Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



EMULSIVE, a. Softening; milk-like.

1. Producing or yielding a milk-like substance; as emulsive acids.

EMUNCTORY, n. [L. emunctorium, from emunctus, emungo, to wipe, to cleanse.] In anatomy, any part of the body which serves to carry off excrementitious matter; a secretory gland; an excretory duct.

The kidneys and skin are called the common emunctories.

EMUSCATION, n. [L. emuscor.] A freeing from moss. [Not much used.]

EN, a prefix to many English words, chiefly borrowed from the French. In coincides with the Latin, in, Gr., and some English words are written indifferently with en or in. For the ease of pronunciation, it is changed to em, particularly before a labial, as in employ, empower.

En was formerly a plural termination of nouns and of verbs, as in housen, escapen. It is retained in oxen and children. It is also still used as the termination of some verbs, as in hearken, from the Saxon infinitive.

ENABLE, v.t. [Norm. enhabler; en and hable, able. See Able.]

1. To make able; to supply with power, physical or moral; to furnish with sufficient power or ability. By strength a man is enabled to work. Learning and industry enable men to investigate the laws of nature. Fortitude enables us to bear pain without murmuring.

2. To supply with means. Wealth enables men to be charitable, or to live in luxury.

3. To furnish with legal ability or competency; to authorize. The law enables us to dispose of our property by will.

4. To furnish with competent knowledge or skill, and in general, with adequate means.

ENABLED, pp. Supplied with sufficient power, physical, moral or legal.

ENABLEMENT, n. The act of enabling; ability.

ENABLING, ppr. Giving power to; supplying with sufficient power, ability or means; authorizing.

ENACT, v.t. [en and act.] To make, as a law; to pass, as a bill into a law; to perform the last act of a legislature to a bill, giving it validity as a law; to give legislative sanction to a bill.

Shall this bill pass to be enacted?

1. To decree; to establish as the will of the supreme power.

2. To act; to perform; to effect. [Not used.]

3. To represent inaction. [Not used.]

ENACTED, pp. Passed into a law; sanctioned as a law, by legislative authority.

ENACTING, ppr. Passing into a law; giving legislative sanction to a bill, and establishing it as a law.

1. Giving legislative forms and sanction; as the enacting clause of a bill.

ENACTMENT, n. The passing of a bill into a law; the act of voting, decreeing and giving validity to a law.

ENACTOR, n. One who enacts or passes a law; one who decrees or establishes, as a law.

1. One who performs any thing. [Not used.]

ENACTURE, n. Purpose. [Not in use.]

ENALLAGE, n. enal’lajy. [Gr. change.]

A figure, in grammar, by which some change is made in the common mode of speech, or when one word is substituted for another; as exercitus victor, for victoriousus; scelus, for scelestus.

ENAMBUSH, v.t. [en and ambush.] To hide in ambush.

1. To ambush.

ENAMBUSHED, pp. Concealed in ambush, or with hostile intention; ambushed.


1. In mineralogy, a substance imperfectly vitrified, or matter in which the granular appearance is destroyed, and having a vitreous gloss.

In the arts, a substance of the nature of glass, differing from it by a greater degree of fusibility or opacity.

Enamels have for their basis a pure crystal glass or frit, ground with a fine oxyd of lead and tin. These baked together are the matter of enamels, and the color is varied by adding other substances, Oxyd of gold gives a red color; that of copper, a green; manganese, a violet; cobalt, a blue; and iron, a fine black.

2. That which is enameled; a smooth, glossy surface of various colors, resembling enamel.

3. In anatomy, the smooth hard substance which covers the crown of a tooth.

ENAMEL, v.t. To lay enamel on a metal, as on gold, silver, copper, etc.

1. To paint in enamel.

2. To form a glossy surface like enamel.

ENAMELAR, a. Consisting of enamel; resembling enamel; smooth; glossy.

ENAMELED, pp. Overlaid with enamel; adorned with any thing resembling enamel.

ENAMELER, n. One who enamels; one whose occupation is to lay enamels, or inlay colors.

ENAMELING, ppr. Laying enamel.

ENAMELING, n. The act or art of laying enamels.

ENAMOR, v.t. [L. amor, love.] To inflame with love; to charm; to captivate; with of before the person or thing; as, to be enamored of a lady; to be enamored of books or science.

