Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



FODDERED, pp. Fed with dry food, or cut grass, etc.; as, to fodder cows.

FODDERER, n. He who fodders cattle.

FODDERING, ppr. Feeding with dry food, etc.

FODIENT, a. [L. fodio, to dig.] Digging; throwing up with a spade. [Little used.]

FOE, n. fo. [See Fiend.]

1. An enemy; one who entertains personal enmity, hatred, grudge or malice against another.

A man’s foes shall be they of his own household. Matthew 10:36.

2. An enemy in war; one of a nation at war with another, whether he entertains enmity against the opposing nation or not; an adversary.

Either three years famine, or three months to be destroyed before they foes. 1 Chronicles 21:12.

3. Foe, like enemy, in the singular, is used to denote an opposing army, or nation at war.

4. An opponent; an enemy; one who opposes any thing in principle; an ill-wisher; as a foe to religion; a foe to virtue; a foe to the measures of the administration.

FOE, v.t. To treat as an enemy. Obs.

FOEHOOD, n. Enmity. [Not in use.]

FOELIKE, a. Like an enemy.

FOEMAN, n. An enemy in war. Obs.

FOETUS. [See Fetus.]

FOG, n.

1. A dense watery vapor, exhaled from the earth, or from rivers and lakes, or generated in the atmosphere near the earth. it differs from mist, which is rain in very small drops.

2. A cloud of dust or smoke.

FOG, n.

After-grass; a second growth of grass; but it signifies also long grass that remains on land.

Dead grass, remaining on land during winter, is called in New England, the old tore.

FOGBANK, n. At sea, an appearance in hazy weather sometimes resembling land at a distance, but which vanishes as it is approached.

FOGGAGE, n. Rank grass not consumed or mowed in summer.

FOGGINESS, n. [from foggy.] The state of being foggy; a state of the air filled with watery exhalations.

FOGGY, a. [from fog.]

1. Filled or abounding with fog or watery exhalations; as a foggy atmosphere; a foggy morning.

2. Cloudy; misty; damp with humid vapors.

3. Producing frequent fogs; as a foggy climate.

4. Dull; stupid; clouded in understanding.

FOH, an exclamation of abhorrence or contempt, the same as poh and fy.

FOIBLE, a. Weak. [Not used.]

FOIBLE, n. [See Feeble.] A particular moral weakness; a failing. When we speak of a man’s foible, in the singular, which is also called his weak side, we refer to a predominant failing. We use also the plural, foibles, to denote moral failings or defects. It is wise in every man to know his own foibles.

FOIL, v.t.

1. To frustrate; to defeat; to render vain or nugatory, as an effort or attempt. The enemy attempted to pass the river, but was foiled. He foiled his adversaries.

And by a mortal man at length am foiled.

2. To blunt; to dull.

When light wing’d toys of feathered cupid foil -

3. To defeat; to interrupt, or to render imperceptible; as, to foil the scent in a chase.

FOIL, n. Defeat; frustration; the failure of success when on the point of being secured; miscarriage.

Death never won a stake with greater toil, nor e’er was fate to near a foil.

FOIL, n. A blunt sword, or one that has a button at the end covered with leather; used in fencing.

Isocrates contended with a foil, against Demosthenes with a sword.

FOIL, n. [L. folium. Gr.]

1. A leaf or thin plate of metal used in gilding.

2. Among jewelers, a thin leaf of metal placed under precious stones, to make them appear transparent, and to give them a particular color, as the stone appears to be of the color of the foil. Hence,

3. Any thing of another color, or of different qualities, which serves to adorn, or set off another thing to advantage.

Hector has a foil to set him off.

4. A thin coat of tin, with quicksilver, laid on the back of a locking glass, to cause reflection.

FOILED, pp. Frustrated; defeated.

FOILER, n. One who frustrates another, and gains an advantage himself.

FOILING, ppr. Defeating; frustrating; disappointing of success.

FOILING, n. Among hunters, the slight mark of a passing deer on the grass.

FOIN, v.t. [L. pungo. The sense is to push, thrust, shoot.]

1. To push in fencing.

2. To prick; to sting. [Not in use.]

FOIN, n. A push; a thrust.

