Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
EXCUSABLENESS — EXHILARATION
EXCUSABLENESS, n. s as z. The state of being excusable; pardonableness; the quality of admitting of excuse.
EXCUSATION, n. s as z. Excuse; apology. [Little used.]
EXCUSATOR, n. s as z. One who makes or is authorized to make an excuse or carry an apology.
EXCUSATORY, a. s as z. Making excuse; containing excuse or apology; apologetical; as an excusatory plea.
1. To pardon; to free from the imputation of fault or blame; to acquit of guilt. We excuse a person in our own minds, when we acquit him of guilt or blame; or we excuse him by a declaration of that acquital.
2. To pardon, as a fault; to forgive entirely, or to admit to be little censurable, and to overlook. We excuse a fault, which admits of apology or extenuation; and we excuse irregular conduct, when extraordinary circumstances appear to justify it.
3. To free from an obligation or duty.
I pray thee have me excused. Luke 14:18, 19.
4. To remit; not to exact; as, to excuse a forfeiture.
5. To pardon; to admit an apology for.
Excuse some courtly strains.
6. To throw off an imputation by apology.
Think you that we excuse ourselves to you? 2 Corinthians 12:19.
7. To justify; to vindicate.
Their thoughts accusing or else excusing one another. Romans 2:15.
EXCUSE, n. A plea offered in extenuation of a fault or irregular deportment; apology. Every man has an excuse to offer for his neglect of duty; the debtor makes excuses for delay of payment.
1. The act of excusing or apologizing.
2. That which excuses; that which extenuates or justifies a fault. His inability to comply with the request must be his excuse.
EXCUSELESS, a. Having no excuse; that for which no excuse or apology can be offered. [Little used.]
EXCUSER, n. s as z. One who offers excuses or pleads for another.
1. One who excuses or forgives another.
EXCUSING, ppr. s as z. Acquitting of guilt or fault; forgiving; overlooking.
EXCUSS, v.t. [L. excussus.] To shake off; also, to seize and detain by law. [Not used.]
EXCUSSION, n. A seizing by law. [Not used.]
EX-DIRECTOR, n. One who has been a director, but is displaced.
Deserving to be cursed; very hateful; destable; abominable; as an execrable wretch.
EXECRABLY, adv. Cursedly; detestably.
EXECRATE, v.t. [L. execror, from ex and sacer, the primary sense of which is to separate. See Sacred.]
Literally, to curse; to denounce evil agianst, or to imprecate evil on; hence, to detest utterly; to abhor; to abominate.
EXECRATION, n. The act of cursing; a curse pronounced; imprecation of evil; utter detestation expressed.
Cease, gentle queen, these execrations:
EXECRATORY, n. A formulary of execration.
EXECT, v.t. [L. execo, for exseco.] To cut off or out; to cut away. [Little used.]
EXECTION, n. A cutting off or out. [Little used.]
1. Literally, to follow out or through. Hence, to perform; to do; to effect; to carry into complete effect; to complete; to finish. We execute a purpose, a plan, design or scheme; we execute a work undertaken, that is, we pursue it to the end.
2. To perform; to inflict; as, to execute judgment or vengeance.
3. To carry into effect; as, to execute law or justice.
4. To carry into effect the law, or the judgment or sentence on a person; to inflict capital punishment on; to put to death; as, to execute a traitor.
5. To kill.
6. To complete, as a legal instrument; to perform what is required to give validity to a writing, as by signing and sealing; as, to execute a deed or lease.
EXECUTE, v.i. To perform the proper office; to produce an effect.
EXECUTED, pp. Done; performed; accomplished; carried into effect; put to death.
EXECUTING, ppr. Doing; performing; finishing; accomplishing; inflicting; carrying into effect.
EXECUTION, n. Performance; the act of completing or accomplishing.
The excellence of the subject contributed much to the happiness of the execution.
1. In law, the carrying into effect a sentence or judgment of court; the last act of the law in completing the process by which justice is to be done, by which the possession of land or debt, damages or cost, is obtained, or by which judicial punishment is inflicted.
