Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



EQUIDIFFERENT, a. Having equal differences; arithmetically proportional.

In crystalography, having a different number of faces presented by the prism and by each summit; and these three numbers form a series in arithmetical progression, as 6, 4, 2.

EQUIDISTANCE, n. Equal distance.

EQUIDISTANT, a. [L. oequus, equal, and distans, distant.]

Being at an equal distance from some point or place.

EQUIDISTANTLY, adv. At the same or an equal distance.

EQUIFORMITY, n. [L. oequus, equal, and forma, form.] Uniform equality.

EQUILATERAL, a. [L. oequus, equal, and lateralis, from latus, side.]

Having all the sides equal; as an equilateral triangle. A square must necessarily be equilateral.

EQUILATERAL, n. A side exactly corresponding to others.

EQUILIBRATE, v.t. [L. oequus and libro, to poise.]

To balance equally two scales, sides or ends; to keep even with equal weight on each side.

The bodies of fishes are equilibrated with the water.

EQUILIBRATED, pp. Balanced equally on both sides or ends.

EQUILIBRATING, ppr. Balancing equally on both sides or ends.

EQUILIBRATION, n. Equipoise; the act of keeping the balance even, or the state of being equally balanced.

Nature’s laws of equilibration.

EQUILIBRIOUS, a. Equally poised.

EQUILIBRIOUSLY, adv. In equal poise.

EQUILIBRIST, n. One that balances equally.

EQUILIBRITY, n. [L. oequilibritas.] The state of being equally balanced; equal balance on both sides; equilibrium; as the theory of equilibrity.

EQUILIBRIUM, n. [L.] In mechanics, equipose; equality of weight; the state of the two ends of a lever or balance, when both are charged with equal weight, and they maintain an even or level position, parallel to the horizon.

1. Equality of powers.

Health consists in the equilibrium between those two powers.

2. Equal balancing of the mind between motives or reasons; a state of indifference or of doubt, when the mind is suspended in indecision, between different motives, or the different forces of evidence.

EQUIMULTIPLE, a. [L. oequus and multiplico or multiplex.]

Multiplied by the same number or quantity.

EQUIMULTIPLE, n. In arithmetic and geometry, a number multiplied by the same number or quantity. Hence equimultiples are always in the same ratio to each other, as the simple numbers or quantities before multiplication. If 6 and 9 are multiplied by 4, the multiples, 24 and 36, will be to each other as 6 to 9.

EQUINE, a. [L. equinus, from equus, a horse.] Pertaining to a horse or to the genus.

The shoulders, body, thighs, and mane are equine; the head completely bovine.

EQUINECESSARY, a. [L. oequus and necessary.]

Necessary or needful in the same degree.

EQUINOCTIAL, a. [L. oequus, equal, and nox, night.]

1. Pertaining to the equinoxes; designating an equal length of day and night; as the equinoctial line.

2. Pertaining to the regions or climate of the equinoctial line or equator; in or near that line; as equinoctial heat; an equinoctial sun; equinoctial wind.

3. Pertaining to the time when the sun enters the equinoctial points; as an equinoctial gale or storm, which happens at or near the equinox, in any part of the world.

4. Equinoctial flowers, flowers that open at a regular, stated hour.

EQUINOCTIAL, n. [for equinoctial line.]

In astronomy, a great circle of the sphere, under which the equator moves in its diurnal course. This should not be confounded with the equator, as there is a difference between them; the equator being movable, and the equinoctial immovable; the equator being drawn about the convex surface of the sphere, and the equinoctial on the concave surface of the magnus orbis. These words however are often confounded. When the sun, in its course through the ecliptic, comes to this circle, it makes equal days and nights in all parts of the globe. The equinoctial then is the circle which the sun describes, or appears to describe, at the time the days and nights are of equal length, viz. about the 21st of March and 23d of September.

Equinoctial points, are the two points wherein the equator and ecliptic intersect each other; the one, being in the first point of Aries, is called the vernal point or equinox; the other, in the first point of Libra, the autumnal point or equinox.

Equinoctial dial, is that whose plane lies parallel to the equinoctial.

EQUINOCTIALLY, adv. In the direction of the equinox.

EQUINOX, n. [L. oequus, equal, and nox, night.]