FOINING, ppr. Pushing; thrusting.

FOININGLY, adv. In a pushing manner.

FOISON, n. [L. fusio.] Plenty; abundance. [Not used.]

FOIST, v.t.

To insert surreptitiously, wrongfully, or without warrant.

Lest negligence or partiality might admit or foist in abuses and corruption.

FOIST, n. A light and fast sailing ship. Obs.

FOISTED, pp. Inserted wrongfully.

FOISTER, n. One who inserts without authority.

FOISTIED, a. Mustied. [See Fusty.]

FOISTINESS, n. Fustiness, which see.

FOISTING, ppr. Inserting surreptitiously or without authority.

FOISTY, a. Fusty, which see.

FOLD, n. [See the verb, to fold.]

1. A pen or inclosure for sheep; a place where a flock of sheep is kept, whether in the field or under shelter.

2. A flock of sheep. Hence in a scriptural sense, the church, the flock of the Shepherd of Israel.

Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold. John 10:16.

3. A limit. [Not in use.]

FOLD, n.

1. The doubling of any flexible substance, as cloth; complication; a plait; one part turned or bent and laid on another; as a fold of linen.

2. In composition, the same quantity added; as two fold, four fold, ten fold, that is, twice as much, four times as much, ten times as much.

FOLD, v.t. [Heb. The primary sense is to fall, or to lay, to set, throw or press together.]

1. To double; to lap or lay in plaits; as, to fold a piece of cloth.

2. To double and insert one part in another; as, to fold a letter.

3. To double or lay together, as the arms. He folds his arms in despair.

4. To confine sheep in a fold.

FOLD, v.i. To close over another of the same kind; as, the leaves of the door fold.

FOLDAGE, n. The right of folding sheep.

FOLDED, pp. Doubled; laid in plaits; complicated; kept in a fold.


1. An instrument used in folding paper.

2. One that folds.


1. Doubling; laying in plaits; keeping in a fold.

2. a. Doubling; that may close over another, or that consists of leaves which may close one over another; as a folding door.


1. A fold; a doubling.

2. Among farmers, the keeping of sheep in inclosures on arable land, etc.

FOLIACEOUS, a. [L. foliaceus, from folium, a leaf. See Foil.]

1. Leafy; having leaves intermixed with flowers; as a foliaceous spike. Foliaceous glands are those situated on leaves.

2. Consisting of leaves or thin lamins; having the form of a leaf or plate; as foliaceous spar.

FOLIAGE, n. [L. folium, a leaf. See Foil.]

1. Leaves in general; as a tree of beautiful foliage.

2. A cluster of leaves, flowers and branches; particularly, the representation of leaves, flowers and branches, in architecture, intended to ornament and enrich capitals, friezes, pediments, etc.

FOLIAGE, v.t. To work or to form into the representation of leaves.

FOLIAGED, a. Furnished with foliage.

FOLIATE, v.t. [L. foliatus, from folium, a leaf. Gr.]

1. To beat into a leaf, or thin plate or lamin.

2. To spread over with a thin coat of tin and quicksilver, etc.; as, to foliate a looking-glass.

FOLIATE, a. In botany, leafy; furnished with leaves; as a foliate stalk.


1. Spread or covered with a thin plate or foil.

2. In mineralogy, consisting of plates; resembling or in the form of a plate; lamellar; as a foliated fracture.

Minerals that consist of grains, and are at the same time foliated, are called granularly foliated.

FOLIATING, ppr. Covering with a leaf or foil.

FOLIATION, n. [L. foliatio.]

1. In botany, the leafing of plants; vernation; the disposition of the nascent leaves within the bud.

2. The act of beating a metal into a thin plate, leaf or foil

3. The act or operation of spreading foil over the back side of a mirror or looking-glass.

FOLIATURE, n. The state of being beaten into foil.

FOLIER, n. Goldsmith’s foil.

FOLIFEROUS, a. [L. folium, leaf, and fero, to bear.] Producing leaves.

FOLIO, n. [L. folium, a leaf, in folio.]

