Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



EVOLATION, n. [L. evolo; e and volo, to fly.]

The act of flying away.

EVOLUTE, n. An original curve from which another curve is described; the origin of the evolent.

EVOLUTION, n. [L. evolutio.] The act of unfolding or unrolling.

1. A series of things unrolled or unfolded; as the evolution of ages.

2. In geometry, the unfolding or opening of a curve, and making it describe an evolvent. The equable evolution of the periphery of a circle, or other curve, is such a gradual approach of the circumference to rectitude, as that its parts do all concur, and equally evolve or unbend; so that the same line becomes successively a less arc of a reciprocally greater circle, till at last they change into a straight line.

3. In algebra, evolution is the extraction of roots from powers; the reverse of involution.

4. In military tactics, the doubling of ranks or files, wheeling, countermarching or other motion by which the disposition of troops is changed, in order to attack or defend with more advantage, or to occupy a different post.

EVOLVE, v.t. evolv’. [L. evolvo; e and volvo, to roll; Eng. to wallow.]

1. To unfold; to open and expand.

The animal soul sooner evolves itself to its full orb and extent than the human soul.

2. To throw out; to emit.

EVOLVE, v.i. To open itself; to disclose itself.

EVOLVED, pp. Unfolded; opened; expanded; emitted.

EVOLVENT, n. In geometry, a curve formed by the evolution of another curve; the curve described from the evolute.

EVOLVING, ppr. Unfolding; expanding; emitting.

EVOMITION, n. A vomiting.

EVULGATION, n. A divulging. [Not in use.]

EVULSION, n. [L. evulsio, from evello; e and vello, to pluck.]

The act of plucking or pulling out by force.

EWE, n. yu. [L. ovis.] A female sheep; the female of the ovine race of animals.

EWER, n. yu’re. A kind of pitcher with a wide spout, used to bring water for washing the hands.

EWRY, n. yu’ry. [from ever.] In England an office in the king’s household, where they take care of the linen for the king’s table, lay the cloth, and serve up water in ewers after dinner.

EX. A Latin preposition or prefix, Gr. signifying out of, out, proceeding from. Hence in composition, it signifies sometimes out of, as in exhale, exclude; sometimes off, from or out, as in L. excindo, to cut off or out; sometimes beyond, as in excess, exceed, excel. In some words it is merely emphatical; in others it has little effect on the signification.

EXACERBATE, v.t. [L. exacerbo, to irritate; ex and acerbo, from acerbus, severe, bitter, harsh, sour. See Harvest.]

1. To irritate; to exasperate; to inflame angry passions; to imbitter; to increase malignant qualities.

2. To increase the violence of a disease.

EXACERBATION, n. The act of exasperating; the irritation of angry or malignant passions or qualities; increase of malignity.

1. Among physicians, the increased violence of a disease; hence, a paroxysm, as in the return of an intermitting fever.

This term is more generally restricted to the periodical increase of remittent and continued fevers, where there is no absolute cessation of the fever.

2. Increased severity; as violent exacerbations of punishment. [Unusual.]

EXACERBESCENCE, n. [L. exacerbesco.] Increase of irritation or violence, particularly the increase of a fever or disease.

EXACT, a. egzact’. [L. exactus, from exigo, to drive; ex and ago. Gr. to drive, urge or press.]

1. Closely correct or regular; nice; accurate; conformed to rule; as a man exact in his dealings.

All this, exact to rule, were brought about.

2. Precise; not different in the least. This is the exact sum or amount, or the exact time.

We have an exact model for imitation.

3. Methodical; careful; not negligent; correct; observing strict method, rule or order. This man is very exact in keeping his accounts.

4. Punctual. Every man should be exact in paying his debts when due; he should be exact in attendance on appointments.

5. Strict. We should be exact in the performance of duties.

The exactest vigilance cannot maintain a single day of unmingled innocence.

EXACT, v.t. egzact’. [L. exigo, exactum. See the Adjective.]

1. To force or compel to pay or yield; to demand or require authoritatively; to extort by means of authority or without pity or justice. It is an offense for an officer to exact illegal or unreasonable fees. It is customary for conquerors to exact tribute or contributions from conquered countries.

2. To demand or right. Princes exact obedience of their subjects. The laws of God exact obedience from all men.

3. To demand of necessity; to enforce a yielding or compliance; or to enjoin with pressing urgency.


And justice to my father’s soul, exact

This cruel piety.

EXACT, v.i. To practice extortion.

The enemy shall not exact upon him. Psalm 89:22.

EXACTED, pp. Demanded or required by authority; extorted.

