Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



DOST, the second person of do, used int he solemn style; thou dost.

DOT, n. [I know not the origin and affinities of this word. It would be naturally deduced from a verb signifying to set, or to prick, like punctum, point.] A small point or spot, made with a pen or other pointed instrument; a speck; used in marking a writing or other thing.

DOT, v.t.

1. To mark with dots.

2. To mark or diversify with small detached objects; as a landscape dotted with cottages, or clumps of trees.

DOT, v.i. To make dots or spots.

DOTAGE, n. [from dote.]

1. Feebleness or imbecility of understanding or mind, particularly in old age, childishness of old age; as a venerable man now in his dotage.

2. A doting; excessive fondness.

3. Deliriousness. [See the verb, to dote.]

DOTAL, a. [L., dower.] Pertaining to dower, or a womans marriage portion; constituting dower or comprised in it; as a dotal town.

DOTARD, n. [dote and ard, kind.]

1. A man whose intellect is impaired by age; one in his second childhood.

The sickly dotard wants a wife.

2. A doting fellow; one foolishly fond.

DOTARDLY, a. Like a dotard; weak.

DOTATION, n. [L., to endow.]

1. The act of endowing, or of bestowing a marriage portion on a woman.

2. Endowment; establishment of funds for support; as of a hospital or eleemosynary corporation.

DOTE, v.i.

1. To be delirious; to have the intellect impaired by age, so that the mind wanders or wavers; to be silly.

Time has made you dote, and vainly tell of arms imagined in your lonely cell.

2. To be excessively in love; usually with on or upon; to dote on, is to love to excess or extravagance.

What dust we dote on, when tis man we love.

Aholah dotes on her lovers, the Assyrians. Ezekiel 23:5.

3. To decay.


1. One who dotes; a man whose understanding is enfeebled by age; a dotard.

2. One who is excessively fond, or weakly in love.

DOTING, ppr. Regarding with excessive fondness.

DOTINGLY, adv. By excessive fondness.

DOTTARD, n. A tree kept low by cutting.


1. Marked with dots or small spots; diversified with small detached objects.

2. In botany, sprinkled with hollow dots or points.

DOTTEREL, n. The name of different species of fowls, of the genus Charadrius and the grallic order; as the Alexandrine dotterel, the ringed dotterel, and the Morinellus; also, the turnstone or sea dotterel, a species of the genus Tringa.

DOTTING, ppr. Marking with dots or spots; diversifying with small detached objects.

DOUANIER, n. An officer of the customs.

DOUBLE, a. Dubl. [L., Gr. See Two.]

1. Two of a sort together; one corresponding to the other; being in pairs; as double chickens in the same egg; double leaves connected by one petiole.

2. Twice as much; containing the same quantity or length repeated.

Take double money in your hand. Genesis 43:12.

Let a double portion of thy spirit be on me. 2 Kings 2:9.

With to; as, the amount is double to what I expected.

3. Having one added to another; as a double chin.

4. Twofold; also, of two kinds.

Darkness and tempest make a double night.

5. Two in number; as double sight or sound. [See No. 1.]

6. Deceitful; acting two parts, one openly, the other in secret.

And with double heart do they speak. Psalm 12:2.

DOUBLE, adv. Dubl. Twice.

I was double their age.

DOUBLE, in composition, denotes, two ways, or twice the number or quantity.

DOUBLE-BANKED, a. In seamanship, having two opposite oars managed by rowers on the same bench, or having two men to the same oar.

DOUBLE-BITING, a. Biting or cutting on either side; as a double-biting ax.

DOUBLE-BUTTONED, a. Having two rows of buttons.

DOUBLE-CHARGE, v.t. To charge or intrust with a double portion.

DOUBLE-DEALER, n. One who acts two different parts, in the same business, or at the same time; a deceitful, trickish person; one who says one thing and thinks or intends another; one guilty of duplicity.

DOUBLE-DEALING, n. Artifice; duplicity; deceitful practice; the profession of one thing and the practice of another.

DOUBLE-DYE, v.t. To dye twice over.

DOUBLE-EDGED, a. Having two edges.

DOUBLE-ENTENDRE, n. Double meaning of a word or expression.

DOUBLE-EYED, a. Having a deceitful countenance.

DOUBLE-FACE, n. Duplicity; the acting of different parts in the same concern.

DOUBLE-FACED, a. Deceitful; hypocritical; showing two faces.

DOUBLE-FORMED, a. Of a mixed form.

DOUBLE-FORTIFIED, a. Twice fortified; doubly strengthened.

DOUBLE-FOUNTED, a. Having two sources.

DOUBLE-GILD, v.t. To gild with double coloring.

DOUBLE-HANDED, a. Having two hands; deceitful.


1. Having two heads.

2. Having the flowers growing one to another.

DOUBLE-HEARTED, a. Having a false heart; deceitful; treacherous.

DOUBLE-LOCK, v.t. To shoot the bolt twice; to fasten with double security.

DOUBLE-MANNED, a. Furnished with twice the complement of men, or with two men instead of one.

DOUBLE-MEANING, a. Having two meanings.