1. A book of the largest size, formed by once doubling a sheet of paper.

2. Among merchants, a page, or rather both the right and left hand pages of an account book, expressed by the same figure.

FOLIOLE, n. [from L. folium, a leaf.] A leaflet; one of the single leaves, which together constitute a compound leaf.

FOLIOMORT, a. [L. folium mortuum.] Of a dark yellow color, or that of a faded leaf; filemot.


1. Leafy; thin; unsubstantial.

2. In botany, having leaves intermixed with the flowers.

FOLK, n. foke. [L. vulgus. The sense is a crowd, from collecting or pressing, not from following, but from the same root, as to follow is to press toward. Gr. Originally and properly it had no plural, being a collective noun; but in modern use, in America, it has lost its singular number, and we hear it only in the plural. It is a colloquial word, not admissible into elegant style.]

1. People in general, or any part of them without distinction. What do folks say respecting the war? Men love to talk about the affairs of other folks.

2. Certain people, discriminated from others; as old folks, and young folks. Children sometimes call their parents, the old folks. So we say sick folks; poor folks; proud folks.

3. In scripture, the singular number is used; as a few sick folk; impotent folk. Mark 6:5; John 5:3.

4. Animals.

The coneys are but a feeble folk. Proverbs 30:26.

FOLKLAND, n. In English law, copyhold land; land held by the common people, at the will of the lord.


An assembly of the people, or of bishops, thanes, aldermen and freemen, to consult respecting public affairs; an annual convention of the people, answering in some measure, to a modern parliament; a word used in England before the Norman conquest, after which, the national Council was called a parliament.

But some authors allege that the folkmote was an inferior meeting or court.

FOLLICLE, n. [L. folliculus, from follis, a bag or bellows.]

1. In botany, a univalvular pericarp; a seed vessel opening on one side longitudinally, and having the seeds loose in it.

2. An air bag; a vessel distended with air; as at the root in Utricularia, and on the leaves in Aldrovanda.

3. A little bag, in animal bodies; a gland; a folding; a cavity.

FOLLICULOUS, a. Having or producing follicles.

FOLLIFUL, a. Full of folly. [Not used.]

FOLLOW, v.t.

1. To go after or behind; to walk, ride or move behind, but in the same direction. Soldiers will usually follow a brave officer.

2. To pursue; to chase; as an enemy, or as game.

3. To accompany; to attend in a journey.

And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they rode on the camels, and followed the man. Genesis 24:61.

4. To accompany; to be of the same company; to attend, for any purpose. Luke 5:27, 28.

5. To succeed in order of time; to come after; as a storm is followed by a calm.

Signs following signs lead on the mighty year.

6. To be consequential; to result from, as effect from a cause. Intemperance is often followed by disease or poverty, or by both.

7. To result from, as an inference or deduction. It follows from these facts that the accused is guilty.

8. To pursue with the eye; to keep the eyes fixed on a moving body. He followed or his eyes followed the ship, till it was beyond sight.

He followed with his eyes the fleeting shade.

9. To imitate; to copy; as, to follow a pattern or model; to follow fashion.

10. To embrace; to adopt and maintain; to have or entertain like opinions; to think or believe like another; as, to follow the opinions and tenets of a philsophic sect; to follow Plato.

11. To obey; to observe; to practice; to act in conformity to. It is our duty to follow the commands of Christ. Good soldiers follow the orders of their general; good servants follow the directions of their master.

12. To pursue as an object of desire; to endeavor to obtain.

Follow peace with all men. Hebrews 12:14.

13. To use; to practice; to make the chief business; as, to follow the trade of a carpenter; to follow the profession of law.

14. To adhere to; to side with.

The house of Judah followed David. 2 Samuel 2:10.

15. To adhere to; to honor; to worship; to serve.

If the Lord be God, follow him. 1 Kings 18:21.

16. To be led or guided by.

Wo to the foolish prophets, who follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing. Ezekiel 13:3.

17. To move on in the same course or direction; to be guided by; as, to follow a track or course.

FOLLOW, v.i.

1. To come after another.

The famine - shall follow close after you. Jeremiah 42:16.