EXACTING, ppr. Demanding and compelling to pay or yield under color of authority; requiring authoritatively; demanding without pity or justice; extorting; compelling by necessity.

EXACTION, n. The act of demanding with authority, and compelling to pay or yield; authoritative demand; a levying or drawing from by force; a driving to compliance; as the exaction of tribute or of obedience.

1. Extortion; a wresting from one unjustly; the taking advantage of one’s necessities, to compel him to pay illegal or exorbitant tribute, fees or rewards.

Take away your exactions from my people. Ezekiel 45:9.

2. That which is exacted; tribute, fees, rewards or contributions demanded or levied with severity or injustice. Kings may be enriched by exactions, but their power is weakened by the consequent disaffection of their subjects.

EXACTITUDE, n. Exactness. [Little used.]

EXACTLY, adv. Precisely according to rule or measure; nicely; accurately. A tenon should be exactly fitted to the mortise.

1. Precisely according to fact. The story exactly accords with the fact or event.

2. Precisely according to principle, justice or right.

EXACTNESS, n. Accuracy; nicety; precision; as, to make experiments with exactness.

1. Regularity; careful conformity to law or rules of propriety; as exactness of deportment.

2. Careful observance of method and conformity to truth; as exactness in accounts or business.

EXACTOR, n. One who exacts; an officer who collects tribute, taxes or customs.

I will make thine officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness. Isaiah 60:17.

1. An extortioner; one who compels another to pay more than is legal or reasonable; one who demands something without pity or regard to justice.

2. He that demands by authority; as an exactor of oaths.

3. One who is unreasonably severe in his injunctions or demands.

EXACTRESS, n. A female who exacts or is severe in her injunctions.

EXACUATE, v.t. [L. exacuo.] To whet or sharpen. [Not in use.]

EXAGGERATE, v.t. [L. exaggero; ex and aggero, to heap, from agger, a heap.]

1. To heap on; to accumulate. In this literal sense, it is seldom used; perhaps never.

2. To highthen; to enlarge beyond the truth; to amplify; to represent as greater than strict truth will warrant. A friend exaggerates a man’s virtues; a enemy exaggerates his vices or faults.

3. In painting, to highthen in coloring or design.

EXAGGERATED, pp. Enlarged beyond the truth.

EXAGGERATING, ppr. Enlarging or amplifying beyond the truth.

EXAGGERATION, n. A heaping together; heap; accumulation.

1. In rhetoric, amplification; a representation of things beyond the truth; hyperbolical representation, whether of good or evil.

2. In painting, a method of giving a representation of things too strong for the life.

EXAGGERATORY, a. Containing exaggeration.

EXAGITATE, v.t. [L. exagito.] To shake; to agitate; to reproach. [Little used.]

EXALT, v.t. egzolt’. [Low L. exalto; ex and altus, high.]

1. To raise high; to elevate.

2. To elevate in power, wealth, rank or dignity; as, to exalt one to a throne, to the chief magistracy, to a bishopric.

3. To elevate with joy or confidence; as, to be exalted with success or victory. [We now use elate.]

4. To raise with pride; to make undue pretensions to power, rank or estimation; to elevate too high or above others.

He that exalteth himself shall be abased. Luke 14:11; Matthew 23:12.

5. To elevate in estimation and praise; to magnify; to praise; to extol.

He is my father’s God, and I will exalt him. Exodus 15:2.

6. To raise, as the voice; to raise in opposition. 2 Kings 19:22.

7. To elevate in diction or sentiment; to make sublime; as exalted strains.

8. In physics, to elevate; to purify; to subtilize; to refine; as, to exalt the juices or the qualities of bodies.

EXALTATION, n. The act of raising high.

1. Elevation to power, office, rank, dignity or excellence.

2. Elevated state; state of greatness or dignity.

I wondered at my flight, and change

To this high exaltation.

3. In pharmacy, the refinement or subtilization of bodies or their qualities and virtues, or the increase of their strength.

4. In astrology, the dignity of a planet in which its powers are increased.

EXALTED, pp. Raised to a lofty highth; elevated; honored with office or rank; extolled; magnified; refined; dignified; sublime.

Time never fails to bring every exalted reputation to a strict scrutiny.

EXALTEDNESS, n. The state of being elevated.

1. Conceited dignity or greatness.

EXALTER, n. One who exalts or raises to dignity.

EXALTING, ppr. Elevating; raising to an eminent station; praising; extolling; magnifying; refining.

EXAMEN, n. egza’men. [L. examen, the tongue, needle or beam of a balance. It signifies also a swarm of bees.]