DOUBLE-MINDED, a. Having different minds at different times; unsettled; wavering; unstable; undetermined. James 1:8.

DOUBLE-MOUTHED, a. Having two mouths.

DOUBLE-NATURED, a. Having a two-fold nature.

DOUBLE-OCTAVE, n. In muxic, an interval composed of two octaves or fifteen notes in diatonic progression; a fifteenth.

DOUBLE-PLEA, n. In law, a plea in which the defendant alledges two different matters in bar of the action.

DOUBLE-QUARREL, n. A complaint of a clerk to the archbishop against an inferior ordinary, for delay of justice.

DOUBLE-SHADE, v.t. To double the natural darkness of a place.

DOUBLE-SHINING, a. Shining with double luster.

DOUBLE-THREADED, a. Consisting of two threads twisted together.

DOUBLE-TONGUED, a. Making contrary declarations on the same subject at different times; deceitful.

The deacons must be grave, not double-tongued. 1 Timothy 3:8.

DOUBLE, v.t. dubl. [L., Gr.]

1. To fold; as, to double the leaf of a book; to double down a corner.

2. To increase or extend by adding an equal sum, value, quantity or length; as, to double a sum of money; to double the amount; to double the quantity or size of a thing; to double the length; to double dishonor.

3. To contain twice the sum, quantity or length, or twice as much; as, the enemy doubles our army in numbers.

4. To repeat; to add; as, to double blow on blow.

5. To add one to another in the same order.

Thou shalt double the sixth curtain in the fore-front of the tabernacle. Exodus 26:9.

6. In navigation, to double a cape or point, is to sail round it, so that the cape or point shall be between the ship and her former situation.

7. In military affairs, to unite two ranks or files in one.

To double and twist, is to add one thread to another and twist them together.

To double upon, in tactics, is to inclose between two fires.

DOUBLE, v.i.

1. To increase to twice the sum, number, value, quantity or length; to increase or grow to twice as much. A sum of money doubles by compound interest in a little more than eleven years. The inhabitants of the United States double in about twenty five years.

2. To enlarge a wager to twice the sum laid.

I am resolved to double till I win.

3. To turn back or wind in running.

Doubling and turning like a hunted hare.

4. To play tricks; to use sleights.


1. Twice as much; twice the number, sum, value, quantity or length.

If the thief be found, let him pay double. Exodus 22:7.

2. A turn in running to escape pursuers.

3. A trick; a shift; an artifice to deceive.

DOUBLED, pp. Folded; increased by adding an equal quantity, sum or value; repeated; turned or passed round.


1. The state of being doubled.

2. Duplicity.


1. He that doubles.

2. An instrument for augmenting a very small quantity of electricity, so as to render it manifest by sparks or the electrometer.


1. The inner garment of a man; a waistcoat or vest.

2. Two; a pair.

3. Among lapidaries, a counterfeit stone composed of two pieces of crystal, with a color between them, so that they have the same appearance as if the whole substance of the crystal were colored.


1. A game on dice within tables.

2. The same number on both dice.

3. A double meaning.

DOUBLING, ppr. Making twice the sum, number or quantity; repeating; passing round; turning to escape.

DOUBLING, n. The act of making double; also, a fold; a plait; also, an artifice; a shift.

DOUBLOON, n. A Spanish and Portuguese coin, being double the value of the pistole.

DOUBLY, adv. In twice the quantity; to twice the degree; as doubly wise or good; to be doubly sensible of an obligation.

DOUBT, v.i. dout. [L., G.]

1. To waver or fluctuate in opinion; to hesitate; to be in suspense; to be in uncertainty; to be in suspense; to be in uncertainty, respecting the truth or fact; to be undetermined.

Even in matters divine, concerning some things, we may lawfully doubt and suspend our judgment.

So we say, I doubt whether it is proper; I doubt whether I shall go; sometimes with of, as we doubt of a fact.

2. To fear; to be apprehensive; to suspect.

I doubt theres deep resentment in his mind.

DOUBT, v.t. dout.

1. To question, or hold questionable; to withhold assent from; to hesitate to believe; as, I have heard the story, but I doubt the truth of it.

2. To fear; to suspect.

If they turn not back perverse; but that I doubt.

3. To distrust; to withhold confidence from; as, to doubt our ability to execute an office.

Tadmire superior sense, and doubt their own.

4. To fill with fear.

DOUBT, n. Dout.

1. A fluctuation of mind respecting truth or propriety, arising from defect of knowledge or evidence; uncertainty of mind; suspense; unsettled state of opinion; as, to have doubts respecting the theory of the tides.

Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. Genesis 37:33.

2. Uncertainty of condition.

Thy life shall hang in doubt before thee. Deuteronomy 28:66.

3. Suspicion; fear; apprehension.

I stand in doubt of you. Galatians 4:20.

4. Difficulty objected.

To every doubt your answer is the same.

5. Dread; horror and danger.

DOUBTABLE, a. That may be doubted.

DOUBTED, pp. Scrupled; questioned; not certain or settled.

DOUBTER, n. One who doubts; one whose opinion is unsettled; one who scruples.