2. To attend; to accompany.

3. To be posterior in time; as following ages.

4. To be consequential, as effect to cause. From such measures, great mischiefs must follow.

5. To result, as an inference. The facts may be admitted, but the inference drawn from them does not follow.

To follow on, to continue pursuit or endeavor; to persevere.

Then shall we know, if we follow on to know the Lord. Hosea 6:3.

FOLLOWED, pp. Pursued; succeeded; accompanied; attended; imitated; obeyed; observed; practiced; adhered to.


1. One who comes, goes or moves after another, in the same course.

2. One that takes another as his guide in doctrines, opinions or example; one who receives the opinions, and imitates the example of another; an adherent; an imitator.

That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who, through faith and patience, inherit the promises. Hebrews 6:12.

3. One who obeys, worships and honors.

Be ye followers of God, as dear children. Ephesians 5:1.

4. An adherent; a disciple; one who embraces the same system; as a follower of Plato.

5. An attendant; a companion; an associate or a dependent. The warrior distributed the plunder among his followers.

No follower, but a friend.

6. One under the command of another.

7. One of the same faction or party.

FOLLOWING, ppr. Coming or going after or behind; pursuing; attending; imitating; succeeding in time; resulting from as an effect or an inference; adhering to; obeying, observing; using, practicing; proceeding in the same course.

FOLLY, n. [See Fool.]

1. Weakness of intellect; imbecility of mind. want of understanding.

A fool layeth open his folly. Proverbs 13:16.

2. A weak or absurd act not highly criminal; an act which is inconsistent with the dictates of reason, or with the ordinary rules of prudence. In this sense it may be used in the singular, but is generally in the plural. Hence we speak of the follies of youth.

3. An absurd act which is highly sinful; any conduct contrary to the laws of God or man; sin; scandalous crimes; that which violates moral precepts and dishonors the offender. Shechem wrought folly in Israel. Achan wrought folly in Israel. Genesis 34:7; Joshua 7:15.

4. Criminal weakness; depravity of mind.

FOMAHANT, n. A star of the first magnitude, in the constellation Aquarius.

FOMENT, v.t. [L. fomento, from foveo, to warm.]

1. To apply warm lotions to; to bathe with warm medicated liquors, or with flannel dipped in warm water.

2. To cherish with heat; to encourage growth. [Not usual.]

3. To encourage; to abet; to cherish and promote by excitements; in a bad sense; as, to foment ill humors.

So we say, to foment troubles or disturbances; to foment intestine broils.


1. The act of applying warm liquors to a part of the body, by means of flannels dipped in hot water or medicated decoctions, for the purpose of easing pain, by relaxing the skin, or of discussing tumors.

2. The lotion applied, or to be applied to a diseased part.

3. Excitation; instigation, encouragement.

FOMENTED, pp. Bathed with warm lotions; encouraged.

FOMENTER, n. One who foments; one who encourages or instigates; as a fomenter of sedition.


1. Applying warm lotions.

2. Encouraging; abetting; promoting.

FON, n. A fool; an idiot. Obs.

FOND, a.

1. Foolish; silly; weak; indiscreet; imprudent;

Grant I may never prove so fond

To trust man on his oath or bond.

Fond thoughts may fall into some idle brain.

2. Foolishly tender and loving; doting; weakly indulgent; as a fond mother or wife.

3. Much pleased; loving ardently; delighted with. A child is fond of play; a gentleman is fond of his sports, or of his country seat. In present usage, fond does not always imply weakness or folly.

4. Relishing highly. The epicure is fond of high seasoned food. Multitudes of men are too fond of strong drink.

5. Trifling; valued by folly. [Little used.]

FOND, v.t. To treat with great indulgence or tenderness; to caress; to cocker.

The Tyrian hugs and fonds thee on her breast.

Fond is thus used by the poets only. We now use fondle.

FOND, v.i. To be fond of; to be in love with; to dote on. [Little used.]

FONDLE, v.t. To treat with tenderness; to caress; as, a nurse fondles a child.

FONDLED, pp. Treated with affection; caressed.

FONDLER, n. One who fondles.

FONDLING, ppr. Caressing; treating with tenderness.