2. The instrument, warrant or official order, by which an officer is empowered to carry a judgment into effect. An execution issues from the clerk of a court, and is levied by a sheriff, his deputy or a constable, on the estate, goods or body of the debtor.
3. The act of signing and sealing a legal instrument, or giving it the forms required to render it a valid act; as the execution of a deed.
4. The last act of the law in the punishment of criminals; capital punishment; death inflicted according to the forms of law.
5. Effect; something done or accomplished.
Every shot did execution.
6. Destruction; slaughter.
It is used after do, to do execution; never after make.
7. Performance, as in music or other art.
EXECUTIONER, n. One who executes; one who carries into effect a judgment of death; one who inflicts a capital punishment in pursuance of a legal warrant. It is chiefly used in this sense.
1. He that kills; he that murders.
2. The instrument by which any thing is performed.
EXECUTIVE, a. egzec’utive. Having the quality of executing or performing; as executive power or authority; an executive officer. Hence, in government, executive is used in distinction from legislative and judicial. The body that deliberates and enacts laws, is legislative; the body that judges, or applies the laws to particular cases, is judicial; the body or person who carries the laws into effect, or superintends the enforcement of them, is executive.
It is of the nature of war to increase the executive, at the expense of the legislative authority.
EXECUTIVE, n. The officer, whether king, president or other chief magistrate, who superintends the execution of the laws; the person who administers the government; executive power or authority in government.
Men most desirous of places in the executive gift, will not expect to be gratified, except by their support of the executive.
EXECUTOR, n. The person appointed by a testator to execute his will, or to see it carried into effect.
EXECUTORIAL, a. Pertaining to an executor; executive.
EXECUTORSHIP, n. The office of an executor.
EXECUTORY, a. Performing official duties.
1. In law, to be executed or carried into effect in future; to take effect on a future contingency; as an executory devise or remainder.
EXECUTRESS, EXECUTRIX, n. A female executor; a woman appointed by a testator to execute his will. [The latter word is generally used.]
EXEGESIS, n. [Gr. to explain, to lead.]
1. Exposition; explanation; interpretation.
2. A discourse intended to explain or illustrate a subject.
EXEGETICAL, a. Explanatory; tending to unfold or illustrate; expository.
EXEGETICALLY, adv. By way of explanation.
1. A model, original or pattern, to be copies or imitated.
2. The idea or image of a thing, formed in the mind or an artist, by which he conducts his work; the ideal model which he attempts to imitate.
EXEMPLARILY, adv. In a manner to deserve imitation; in a worthy or excellent manner.
She is exemplarily loyal.
1. In a manner that may warn others, by way of terror; in such a manner that others may be cautioned to avoid an evil; or in a manner intended to warn others.
Some he punished exemplarily in this world.
EXEMPLARINESS, n. The state or quality of being a pattern for imitation.
EXEMPLARY, a. [from exemplar.] Serving for a pattern or model for imitation; worthy of imitation. The christian should be exemplary in his life, as well as correct in his doctrines.
1. Such as may serve for a warning to others; such as may deter from crimes or vices; as exemplary justice; exemplary punishment.
2. Such as may attract notice and imitation.
When any duty has fallen into general neglect, the most visible and exemplary performance is required.
EXEMPLIFICATION, n. [from exemplify.]
1. The act of exemplifying; a showing or illustrating by example.
2. A copy; a transcript; an attested copy; as an exemplification of a deed, or of letters patent.
EXEMPLIFIED, pp. Illustrated by example or copy.
EXEMPLIFIER, n. One that exemplifies by following a pattern.
EXEMPLIFY, v.t. egzem’plify. [from exemplar; Low L. exemplo.]
1. To show or illustrate by example. The life and conversation of our Savior exemplified his doctrines and precepts.
2. To copy; to transcribe; to take an attested copy.
3. To prove or show by an attested copy.
EXEMPLIFYING, ppr. Illustrating by example; transcribing; taking an attested copy; proving by an attested copy.
EXEMPT, v.t. egzemt’ [L. eximo, exemptus; ex and emo, to take.]