[But it is now followed by with.]

ENAMORADO, n. One deeply in love.

ENAMORED, pp. Inflamed with love; charmed; delighted.

ENAMORING, ppr. Inflaming with love; charming; captivating.

ENARMED, a. In heraldry, having arms, that is, horns, hoofs, etc. of a different color from that of the body.

ENARRATION, n. [L. enarro, narro, to relate.] Recital; relation; account; exposition. [Little used.]

ENARTHROSIS, n. [Gr. a joint.] In anatomy, that species of articulation which consists in the insertion of the round end of a bone in the cup-like cavity of another, forming a movable joint; the ball and socket.

ENATE, a. [L. enatus.] Growing out.

ENAUNTER, adv. Lest that.

ENCAGE, v.t. [from cage.] To shut up or confine in a cage; to coop.

ENCAGED, pp. Shut up or confined in a cage.

ENCAGING, ppr. Cooping; confining in a cage.

ENCAMP, v.i. [from camp.] To pitch tents or form huts, as an army; to halt on a march, spread tents and remain for a night or for a longer time, as an army or company.

They encamped in Etham. Exodus 13:20.

The Levites shall encamp about the tabernacle. Numbers 1:50.

1. To pitch tents for the purpose of a siege; to besiege.

Encamp against the city and take it. 2 Samuel 12:28.

ENCAMP, v.t. To form into a camp; to place a marching army or company in a temporary habitation or quarters.

ENCAMPED, pp. Settled in tents or huts for lodging or temporary habitation.

ENCAMPING, ppr. Pitching tents or forming huts, for a temporary lodging or rest.

ENCAMPMENT, n. The act of pitching tents or forming huts, as an army or traveling company, for temporary lodging or rest.

1. The place where an army or company is encamped; a camp; a regular order of tents or huts for the accommodation of an army or troop.

ENCANKER, v.t. To corrode; to canker.

ENCASE, v.t. To inclose or confine in a case or cover.

ENCAUSTIC, a. [Gr. caustic, to burn.] Pertaining to the art of enameling, and to painting in burnt wax. Encaustic painting, is a method in which wax is employed to give a gloss to colors.

ENCAUSTIC, n. Enamel or enameling.

1. The method of painting in burnt wax.

ENCAVE, v.t. [from cave.] To hide in a cave or recess.

ENCEINT, n. [L. cingo, to gird.] In fortification, inclosure; the wall or rampart which surrounds a place, sometimes composed of bastions and curtains. It is sometimes only flanked by round or square towers, which is called a Roman wall.

ENCEINT, a. In law, pregnant;; with child.

ENCHAFE, v.t. [en and chafe.] To chafe or fret; to provoke; to enrage; to irritate. [See Chafe.]

ENCHAFED, pp. Chafed; irritated; enraged.

ENCHAFING, ppr. Chafing; fretting; enraging.


1. To fasten with a chain; to bind or hold in chains; to hold in bondage.

2. To hold fast; to restrain; to confine.

3. To link together; to connect.

ENCHAINED, pp. Fastened with a chain; held in bondage; held fast; restrained; confined.

ENCHAINING, ppr. Making fast with a chain; binding; holding in chains; confining.

ENCHANT, v.t. [L. incanto; in and canto, to sing. See Chant and Cant.]

1. To practice sorcery or witchcraft on any thing; to give efficacy to any thing by songs of sorcery, or fascination.

And now about the cauldron sing,

Like elves and fairies in a ring,

Enchanting all that you put in.

2. To subdue by charms or spells.

3. To delight to the highest degree; to charm; to ravish with pleasure; as, the description enchants me; we were enchanted with the music.

ENCHANTED, pp. Affected by sorcery; fascinated; subdued by charms; delighted beyond measure.

1. Inhabited or possessed by elves, witches, or other imaginary mischievous spirits; as an enchanted castle.

ENCHANTER, n. One who enchants; a sorcerer or magician; one who has spirits or demons at his command; one who practices enchantment, or pretends to perform surprising things by the agency of demons.

1. One who charms or delights.

Enchanter’s nightshade, a genus of plants, the Circaea.

ENCHANTING, ppr. Affecting with sorcery, charms or spells.