The precise time when the sun enters one of the equinoctial points, or the first point of Aries, about the 21st of March, and the first point of Libra, about the 23d of September, making the day and the night of equal length. These are called the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. These points are found to be moving backward or westward, at the rate of 50" of a degree in a year. This is called the precession of the equinoxes.

EQUINUMERANT, a. [L. oequus, equal, and numerus, number.]

Having or consisting of the same number. [Little used.]

EQUIP, v.t.

1. Properly, to dress; to habit. Hence, to furnish with arms, or a complete suit of arms, for military service. Thus we say, to equip men or troops for war; to equip a body of infantry or cavalry. But the word seems to include not only arms, but clothing, baggage, utensils, tents, and all the apparatus of an army, particularly when applied to a body of troops. Hence, to furnish with arms and warlike apparatus; as, to equip a regiment.

2. To furnish with men, artillery and munitions of war, as a ship. Hence, in common language, to fit for sea; to furnish with whatever is necessary for a voyage.

EQUIPAGE, n. The furniture of a military man, particularly arms and their appendages.

1. The furniture of an army or body of troops, infantry or cavalry; including arms, artillery, utensils, provisions, and whatever is necessary for a military expedition. Camp equipage includes tents, and every thing necessary for accommodation in camp. Field equipage consists of arms, artillery, wagons, tumbrels, etc.

2. The furniture of an armed ship, or the necessary preparations for a voyage; including cordage, spars, provisions, etc.

3. Attendance, retinue, as persons, horses, carriages, etc.; as the equipage of a prince.

4. Carriage of state; vehicle; as celestial equipage.

5. Accouterments; habiliments; ornamental furniture.

EQUIPAGED, a. Furnished with equipage; attended with a splendid retinue.

EQUIPENDENCY, n. [L. oequus, equal, and pendeo, to hang.]

The act of hanging in equipoise; a being not inclined or determined either way.

EQUIPMENT, n. The act of equipping, or fitting for a voyage or expedition.

1. Any thing that is used in equipping; furniture; habiliments; warlike apparatus; necessaries for an expedition, or for a voyage; as the equipments of a ship or an army.

EQUIPOISE, n. s as z. [L. oequus, equal.] Equality of weight or force; hence, equilibrium; a state in which the two ends or sides of a thing are balanced. Hold the scales in equipoise. The mind may be in a state of equipoise, when motives are of equal weight.

EQUIPOLLENCE, EQUIPOLLENCY, n. [L. oequus and pollentia, power, polleo, to be able.]

1. Equality of power or force.

2. In logic, an equivalence between two or more propositions; that is, when two propositions signify the same thing, though differently expressed.

EQUIPOLLENT, a. [supra.] Having equal power or force; equivalent. In logic, having equivalent signification.

EQUIPONDERANCE, n. [L. oequus, equal, and pondus, weight.]

Equality of weight; equipoise.

EQUIPONDERANT, a. [supra.] Being of the same weight.

EQUIPONDERATE, v.i. [L. oequus, equal, and pondero, to weigh.]

To be equal in weight; to weigh as much as another thing.

EQUIPONDIOUS, a. Having equal weight on both sides.

EQUIPPED, pp. Furnished with habiliments, arms, and whatever is necessary for a military expedition, or for a voyage or cruise.

EQUIPPING, ppr. Furnishing with habiliments or warlike apparatus; supplying with things necessary for a voyage.

EQUISONANCE, n. An equal sounding; a name by which the Greeks distinguished the consonances of the octave and double octave.

EQUITABLE, n. [L. oequitas, from oequus, equal.]

1. Equal in regard to the rights of persons; distributing equal justice; giving each his due; assigning to one or more what law or justice demands; just; impartial. The judge does justice by an equitable decision. The court will make an equitable distribution of the estate.

2. Having the disposition to do justice, or doing justice; impartial; as an equitable judge.

3. Held or exercised in equity, or with chancery powers; as the equitable jurisdiction of a court.

EQUITABLENESS, n. The quality of being just and impartial; as the equitableness of a judge.

1. Equity; the state of doing justice, or distributing to each according to his legal or just claims; as the equitableness of a decision or distribution of property.