Literally, to take out or from; hence, to free, or permit to be free, from any charge, burden, restraint, duty, evil or requisition, to which others are subject; to privilege; to grant immunity from. Officers and students of colleges are exempted from military duty. No man is exempted from pain and suffering. The laws of God exempt no man from the obligation to obedience.
Certain abbeys claimed to be exempted from the jurisdiction of their bishops.
EXEMPT, a. Free from any service, charge, burden, tax, duty, evil or requisition, to which others are subject; not subject; not liable to; as, to be exempt from military duty, or from a poll tax; to be exempt from pain or fear. Peers in G. Britain are exempt from serving on inquests.
1. Free by privilege; as exempt from the jurisdiction of a lord or of a court.
2. Free; clear; not included.
3. Cut off from. [Not used.]
EXEMPT, n. One who is exempted or freed from duty; one not subject.
EXEMPTED, pp. Freed from charge, duty, tax or evils, to which others are subject; privileged; not subjected.
EXEMPTIBLE, a. Free; privileged. [Not in use.]
EXEMPTING, ppr. Freeing from charge, duty, tax or evil; granting immunity to.
EXEMPTION, n. The act of exempting; the state of being exempt.
1. Freedom from any service, charge, burden, tax, evil or requisition, to which others are subject; immunity; privilege. Many cities of Europe purchased or obtained exemptions from feudal servitude. No man can claim an exemption from pain, sorrow or death.
EXEMPTITIOUS, a. Separable; that may be taken from. [Not used.]
EXENTERATE, v.t. [L. exentero; ex and Gr. entrails.]
To take out the bowels or entrails; to embowel.
EXENTERATION, n. The act of taking out the bowels.
EXEQUATUR, n. [L.] A written recognition of a person in the character of consul or commercial agent, issued by the government, and authorizing him to exercise his powers in the country.
EXEQUIAL, a. [L. exequialis.] Pertaining to funerals.
EXEQUIES, n. plu. [L. exequioe, from exequor, that is, exsequor, to follow.]
Funeral rites; the ceremonies of burial; funeral procession.
EXERCENT, a. [L. exercens. See Exercise.] Using; practicing; following; as a calling or profession. [Little used.]
EXERCISABLE, a. s as z. That may be exercised, used, employed or exerted.
EXERCISE, n. s as z. [L. exercitium, from exerceo; Eng. work.]
In a general sense, any kind of work, labor or exertion of body. Hence,
1. Use; practice; the exertions and movements customary in the performance of business; as the exercise of an art, trade, occupation, or profession.
2. Practice; performance; as the exercise of religion.
3. Use; employment; exertion; as the exercise of the eyes or of the senses, or of any power of body or mind.
4. Exertion of the body, as conducive to health; action; motion, by labor, walking, riding, or other exertion.
The wise for cure on exercise depend.
5. Exertion of the body for amusement, or for instruction; the habitual use of the limbs for acquiring an art, dexterity, or grace, as in fencing, dancing, riding; or the exertion of the muscles for invigorating the body.
6. Exertion of the body and mind or faculties for improvement, as in oratory, in painting or statuary.
7. Use or practice to acquire skill; preparatory practice. Military exercises consist in using arms, in motions, marches and evolutions. Naval exercise consists in the use or management of artillery, and in the evolutions of fleets.
8. Exertion of the mind; application of the mental powers.
9. Task; that which is appointed for one to perform.
10. Act of divine worship.
11. A lesson or example for practice.
EXERCISE, v.t. [L. exerceo.]
1. In a general sense, to move; to exert; to cause to act, in any manner; as, to exercise the body or the hands; to exercise the mind, the powers of the mind, the reason or judgment.
2. To use; to exert; as, to exercise authority or power.
3. To use for improvement in skill; as, to exercise arms.
4. To exert one’s powers or strength; to practice habitually; as, to exercise one’s self in speaking or music.
5. To practice; to perform the duties of; as, to exercise an office.
6. To train to use; to discipline; to cause to perform certain acts, as preparatory to service; as, to exercise troops.
7. To task; to keep employed; to use efforts.
Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offense towards God and men. Acts 24:16.