Examination; disquisition; enquiry. [Little used.]

EXAMINABLE, a. [See Examine.] That may be examined; proper for judicial examination or inquiry.

EXAMINANT, n. One who is to be examined. [Not legitimate.]

EXAMINATE, n. The person examined.

EXAMINATION, n. [L. examinatio. See Examen.]

1. The act of examining; a careful search or inquiry, with a view to discover truth or the real state of things; careful and accurate inspection of a thing and its parts; as an examination of a house or a ship.

2. Mental inquiry; disquisition; careful consideration of the circumstances or facts which relate to a subject or question; a view of qualities and relations, and an estimate of their nature and importance.

3. Trial by a rule or law.

4. In judicial proceedings, a careful inquiry into facts by testimony; an attempt to ascertain truth by inquiries and interrogatories; as the examination of a witness or the merits of a cause.

5. In seminaries of learning, an inquiry into the acquisitions of the students, by questioning them in literature and the sciences, and by hearing their recitals.

6. In chimistry and other sciences, a searching for the nature and qualities of substances, by experiments; the practice or application of the docimastic art.

EXAMINATOR, n. An examiner. [Not used.]

EXAMINE, v.t. egzam’in. [L. examino, from examen.]

1. To inspect carefully, with a view to discover truth or the real state of a thing; as, to examine a ship to know whether she is sea-worthy, or a house to know whether repairs are wanted.

2. To search or inquire into facts and circumstances by interrogating; as, to examine a witness.

3. To look into the state of a subject; to view in all its aspects; to weigh arguments and compare facts, with a view to form a correct opinion or judgment. Let us examine this proposition; let us examine this subject in all its relations and bearing; let us examine into the state of this question.

4. To inquire into the improvements or qualifications of students, by interrogatories, proposing problems, or by hearing their recitals; as, to examine the classes in college; to examine the candidates for a degree, or for a license to preach or to practice in a profession.

5. To try or assay by experiments; as, to examine minerals.

6. To try by a rule or law.

Examine yourselves whether ye are in the faith. 2 Corinthians 13:5.

7. In general, to search; to scrutinize; to explore, with a view to discover truth; as, to examine ourselves; to examine the extent of human knowledge.

EXAMINED, pp. Inquired into; searched; inspected; interrogated; tried by experiment.

EXAMINER, n. One who examines, tries or inspects; one who interrogates a witness or an offender.

1. In chancery, in Great Britain, the Examiners are two officers of that court, who examine, on oath, the witnesses for the parties.

EXAMINING, ppr. Inspecting carefully; searching or inquiring into; interrogating; trying or assaying by experiment.

EXAMPLARY, a. [from example.] Serving for example or pattern; proposed for imitation. [It is now written exemplary.]

EXAMPLE, n. egzam’pl. [L. e xemplum.]

1. A pattern; a copy; a mode; that which is proposed to be imitated. This word, when applied to material things, is now generally written sample, as a sample of cloth; but example is sometimes used.

2. A pattern, in morals or manners; a copy, or model; that which is proposed or is proper to be imitated.

I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you. John 13:15.

Example is our preceptor before we can reason.

3. Precedent; a former instance. Buonaparte furnished many examples of successful bravery.

4. Precedent or former instance, in a bad sense, intended for caution.

Lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. Hebrews 4:11.

Sodom and Gomorrah--are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. Jude 7.

5. A person fit to be proposed for a pattern; one whose conduct is worthy of imitation.

Be thou an example of the believers. 1 Timothy 4:12.

6. Precedent which disposes to imitation.

Example has more effect than precept.

7. Instance serving for illustration of a rule or precept; or a particular case or proposition illustrating a general rule, position or truth. The principles of trigonometry and the rules of grammar are illustrated by examples.

8. In logic, or rhetoric, the conclusion of one singular point from another; an induction of what may happen from what has happened. If civil war has produced calamities of a particular kind in one instance, it is inferred that it will produce like consequences in other cases. This is an example.

EXAMPLE, v.t. To exemplify; to set an example. [Not used.]

EXAMPLELESS, a. Having no example. [Not used.]

EXAMPLER, n. A pattern; now sample or sampler.

EXANGUIOUS, a. Having no blood. [Not used. See Exsanguious.]

EXANIMATE, a. egzan’imate. [L. exanimatus, exanimo; ex and anima, life.]

Lifeless; spiritless; disheartened; depressed in spirits.

EXANIMATE, v.t. To dishearten; to discourage.