EQUITABLY, adv. In an equitable manner; justly; impartially. The laws should be equitably administered.

EQUITANT, a. [L. equitans, equito, to ride, from eques, a horseman, or equus, a horse.]

In botany, riding, as equitant leaves: a term of leafing or foliation, when two opposite leaves converge so with their edges, that one incloses the other; or when the inner leaves are inclosed by the outer ones.

EQUITATION, n. A riding on horseback.

EQUITY, n. [L. oequitas, from oequus, equal, even, level.]

1. Justice; right. In practice, equity is the impartial distribution of justice, or the doing that to another which the laws of God and man, and of reason, give him a right to claim. It is the treating of a person according to justice and reason.

The Lord shall judge the people with equity. Psalm 98:9.

With righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity. Isaiah 11:4.

2. Justice; impartiality; a just regard to right or claim; as, we must, in equity, allow this claim.

3. In law, an equitable claim. “I consider the wife’s equity to be too well settled to be shaken.”

4. In jurisprudence, the correction or qualification of law, when too severe or defective; or the extension of the words of the law to cases not expressed, yet coming within the reason of the law. Hence a court of equity or chancery, is a court which corrects the operation of the literal text of the law, and supplies its defects, by reasonable construction, and by rules of proceeding and deciding, which are not admissible in a court of law. Equity then is the law of reason, exercised by the chancellor or judge, giving remedy in cases to which the courts of law are not competent.

5. Equity of redemption, in law, the advantage, allowed to a mortgager, of a reasonable time to redeem lands mortgaged, when the estate is of greater value than the sum for which it was mortgaged.

EQUIVALENCE, n. [L. oequus, equal, and valens, from valeo, to be worth.]

1. Equality of value; equal value or worth. Take the goods and give an equivalence in corn.

2. Equal power or force. [To equivalence, a verb, used by Brown, has not gained currency.]

EQUIVALENT, a. Equal in value or worth. In barter, the goods given are supposed to be equivalent to the goods received. Equivalent in value or worth, is tautological.

1. Equal in force, power or effect. A steam engine may have force or power equivalent to that of thirty horses.

2. Equal in moral force, cogency or effect on the mind. Circumstantial evidence may be almost equivalent to full proof.

3. Of the same import or meaning. Friendship and amity are equivalent terms.

For now to serve and to minister, servile and ministerial, are terms equivalent.

Equivalent propositions in logic are called also equipollent.

4. Equal in excellence or moral worth.

EQUIVALENT, n. That which is equal in value, weight, dignity or force, with something else. The debtor cannot pay his creditor in money, but he will pay him an equivalent. Damages in money cannot be an equivalent for the loss of a limb.

1. In chimistry, equivalent is the particular weight or quantity of any substance which is necessary to saturate any other with which it can combine. It is ascertained that chimical combinations are definite, that is, the same body always enters into combination in the same weight, or if it can combine with a particular body in more than one proportion, the higher proportion is always a multiple of the lower.

EQUIVALENTLY, adv. In an equal manner.

EQUIVOCACY, n. Equivocalness. [Not used.]

EQUIVOCAL, a. [Low L. oequivocus; oequus, equal, and vox, a word. See Vocal.]

1. Being of doubtful signification; that may be understood in different senses; capable of a double interpretation; ambiguous; as equivocal words, terms or senses. Men may be misled in their opinions by the use of equivocal terms.

2. Doubtful; ambiguous; susceptible of different constructions; not decided. The character of the man is somewhat equivocal. His conduct is equivocal.

3. Uncertain; proceeding from some unknown cause, or not from the usual cause. Equivocal generation is the production of animals without the intercourse of the sexes, and of plants without seed. This doctrine is now exploded.

EQUIVOCAL, n. A word or term of doubtful meaning, or capable of different meanings.

EQUIVOCALLY, adv. Ambiguously; in a doubtful sense; in terms susceptible of different senses. He answered the question equivocally.

1. By uncertain birth; by equivocal generation.

EQUIVOCALNESS, n. Ambiguity; double meaning.

EQUIVOCATE, v.i. To use words of a doubtful signification; to express one’s opinions in terms which admit of different senses; to use ambiguous expressions. To equivocate is the dishonorable work of duplicity. The upright man will not equivocate in his intercourse with his fellow men.