8. To use; to employ.
9. To busy; to keep busy in action, exertion or employment.
10. To pain or afflict; to give anxiety to; to make uneasy.
EXERCISE, v.i. To use action or exertion; as, to exercise for health or amusement.
EXERCISED, pp. Exerted; used; trained; disciplined; accustomed; made skillful by use; employed; practiced; pained; afflicted; rendered uneasy.
EXERCISER, n. One who exercises.
EXERCISING, ppr. Exerting; using; employing; training; practicing.
EXERCITATION, n. [L. exercitatio, from exerceo. See Exercise.]
Exercise; practice; use.
EXERGUE, n. [Gr. work.] A little space around or without the figures of a medal, left for the inscription, cipher, device, date, etc.
EXERT, v.t. egzert’. [L. exero, for exsero; ex and sero, to throw, to thrust, for this is the radical sense of sero.]
1. Literally, to thrust forth; to emit; to push out.
Before the gems exert
Their feeble heads.
[An unusual application.]
2. To bring out; to cause to come forth; to produce. But more generally,
3. To put or thrust forth, as strength, force or ability; to strain; to put in action; to bring into active operation; as, to exert the strength of the body or limbs; to exert efforts; to exert powers or faculties; to exert the mind.
4. To put forth; to do or perform.
When the will has exerted an act of command on any faculty of the soul.
To exert one’s self, is to use efforts; to strive.
EXERTED, pp. Thrust or pushed forth; put in action.
EXERTING, ppr. Putting forth; putting in action.
EXERTION, n. The act of exerting or straining; the act of putting into motion or action; effort; a striving or struggling; as an exertion of strength or power; an exertion of the limbs, of the mind or faculties. The ship was saved by great exertions of the crew. No exertions will suppress a vice which great men countenance.
EXESION, n. s as z. [L. exesus, exedo; ex and edo, to eat.]
The act of eating out or through. [Little used.]
EXESTUATION, n. [L. exoestuatio; ex and oestuo, to boil.]
A boiling; ebullition; agitation caused by heat; effervescence.
EXFOLIATE, v.i. [L. exfolio; ex and folium, a leaf.]
In surgery and mineralogy, to separate and come off in scales, as pieces of carious bone; to scale off, as the lamins of a mineral.
EXFOLIATED, pp. Separated in thin scales, as a carious bone.
EXFOLIATING, ppr. Separating and coming off in scales.
EXFOLIATION, n. The scaling of a bone; the process of separating, as pieces of unsound bone from the sound part; desquamation.
EXFOLIATIVE, a. That has the power of causing exfoliation or the desquamation of a bone.
EXFOLIATIVE, n. That which has the power or quality of procuring exfoliation.
EXHALATION, n. [L. exhalatio. See Exhale.]
1. The act or process of exhaling, or sending forth fluids in the form of steam or vapor; evaporation.
2. That which is exhaled; that which is emitted, or which rises in the form of vapor; fume or steam; effluvia. Exhalations are visible or invisible. The earth is often dried by evaporation, without visible exhalations. The smell of fragrant plants is caused by invisible exhalations.
EXHALE, v.t. egzha’le. [L. exhalo; ex and halo, to breathe, to send forth vapor.]
1. To send out; to emit; as vapor, or minute particles of a fluid or other substance. The rose exhales a fragrant odor. The earth exhales vapor. Marshes exhale noxious effluvia.
2. To draw out; to cause to be emitted in vapor or minute particles; to evaporate. The sun exhales the moisture of the earth.
EXHALED, pp. Sent out; emitted, as vapor; evaporated.
EXHALEMENT, n. Matter exhaled; vapor.
EXHALING, ppr. Sending or drawing out in vapor of effluvia.
EXHAUST, v.t. egzhaust’. [L. exhaurio, exhaustum; ex and haurio, to draw.]
1. To draw out or drain off the whole of any thing; to draw out, till nothing of the matter drawn is left. We exhaust the water in a well, by drawing or pumping; the water of a marsh is exhausted by draining; the moisture of the earth is exhausted by evaporation.