1. Delighting highly; ravishing with delight; charming.

2. Charming; delighting; ravishing; as an enchanting voice; an enchanting face.

Simplicity in manners has an enchanting effect.

ENCHANTINGLY, adv. With the power of enchantment; in a manner to delight or charm; as, the lady sings enchantingly.

ENCHANTMENT, n. The act of producing certain wonderful effects by the invocation or aid of demons, or the agency of certain supposed spirits; the use of magic arts, spells or charms; incantation.

The magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments. Exodus 7:22.

1. Irresistible influence; overpowering influence of delight.

The warmth of fancy--which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment.

ENCHANTRESS, n. A sorceress; a woman who pretends to effect wonderful things by the aid of demons; one who pretends to practice magic.

1. A woman whose beauty or excellencies give irresistible influence.

From this enchantress all these ills are come.

ENCHARGE, v.t. To give in charge or trust. [Not in use.]

ENCHASE, v.t. [Eng. a case.]

1. To infix or inclose in another body so as to be held fast, but not concealed.

2. Technically, to adorn by embossed work; to enrich or beautify any work in metal, by some design or figure in low relief, as a watch case.

3. To adorn by being fixed on it.

To drink in bowls which glittering gems enchase.

4. To mark by incision.

5. To delineate.

ENCHASED, pp. Enclosed as in a frame or in another body; adorned with embossed work.

ENCHASING, ppr. Inclosing in another body; adorning with embossed work.

ENCHEASON, n. Cause; occasion.

ENCHIRIDION, n. [Gr. the hand.] A manual; a book to be carried in the hand. [Not used.]

ENCINDERED, a. Burnt to cinders.

ENCIRCLE, v.t. ensur’cl. [from circle.]

1. To inclose or surround with a circle or ring, or with any thing in a circular form.

2. To encompass; to surround; to environ.

3. To embrace; as, to encircle one in the arms.

ENCIRCLED, ppr. Surrounded with a circle; encompassed; environed; embraced.

ENCIRCLET, n. A circle; a ring.

ENCIRCLING, ppr. Surrounding with a circle or ring; encompassing; embracing.

ENCLITIC, a. [Gr. inclined; to incline.]

1. Leaning; inclining, or inclined. In grammar, an enclitic particle or word, is one which is so closely united to another as to seem to be a part of it; as que, ne, and ve, in virumque, nonne, aliusve.

2. Throwing back the accent upon the foregoing syllable.

ENCLITIC, n. A word which is joined to the end of another, as que, in virumque, which may vary the accent.

1. A particle or word that throws the accent or emphasis back upon the former syllable.

ENCLITICALLY, adv. In an enclitic manner; by throwing the accent back.

ENCLITICS, a. In grammar, the art of declining and conjugating words.

ENCLOSE. [See Inclose.]

ENCLOUDED, a. [from cloud.] Covered with clouds.

ENCOACH, v.t. To carry in a coach.

ENCOFFIN, v.t. To put in a coffin.

ENCOFFINED, pp. Inclosed in a coffin.

ENCOMBER, [See Encumber.]

ENCOMBERMENT, n. Molestation. [Not used.]

ENCOMIAST, n. One who praises another; a panegyrist; one who utters or writes commendations.

ENCOMIASTIC, ENCOMIASTICAL, a. Bestowing praise; praising; commending; laudatory; as an encomiastic address or discourse.

ENCOMIASTIC, n. A panegyric.

ENCOMIUM, n. plu. encomiums. Praise; panegyric; commendation. Men are quite as willing to receive as to bestow encomiums.

ENCOMPASS, v.t. [from compass.] To encircle; to surround; as, a ring encompasses the finger.

1. To environ; to inclose; to surround; to shut in. A besieging army encompassed the city of Jerusalem.

2. To go or sail round; as Drake encompassed the globe.

ENCOMPASSED, pp. Encircled; surrounded; inclosed; shut in.

ENCOMPASSING, ppr. Encircling; surrounding; confining.

ENCOMPASSMENT, n. A surrounding.

1. A going round; circumlocution in speaking.

ENCORE, a. French word, pronounced nearly ongkore, and signifying, again, once more; used by the auditors and spectators of plays and other sports, when they call for a repetition of a particular part.