EQUIVOCATING, ppr. Using ambiguous words or phrases.

EQUIVOCATION, n. Ambiguity of speech; the use of words or expressions that are susceptible of a double signification. Hypocrites are often guilty of equivocation, and by this means lose the confidence of their fellow men. Equivocation is incompatible with the christian character and profession.

EQUIVOCATOR, n. One who equivocates; one who uses language which is ambiguous and may be interpreted in different ways; one who uses mental reservation.

EQUIVOKE, n. An ambiguous term; a word susceptible of different significations.

1. Equivocation.

EQUIVOROUS, a. [L. equus, horse, and voro, to eat.]

Feeding or subsisting on horse flesh.

Equivorous Tartars.

ER, the termination of many English words, is the Teutonic form of the Latin or; the one contracted from wer, the other from vir, a man. It denotes an agent, originally of the masculine gender, but now applied to men or things indifferently; as in farmer, heater, grater. At the end names of places, er signifies a man of the place; Londoner is the same as London-man.

There is a passage in Herodotus, Melpomene, 110, in which the word wer, vir, a man, is mentioned as used by the Scythians; a fact proving the affinity of the Scythian and the Teutonic nations.

“The Scythians call the Amazons Oiorpata, a word which may be rendered, in Greek, menkillers; for oior is the name they give to man, pata signifies to kill.” Pata, in the Burman language, signifies to kill; but it is probable that this is really the English beat.

ERA, n. [L. oera. The origin of the term is not obvious.]

1. In chronology, a fixed point of time, from which any number of years is begun to be counted; as the Christian Era. It differs from epoch in this; era is a point of time fixed by some nation or denomination of men; epoch is a point fixed by historians and chronologists. The christian era began at the epoch of the birth of Christ.

2. A succession of years proceeding from a fixed point, or comprehended between two fixed points. The era of the Seleucides ended with the reign of Antiochus.

ERADIATE, v.i. [L. e and radio, to beam.]

To shoot as rays of light; to beam.

ERADIATION, n. Emission of rays or beams of light; emission of light or splendor.

ERADICATE, v.t. [L. eradico, from radix, root.]

1. To pull up the roots, or by the roots. Hence, to destroy anything that grows; to extirpate; to destroy the roots, so that the plant will not be reproduced; as, to eradicate weeds.

2. To destroy thoroughly; to extirpate; as, to eradicate errors, or false principles, or vice or disease.

ERADICATED, pp. Plucked up by the roots; extirpated; destroyed.

ERADICATING, ppr. Pulling up the roots of any thing; extirpating.

ERADICATION, n. The act of plucking up by the roots; extirpation; excision; total destruction.

1. The state of being plucked up by the roots.

ERADICATIVE, a. That extirpates; that cures or destroys thoroughly.

ERADICATIVE, n. A medicine that effects a radical cure.

ERASABLE, a. That may or can be erased.

ERASE, v.t. [L. erado, erasi; e and rado, to scrape; Heb. a graving tool.]

1. To rub or scrape out, as letters or characters written, engraved or painted; to efface; as, to erase a word or a name.

2. To obliterate; to expunge; to blot out; as with pen and ink.

3. To efface; to destroy; as ideas in the mind or memory.

4. To destroy to the foundation. [See Raze.]

ERASED, pp. Rubbed or scratched out; obliterated; effaced.

ERASEMENT, n. The act of erasing; a rubbing out; expunction; obliteration; destruction.

ERASING, ppr. Rubbing or scraping out; obliterating; destroying.

ERASION, n. s as z. The act of erasing; a rubbing out; obliteration.

ERASTIAN, n. A follower of one Erastus, the leader of a religious sect, who denied the power of the church to discipline its members.

ERASTIANISM, n. The principles of the Erastians.

ERASURE, n. era’zhur. The act of erasing; a scratching out; obliteration.

1. The place where a word or letter has been erased or obliterated.

ERE, adv. Before; sooner than.

Ere sails were spread new oceans to explore.

The nobleman saith to him, Sir, come down ere my child die. John 4:49.

In these passages, ere is really a preposition, followed by a sentence, instead of a single word, as below.

ERE, prep. Before.

Our fruitful Nile

Flow’d ere the wonted season.