2. To empty by drawing out the contents. Venesection may exhaust the veins and arteries.
3. To draw out or to use and expend the whole; to consume. The treasures of the prince were exhausted; his means or his resources were exhausted. The strength or fertility of land may be exhausted.
4. To use or expend the whole by exertion; as, to exhaust the strength or spirits; to exhaust one’s patience. Hence this phrase is equivalent to tire, weary, fatigue.
EXHAUST, a. Drained; exhausted. [Little used.]
EXHAUSTED, pp. Drawn out; drained off; emptied by drawing, draining or evaporation; wholly used or expended; consumed.
EXHAUSTER, n. He or that which exhausts or draws out.
EXHAUSTIBLE, a. That may be exhausted or drained off.
EXHAUSTING, ppr. Drawing out; draining off; emptying; using or expending the whole; consuming.
1. Tending to exhaust; as exhausting labor.
EXHAUSTION, n. The act of drawing out or draining off; the act of emptying completely of the contents.
1. The state of being exhausted or emptied; the state of being deprived of strength or spirits.
2. In mathematics, a method of proving the equality of two magnitudes by a reductio ad absurdum, or showing that if one is supposed either greater or less than the other, there will arise a contradiction.
EXHAUSTLESS, a. Not to be exhausted; not to be wholly drawn off or emptied; inexhaustible; as an exhaustless fund or store.
EXHAUSTMENT, n. Exhaustion; drain.
EXHEREDATE, v.t. [infra.] To disinherit.
EXHEREDATION, n. [L. exhoeredatio, exhoeredo; ex and hoeres, an heir.]
In the civil law, a disinheriting; a father’s excluding a child from inheriting any part of his estate.
EXHIBIT, v.t. egzhib’it. [L. e xhibeo; ex and habeo, to have or hold, as we say, to hold out or forth.]
1. To offer or present to view; to present for inspection; to show; as, to exhibit painting or other specimens of art; to exhibit papers or documents in court.
2. To show; to display; to manifest publicly; as, to exhibit a noble example of bravery or generosity.
3. To present; to offer publicly or officially; as, to exhibit a charge of high treason.
EXHIBIT, n. Any paper produced or presented to a court or to auditors, referees or arbitrators, as a voucher, or in proof of facts; a voucher or document produced.
1. In chancery, a deed or writing produced in court, sworn to by a witness, and a certificate of the oath indorsed on it by the examiner or commissioner.
EXHIBITED, pp. Offered to view; presented for inspection; shown; displayed.
EXHIBITER, n. One who exhibits; one who presents a petition or charge.
EXHIBITING, ppr. Offering to view; presenting; showing; displaying.
EXHIBITION, n. [L. exhibitio.] The act of exhibiting for inspection; a showing or presenting to view; display.
1. The offering, producing or showing of titles, authorities or papers of any kind before a tribunal, in proof of facts.
2. Public show; representation of feats or actions in public; display of oratory in public; any public show.
3. Allowance of meat and drink; pension; salary; benefaction settled for the maintenance of scholars in universities, not depending on the foundation.
4. Payment; recompense.
EXHIBITIONER, n. In English universities; one who has a pension or allowance, granted for the encouragement of learning.
EXHIBITIVE, a. Serving for exhibition; representative.
EXHIBITIVELY, adv. By representation.
EXHIBITORY, a. Exhibiting; showing; displaying.
EXHILARATE, v.t. egzhil’arate. [L. exhilaro; ex and hilaro, to make merry, hilaris, merry, jovial.]
To make cheerful or merry; to enliven; to make glad or joyous; to gladden; to cheer. Good news exhilarates the mind, as good wine exhilarates the animal spirits.
EXHILARATE, v.i. To become cheerful or joyous.
EXHILARATED, pp. Enlivened; animated;; cheered; gladdened; made joyous or jovial.
EXHILARATING, ppr. Enlivening; giving life and vigor to the spirits; cheering; gladdening.
EXHILARATION, n. The act of enlivening the spirits; the act of making glad or cheerful.
1. The state of being enlivened or cheerful. Exhilaration usually expresses less than joy or mirth, but it may be used to express both.