ENCORE, v.t. To call for a repetition of a particular part of an entertainment.

ENCOUNTER, n. [L. contra, against, or rather rencontre.]

1. A meeting, particularly a sudden or accidental meeting of two or more persons.

To shun th’ encounter of the vulgar crowd.

2. A meeting in contest; a single combat, on a sudden meeting of parties; sometimes less properly, a duel.

3. A fight; a conflict; a skirmish; a battle; but more generally, a fight between a small number of men, or an accidental meeting and fighting of detachments, rather than a set battle or general engagement.

4. Eager and warm conversation, either in love or anger.

5. A sudden or unexpected address or accosting.

6. Occasion; casual incident. [Unusual.]


1. To meet face to face; particularly, to meet suddenly or unexpectedly.

[This sense is now uncommon, but still in use.]

2. To meet in opposition, or in a hostile manner; to rush against in conflict; to engage with in battle; as, two armies encounter each other.

3. To meet and strive to remove or surmount; as, to encounter obstacles, impediments or difficulties.

4. To meet and oppose; to resist; to attack and attempt to confute; as, to encounter the arguments of opponents. Acts 17:18.

5. To meet as an obstacle. Which ever way the infidel turns, he encounters clear evidence of the divine origin of the scriptures.

6. To oppose; to oppugn.

7. To meet in mutual kindness. [Little used.]

ENCOUNTER, v.i. To meet face to face; to meet unexpectedly. [Little used.]

1. To rush together in combat; to fight; to conflict. Three armies encountered at Waterloo.

When applied to one party, it is sometimes followed by with; as, the christian army encountered with the Saracens.

2. To meet in opposition or debate.

ENCOUNTERED, pp. Met face to face; met in opposition or hostility; opposed.

ENCOUNTERER, n. One who encounters; an opponent; an antagonist.

ENCOUNTERING, ppr. Meeting; meeting in opposition, or in battle; opposing; resisting.

ENCOURAGE, v.t. enkur’rage. To give courage to; to give or increase confidence of success; to inspire with courage, spirit, or strength of mind; to embolden; to animate; to incite; to inspirit.

But charge Joshua, and encourage him. Deuteronomy 3:28.

ENCOURAGED, pp. Emboldened; inspirited; animated; incited.

ENCOURAGEMENT, n. The act of giving courage, or confidence of success; incitement to action or to practice; incentive. We ought never to neglect the encouragement of youth in generous deeds. The praise of good men serves as an encouragement of virtue and heroism.

1. That which serves to incite, support, promote or advance, as favor, countenance, rewards, profit. A young man attempted the practice of law, but found little encouragement. The fine arts find little encouragement among a rude people.

ENCOURAGER, n. One who encourages, incites or stimulates to action; one who supplies incitements, either by counsel, reward or means of execution.

The pope is a master of polite learning and a great encourager of arts.

ENCOURAGING, ppr. Inspiring with hope and confidence; exciting courage.

1. Furnishing ground to hope for success; as an encouraging prospect.

ENCOURAGINGLY, adv. In a manner to give courage, or hope of success.

ENCRADLE, v.t. [en and cradle.] To lay in a cradle.

ENCRIMSON, v.t. s as z. To cover with a crimson color.

ENCRIMSONED, pp. Covered with a crimson color.

ENCRINITE, n. [Gr. a lily.] Stone-lily; a fossil zoophyte, formed of many joints, all perforated by some starry form.

ENCRISPED, a. [from crisp] Curled; formed in curls.

ENCROACH, v.i. [Eng. crook.] Primarily, to catch as with a hook. Hence,

1. To enter on the rights and possession of another; to intrude; to take possession of what belongs to another, by gradual advances into his limits or jurisdiction, and usurping a part of his rights or prerogatives; with on. The farmer who runs a fence on his neighbor’s land, and incloses a piece with his own, encroaches on his neighbor’s property. Men often encroach, in this manner, on the highway. The sea is said to encroach on the land, when it wears it away gradually; and the land encroaches on the sea, when it is extended into it by alluvion. It is important to prevent one branch of government from encroaching on the jurisdiction of another.

2. To creep on gradually without right.

Superstition--a creeping and encroaching evil.

3. To pass the proper bounds, and enter on another’s rights.

Exclude th’ encroaching cattle from thy ground.