EXANIMATION, n. Deprivation of life or of spirits. [Little used.]

EXANIMOUS, a. [L. exanimis; ex and anima, life.]

Lifeless; dead. [Little used.]

EXANTHEMA, n. plu. exanthem’ata. [Gr. to blossom; a flower.]

Among physicians, eruption; a breaking out; pustules, petechiae, or vibices; any efflorescence on the skin, as in measles, small pox, scarlatina, etc.

This term is now limited by systematic nosologists, to such eruptions as are accompanied with fever.

EXANTHEMATIC, EXANTHEMATOUS, a. Eruptive; efflorescent; noting morbid redness of the skin. The measles is an exanthematous disease. Tooke uses exanthematic.

EXANTLATE, v.t. [L. exantlo.] To draw out; to exhaust.

[Not used.]

EXANTLATION, n. The act of drawing out; exhaustion. [Not used.]

EXARATION, n. [L. exaro; ex and aro.] The act of writing. [Not used.]

EXARCH, n. [Gr. a chief.] A prefect or governor under the eastern emperors. Also, a deputy or legate in the Greek church.

EXARCHATE, n. The office, dignity or administration of an exarch.

EXARTICULATION, n. [ex and articulation.] Luxation; the dislocation of a joint.

EXASPERATE, v.t. [L. exaspero, to irritate; ex and aspero, from asper, rough, harsh.]

1. To anger; to irritate to a high degree; to provoke to rage; to enrage; to excite anger, or to inflame it to an extreme degree. We say, to exasperate a person, or to exasperate the passion of anger or resentment.

2. To aggravate; to embitter; as, to exasperate enmity.

3. To augment violence; to increase malignity; to exacerbate; as, to exasperate pain or a part inflamed.

EX`ASPERATE, a. Provoked; embittered; inflamed.

EXASPERATED, pp. Highly angered or irritated; provoked; enraged; embittered; increased in violence.

EXASPERATER, n. One who exasperates or inflames anger, enmity or violence.

EXASPERATING, ppr. Exciting keen resentment; inflaming anger; irritating; increasing violence.

EXASPERATION, n. Irritation; the act of exciting violent anger; provocation.

1. Extreme degree of anger; violent passion.

2. Increase of violence or malignity; exacerbation.

EXAUCTORATE, EXAUTHORATE, v.t. [L. exauctoro; ex and auctoro, to hire or bind, from auctor, author.]

To dismiss from service; to deprive of a benefice.

EXAUCTORATION, EXAUTHORATION, n. Dismission from service; deprivation; degradation; the removal of a person from an office or dignity in the church.

EXAUTHORIZE, v.t. To deprive of authority.

EXCALCEATED, a. [L. excalceo, to pull off the shoes; ex and calceus, a shoe.]

Deprived of shoes; unshod; barefooted.

EXCANDESCENCE, n. [L. excandescentia, excandesco; ex and candesco, candeo, to glow or be hot, from caneo, to be white, to shine.]

1. A growing hot; or a white heat; glowing heat.

2. Heat of passion; violent anger; or a growing angry.

EXCANDESCENT, a. White with heat.

EXCANTATION, n. [L. excanto, but with an opposite signification.]

Disenchantment by a countercharm. [Little used.]

EXCARNATE, v.t. [L. ex and caro, flesh.]

To deprive or clear of flesh.

EXCARNIFICATION, n. [L. excarnifico, to cut in pieces, from caro, flesh.]

The act of cutting off flesh, or of depriving of flesh.

EXCAVATE, v.t. [L. excavo; ex and cavo, to hollow, cavus, hollow. See Cave.]

To hollow; to cut, scoop, dig or wear out the inner part of any thing and make it hollow; as, to excavate a ball; to excavate the earth; to excavate the trunk of a tree and form a canoe.

EXCAVATED, pp. Hollowed; make hollow.

EXCAVATING, ppr. Making hollow.

EXCAVATION, n. The act of making hollow, by cutting, wearing or scooping out the interior substance or part of a thing.

1. A hollow or a cavity formed by removing the interior substance. Many animals burrow in excavations of their own forming.

EXCAVATOR, n. One who excavates.

EXCECATE, v.t. [L. excoeco.] To make blind. [Not used.]

EXCECATION, n. The act of making blind.

EXCEDENT, n. Excess. [Not authorized.]

EXCEED, v.t. [L. excedo; ex and cedo, to pass.]

1. To pass or go beyond; to proceed beyond any given or supposed limit, measure or quantity, or beyond any thing else; used equally in a physical or moral sense. One piece of cloth exceeds the customary length or breadth; one man exceeds another in bulk, stature or weight; one offender exceeds another in villainy.

