, or from leaping, or its fragor or hoarse voice.]

1. An amphibious animal of the genus Rana, with four feet, a naked body, and without a tail. It is remarkable for swimming with rapidity, and for taking large leaps on land. Frogs lie torpid during winter.

2. In farriery. [See Frush.]

FROGBIT, n. A plant, the Hydrocharis.