1. Dubious; not settled in opinion; undetermined; wavering; hesitating; applied to persons; as, we are doubtful of a fact, or of the propriety of a measure.

2. Dubious; ambiguous; not clear in its meaning; as a doubtful expression.

3. Admitting of doubt; not obvious, clear or certain; questionable; not decided; as a doubtful case; a doubtful proposition; it is doubtful what will be the event of the war.

4. Of uncertain issue.

We have sustained one day in doubtful fight.

5. Not secure; suspicious; as, we cast a doubtful eye.

6. Not confident; not without fear; indicating doubt.

With doubtful feet, and wavering resolution.

7. Not certain or defined; as a doubtful hue.


1. In a doubtful manner; dubiously.

2. With doubt; irresolutely.

3. Ambiguously; with uncertainty of meaning.

Nor did the goddess doubtfully declare.

4. In a state of dread.


1. A state of doubt of uncertainty of mind; dubiousness; suspense; instability of opinion.

2. Ambiguity; uncertainty of meaning.

3. Uncertainty of event or issue; uncertainty of condition.

DOUBTING, ppr. Wavering in mind; calling in question; hesitating.

DOUBTINGLY, adv. In a doubting manner; dubiously; without confidence.

DOUBTLESS, a. Free from fear of danger; secure.

Pretty child, sleep doubtless and secure.

DOUBTLESS, adv. Without doubt or question; unquestionably.

The histories of Christ by the evangelists are doubtless authentic.

DOUBTLESSLY, adv. Unquestionably.

DOUCED, n. A musical instrument. [Not in use.]

DOUCET, n. A custard. [Not in use.]

DOUCEUR, n. [L.] A present or gift; a bribe.

DOUCINE, n. A molding concave above the convex below, serving as a cymatium to a delicate cornice; a gula.

DOUCKER, n. [See Duck.] A fowl that dips or dives in water.

DOUGH, n. Do. [G.] Paste of bread; a mass composed of flour or meal moistened and kneaded, but not baked.

My cake is dough, that is, by undertaking has not come to maturity.

DOUGH-BAKED, a. Unfinished; not hardened to perfection; soft.

DOUGH-KNEADED, a. Soft; like dough.

DOUGH-NUT, n. [dough and nut.] A small roundish cake, made of flour, eggs and sugar, moistened with milk and boiled in lard.

DOUGHTINESS, n. Doutiness. [See Doughty.] Valor; bravery.

DOUGHTY, a. Douty. [G., L. See Decent.] Brave; valiant; eminent; noble; illustrious; as a doughty hero. It is now seldom used except in irony or burlesque.

DOUGHY, a. Doy. Like dough; soft; yielding to pressure; pale.

DOUSE, v.t. [Gr.]

1. To thrust or plunge into water.

2. In seamens language, to strike or lower in haste; to slacken suddenly. Douse the top-sail.

DOUSE, v.i. To fall suddenly into water.

DOUT, v.t. To put out; to extinguish.

DOUTER, n. An extinguisher for candles.

DOUZEAVE, n. Doozeve. In music, a scale of twelve degrees.

DOVE, n. [G.]

1. The oenas, or domestic pigeon, a species of Columba. Its color is a deep bluish ash color; the breast is dashed with a fine changeable green and purple; the sides of the neck, with a copper color. In a wild state, it builds its nest in holes of rocks or in hollow trees, but it is easily domesticated, and forms one of the luxuries of the table.

2. A word of endearment, or an emblem of innocence. Song of Solomon 2:14.

DOVE-COT, n. A small building or box in which domestic pigeons breed.

DOVE’S-FOOT, n. A plant, a species of Geranium.

DOVE-HOUSE, n. A house or shelter for doves.

DOVELIKE, a. Resembling a dove.

DOVESHIP, n. The qualities of a dove.

DOVE-TAIL, n. In carpentry, the manner of fastening boards and timbers together by letting one piece into another in the form of a doves tail spread, or wedge reversed, so that it cannot be drawn out. This is the strongest of all the fastenings or jointings.

DOVE-TAIL, v.t. To unite by a tenon in form of a pigeons tail spread, let into a board or timber.

DOVE-TAILED, pp. United by a tenon in form of a doves tail.

DOVE-TAILING, ppr. Uniting by a dove-tail.

DOVISH, a. Like a dove; innocent. [Not in use.]

DOWABLE, a. [See Dower.] That may be endowed; entitled to dower.

DOWAGER, n. A widow with a jointure; a title particularly given to the widows of princes and persons of rank. The widow of a king is called queen dowager.

DOWCETS, n. The testicles of a hart or stag.

DOWDY, n. An awkward, ill-dressed, inelegant woman.

DOWDY, a. Awkward.

DOWER, n. [Gr., a gift; to give. L.]

1. That portion of the lands or tenements of a man which his widow enjoys during her life, after the death of her husband. [This is the usual present signification of the word.]

2. The property which a woman brings to her husband in marriage.

3. The gift of a husband for a wife.

Ask me never so much dowry and gift. Genesis 34:12.

4. Endowment; gift.

How great, how plentiful, how rich a dower.

DOWERED, a. Furnished with dower, or a portion.