FONDLING, n. A person or thing fondled or caressed.

FONDLY, adv.

1. Foolishly; weakly; imprudently; with indiscreet affection.

Fondly we think we merit honor then,

When we but praise ourselves in other men.

2. With great or extreme affection. We fondly embrace those who are dear to us.


1. Foolishness; weakness; want of sense or judgment. Obs.

2. Foolish tenderness.

3. Tender passion; warm affection.

Her fondness for a certain earl began when I was but a girl.

4. Strong inclination or propensity; as a fondness for vice or sin.

5. Strong appetite or relish; as fondness for ardent spirit, or for a particular kind of food.

[It is now used chiefly in the three latter senses.]

FONT, n. [L. fundo, to pour out.]

A large basin or stone vessel in which water is contained for baptizing children or other persons in the church.

FONT, n. [L. fundo, to pour out.]

A complete assortment of printing types of one size, including a due proportion of all the letters in the alphabet, large and small, points, accents, and whatever else is necessary for printing with that letter.

FONTAL, a. Pertaining to a fount, fountain, source or origin.


1. An issue for the discharge of humors from the body.

2. A vacancy in the infant cranium, between the frontal and parietal bones, and also between the parietal and occipital, at the two extremities of the sagittal suture.

FONTANGE, n. fontanj’.

A knot of ribbons on the top of a head-dress.

FOOD, n. [See Feed.]

1. In a general sense, whatever is eaten by animals for nourishment, and whatever supplies nutriment to plants.

2. Meat; aliment; flesh or vegetables eaten for sustaining human life; victuals; provisions; whatever is or may be eaten for nourishment.

Feed me with food convenient for me. Proverbs 30:8.

3. Whatever supplies nourishment and growth to plants, as water, carbonic acid gas, etc. Manuring substances furnish plants with food.

4. Something that sustains, nourishes and augments. Flattery is the food of vanity.

FOOD, v.t. To feed. [Not in use.]

FOODFUL, a. Supplying food; full of food.

FOODLESS, a. Without food; destitute of provisions; barren.

FOODY, a. Eatable; fit for food. [Not used.]

FOOL, n. [Heb.]

1. One who is destitute of reason, or the common powers of understanding; an idiot. Some persons are born fools, and are called natural fools; others may become fools by some injury done to the brain.

2. In common language, a person who is somewhat deficient in intellect, but not an idiot; or a person who acts absurdly; one who does not exercise his reason; one who pursues a course contrary to the dictates of wisdom.

Experience keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no other.

3. In scripture, fool is often used for a wicked or depraved person; one who acts contrary to sound wisdom in his moral deportment; one who follows his own inclinations, who prefers trifling and temporary pleasures to the service of God and eternal happiness.

The fool hath said in his heart, there is no God. Psalm 14:1.

4. A weak christian; a godly person who has much remaining sin and unbelief.

O fools, and slow of heart to believe all the prophets have written. Luke 24:25.

Also, one who is accounted or called a food by ungodly men. 1 Corinthians 4:10.

5. A term of indignity and reproach.

To be thought knowing, you must first put the fool upon all mankind.

6. One who counterfeits folly; a buffoon; as a king’s fool.

I scorn, although their drudge, to be their fool or jester.

1. To play the fool, to act the buffoon; to jest; to make sport.

2. To act like one void of understanding.

To put the fool on, to impose on; to delude.

To make a fool of, to frustrate; to defeat; to disappoint.

FOOL, v.i. To trifle; to toy; to spend time in idleness, sport or mirth.

Is this a time for fooling?

FOOL, v.t.

1. To treat with contempt; to disappoint; to defeat; to frustrate; to deceive; to impose on.

When I consider life, ‘tis all a cheat; for fooled with hope, men favor the deceit.

2. To infatuate; to make foolish.

3. To cheat; as, to fool one out of his money.

1. To fool away, to spend in trifles, idleness, folly, or without advantage; as, to fool away time.

2. To spend for things of no value or use; to expend improvidently; as, to fool away money.

FOOL, n. A liquid made of gooseberries scalded and pounded, with cream.

FOOLBORN, a. Foolish from the birth.