2. To surpass; to excel. Homer exceeded all men in epic poetry. Demosthenes and Cicero exceeded their contemporaries in oratory.

King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom. 1 Kings 10:23.

EXCEED, v.i. To go too far; to pass the proper bounds; to go over any given limit, number or measure.

Forty stripes may he give him, and not exceed. Deuteronomy 25:3.

1. To bear the greater proportion; to be more or larger.

[This verb is intransitive only by ellipsis.]

EXCEEDABLE, a. That may surmount or exceed.

EXCEEDED, pp. Excelled; surpassed; outdone.

EXCEEDER, n. One who exceeds or passes the bounds of fitness.

EXCEEDING, ppr. Going beyond; surpassing; excelling; outdoing.

1. Great in extent, quantity or duration; very extensive.

Cities were built an exceeding space of time before the flood. [This sense is unusual.]

2. adv. In a very great degree; unusually; as exceeding rich.

The Genoese were exceeding powerful by sea.

I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. Genesis 15:1.

EXCEEDING, n. Excess; superfluity.

EXCEEDINGLY, adv. To a very great degree; in a degree beyond what is usual; greatly; very much.

Isaac trembled exceedingly. Genesis 27:33.

EXCEEDINGNESS, n. Greatness in quantity, extent or duration. [Not used.]

EXCEL, v.t. [L. excello, the root of which, cello, is not in use.]

1. To go beyond; to exceed; to surpass in good qualities or laudable deeds; to outdo.

Excelling others, these were great;

Thou greater still, must these excel.

Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. Proverbs 31:29.

2. To exceed or go beyond in bad qualities or deeds.

3. To exceed; to surpass.

EXCEL, v.i. To have good qualities, or to perform meritorious actions, in an unusual degree; to be eminent, illustrious or distinguished.

Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength. Psalm 103:20.

We say, to excel in mathematics; to excel in painting; to excel in heroic achievements.

EXCELLED, pp. Surpassed; outdone; exceeded in good qualities or laudable achievements.

EXCELLENCE, EXCELLENCY, n. [L. excellentia.] The state of possessing food qualities in an unusual or eminent degree; the state of excelling in any thing.

1. An valuabale quality; any thing highly laudable, meritorious or virtuous, in persons, or valuable and esteemed, in things. Purity of heart, uprightness of mind, sincerity, virtue, piety, are excellencies of character; symmetry of parts, strength and beauty are excellencies of body; an accurate knowledge of an art is an excellence in the artisan; soundness and durability are excellencies in timber; fertility, in land; elegance, in writing. In short, whatever contributes to exalt man, or to render him esteemed and happy, or to bless society, is in him an excellence.

2. Dignity; high rank in the scale of beings. Angels are beings of more excellence than men; men are beings of more excellence than brutes.

3. A title of honor formerly given to kings and emperors, now given to embassadors, governors, and other persons, below the rank of kings, but elevated above the common classes of men.

EXCELLENT, a. Being of great virtue or worth; eminent or distinguished for what is amiable, valuable or laudable; as an excellent man or citizen; an excellent judge or magistrate.

1. Being of great value or use, applied to things; remarkable for good properties; as excellent timber; an excellent farm; an excellent horse; excellent fruit.

2. Distinguished for superior attainments; as an excellent artist.

3. Consummate; complete; in an ill sense.

Elizabeth was an excellent hypocrite.

EXCELLENTLY, adv. In an excellent manner; well in a high degree; in an eminent degree; in a manner to please or command esteem, or to be useful.

EXCEPT, v.t. [L. excipio; ex and capio, to take. See Caption, Capture.]

1. To take or leave out of any number specified; to exclude; as, of the thirty persons present and concerned in a riot, we must except two.

2. To take or leave out any particular or particulars, from a general description.

When he saith, all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted who did put all things under him. 1 Corinthians 15:27.

EXCEPT, v.i. To object; to make an objection or objections; usually followed by to; sometimes by against. I except to a witness, or to his testimony, on account of his interest or partiality.
EXCEPT, pp. Contracted from excepted. Taken out; not included. All were involved in this affair, except one; that is, one excepted, the case absolute or independent clause. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish; that is, except this fact, that ye repent, or this fact being excepted, removed, taken away, ye shall all likewise perish. Or except may be considered as the imperative mode. Except, thou or ye, this fact, ye shall all likewise perish. Hence except is equivalent to without, unless, and denotes exclusion.

EXCEPTED, pp. [See Except.]