ERELONG, adv. [ere and long.] Before a long time had elapsed.

He mounted the horse, and following the stag, erelong slew him.

1. Before a long time shall elapse; before long. Erelong you will repent of your folly.

The world erelong a world of tears must weep.

ERENOW, adv. [ere and now.] Before this time.

EREWHILE, EREWHILES, adv. [ere and while. Some time ago; before a little while.]

I am as fair now as I was erewhile.

EREBUS, n. [L. erebus.] In mythology, darkness; hence, the region of the dead; a deep and gloomy place; hell.

ERECT, a. [L. erectus, from erigo, to set upright; e and rego, to stretch or make straight, right, rectus. See Right.]

1. Upright, or in a perpendicular posture; as, he stood erect.

2. Directed upward.

And suppliant hands, to heaven erect.

3. Upright and firm; bold; unshaken.

Let no vain fear thy generous ardor tame;

But stand erect.

4. Raised; stretched; intent; vigorous; as a vigilant and erect attention of mind in prayer.

5. Stretched; extended.

6. In botany, an erect stem is one which is without support from twining, or nearly perpendicular; an erect leaf is one which grows close to the stem; an erect flower has its aperture directed upwards.

ERECT, v.t. To raise and set in an upright or perpendicular direction, or nearly such; as, to erect a pole or flag-staff.

To erect a perpendicular, is to set or form one line on another at right angles.

1. To raise, as a building; to set up; to build; as, to erect a house or temple; to erect a fort.

2. To set up or establish anew; to found; to form; as, to erect a kingdom or commonwealth; to erect a new system or theory.

3. To elevate; to exalt.

I am far from pretending to infallibility; that would be to erect myself into an apostle.

4. To raise; to excite; to animate; to encourage.

Why should not hope

As much erect our thoughts, as fear deject them?

5. To raise a consequence from premises. [Little used.]

Malebranche erects this proposition.

6. To extend; to distend.

ERECT, v.i. To rise upright.

ERECTABLE, a. That can be erected; as an erectable feather.

ERECTED, pp. Set in a straight and perpendicular direction; set upright; raised; built; established; elevated; animated; extended and distended.

ERECTER, n. One that erects; one that raises or builds.

ERECTING, ppr. Raising and setting upright; building; founding; establishing; elevating; inciting; extending and distending.

ERECTION, n. The act of raising and setting perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; a setting upright.

1. The act of raising or building, as an edifice or fortification; as the erection of a wall, or of a house.

2. The state of being raised, built or elevated.

3. Establishment; settlement; formation; as the erection of a commonwealth, or of a new system; the erection of a bishop-rick or an earldom.

4. Elevation; exaltation of sentiments.

Her peerless height my mind to high erection draws up.

5. Act of rousing; excitement; as the erection of the spirits.

6. Any thing erected; a building of any kind.

7. Distension and extension.

ERECTIVE, a. Setting upright; raising.

ERECTLY, adv. In an erect posture.

ERECTNESS, n. Uprightness of posture or form.

ERECTOR, n. A muscle that erects; one that raises.

EREMITAGE, n. [See Hermitage.]

EREMITE, n. [L. eremita; Gr. a desert.] One who lives in a wilderness, or in retirement, secluded from an intercourse with men. It is generally written hermit, which see.

EREMITICAL, a. Living in solitude, or in seclusion from the world.

EREPTION, n. [L. ereptio.] A taking or snatching away by force.

ERGAT, v.i. [L. ergo.] To infer; to draw conclusions. [Not used.]

ERGO, adv. [L.] Therefore.

ERGOT, n. In farriery, a stub, like a piece of soft horn, about the bigness of a chestnut, situated behind and below the pastern joint, and commonly hid under the tuft of the fetloc.

1. A morbid excrescence in grain; a dark colored shoot, often an inch long, from the ears of grain, particularly of rye.

ERGOTISM, n. [L. ergo.] A logical inference; a conclusion.

ERIACH, n. A pecuniary fine.

ERIGIBLE, a. That may be erected. [Ill formed and not used.]

ERINGO. [See Eryngo.]

ERISTIC, ERISTICAL, a. [Gr. contention; contentious.] Pertaining to disputes; controversial. [Not in use.]