FOOLED, pp. Disappointed; defeated; deceived; imposed on.


1. The practice of folly; habitual folly; attention to trifles.

2. An act of folly or weakness.

3. Object of folly.

FOOLHAPPY, a. Lucky without judgment or contrivance.

FOOLHARDINESS, n. Courage without sense or judgment; mad rashness.

FOOLHARDISE, n. Foolhardiness. [Not in use.]

FOOLHARDY, a. [fool and hardy.] Daring without judgment; madly rash and adventurous; foolishly bold.

FOOLING, ppr. Defeating; disappointing; deceiving.


1. Void of understanding or sound judgment; weak in intellect; applied to general character.

2. Unwise; imprudent; acting without judgment or discretion in particular things.

3. Proceeding from folly, or marked with folly; silly; vain; trifling.

But foolish questions avoid. 2 Timothy 2:23.

4. Ridiculous; despicable.

A foolish figure he must make.

5. In scripture, wicked; sinful; acting without regard to the divine law and glory, or to one’s own eternal happiness.

O foolish Galatians - Galatians 3:1.

6. Proceeding from depravity; sinful; as foolish lusts. 1 Timothy 6:9.


1. Weakly; without understanding or judgment; unwisely; indiscreetly.

2. Wickedly; sinfully.

I have done very foolishly. 2 Samuel 24:10.


1. Folly; want of understanding.

2. Foolish practice; want of wisdom or good judgment.

3. In a scriptural sense, absurdity; folly.

The preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness. 1 Corinthians 1:18.

FOOLSCAP, n. [L. scapus, or folio and shape.] A kind of paper of small size.

FOOL’S-PARSLEY, n. A plant, of the genus Aethusa.

FOOLSTONES, n. A plant, the Orchis.

FOOLTRAP, n. A trap to catch fools; as a fly trap.

FOOT, n. plu. feet. [L. pes, pedis. Probably this word is allied to the Gr. to walk, to tread. Eng. verb, to tread.]

1. In animal bodies, the lower extremity of the leg; the part of the leg which treads the earth in standing or walking, and by which the animal is sustained and enabled to step.

2. That which bears some resemblance to an animal’s foot in shape or office; the lower end of any thing that supports a body; as the foot of a table.

3. The lower part; the base; as the foot of a column or of a mountain.

4. The lower part; the bottom; as the foot of an account; the foot of a sail.

5. Foundation; condition; state. We are not on the same foot with our fellow citizens. In this sense, it is more common, in America, to use footing; and in this sense the plural is not used.

6. Plan of establishment; fundamental principles. Our constitution may hereafter be placed on a better foot.

[In this sense the plural is not used.]

7. In military language, soldiers who march and fight on foot; infantry, as distinguished from cavalry.

[In this sense the plural is not used.]

8. A measure consisting of twelve inches; supposed to be taken from the length of a man’s foot. Geometricians divide the foot into 10 digits, and the digit into 10 lines.

9. In poetry, a certain number of syllables, constituting part of a verse; as the iambus, the dactyl, and the spondee.

10. Step; pace.

11. Level; par. Obs.

12. The part of a stocking or boot which receives the foot.

By foot, or rather, on foot, by walking, as to go or pass on foot; or by fording, as to pass a stream on foot. See the next definition.

To set on foot, to originate; to begin; to put in motion; as, to set on foot a subscription. Hence, to be on foot, is to be in motion, action or process of execution.

FOOT, v.i.

1. To dance; to tread to measure or music; to skip.

2. To walk; opposed to ride or fly. In this sense, the word is commonly followed by it.

If you are for a merry jaunt, I’ll try, for once, who can foot it farthest.

FOOT, v.t.

1. To kick; to strike with the foot; to spurn.

2. To settle; to begin to fix. [Little used.]

3. To tread; as, to foot the green.

4. To add the numbers in a column, and set the sum at the foot; as, to foot an account.

5. To seize and hold with the foot. [Not used.]

6. To add or make a foot; as, to foot a stocking or boot.


1. A ball consisting of an inflated bladder, cased in leather, to be driven by the foot.

2. The sport or practice of kicking the football.