Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



DOCTORATE, n. The degree of a doctor.

DOCTORATE, v.t. To make a doctor by conferring a degree.

DOCTORLY, a. Like a learned man.

DOCTORSHIP, n. The degree or rank of a doctor. [Doctorate is now generally used.]

DOCTRESS, DOCTORESS, n. A females physician.

DOCTRINAL, a. [See Doctrine.]

1. Pertaining to doctrine; containing a doctrine or something taught; as a doctrinal observation; a doctrinal proposition.

2. Pertaining to the act or means of teaching.

The word of God serveth no otherwise, than in the nature of a doctrinal instrument.

DOCTRINAL, n. Something that is a part of doctrine.

DOCTRINALLY, adv. In the form of doctrine or instruction; by way of teaching or positive direction.

DOCTRINE, n. [L., to teach.]

1. In a general sense, whatever is taught. Hence, a principle or position in any science; whatever is laid down as true by an instructor or master. The doctrines of the gospel are the principles or truths taught by Christ and his apostles. The doctrines of Plato are the principles which he taught. Hence a doctrine may be true or false; it may be a mere tenet or opinion.

2. The act of teaching.

He taught them many things by parables, and said to them in his doctrine. Mark 4:2.

3. Learning; knowledge.

Whom shall he make to understand doctrine? Isaiah 28:9.

4. The truths of the gospel in general.

That they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in all things. Titus 2:10.

5. Instruction and confirmation in the truths of the gospel. 2 Timothy 3:10, 16.

DOCUMENT, n. [L., to teach.]

1. Precept; instruction; direction.

2. Dogmatical precept; authoritative dogma.

3. More generally, in present usage, written instruction, evidence or proof; any official or authoritative paper containing instructions or proof, for information and the establishment of facts. Thus, the president laid before congress the report of the secretary, accompanied with all the documents.


1. To furnish with documents; to furnish with instructions and proofs, or with papers necessary to establish facts. A ship should be documented according to the directions of law.

2. To teach; to instruct; to direct.

DOCUMENTAL, a. Pertaining to instruction or to documents; consisting in or derived from documents; as documental testimony.

DOCUMENTARY, a. Pertaining to written evidence; consisting in documents.

DODDER, n. [G.] A plant of the genus Cuscuta, one species of which is called hell-weed. It is almost destitute of leaves, parasitical, creeping and fixing itself to some other plant, as to hops, flax and particularly to the nettle. It decays at the root, and is nourished by the plant that supports it, by means of little vesicles or papillae, which attach themselves to the stalk.

DODDERED, a. Overgrown with dodder; covered with supercrescent plants.

DODECAGON, n. [Gr., twelve; an angle.] A regular figure or polygon, consisting of twelve equal sides and angles.

DODECAGYN, n. [Gr., twelve; a female.] In botany, a plant having twelve pistils.

DODECAGYNIAN, a. Having twelve pistils.

DODECAHEDRAL, a. [infra.] Pertaining to a dodecahedron; consisting of twelve equal sides.

DODECAHEDRON, n. [Gr., twelve; a base.] A regular solid contained under twelve equal and regular pentagons, or having twelve equal bases.

DODECANDER, n. [Gr., twelve; a male.] In botany, a plant having twelve stamens; one of the class dodecandria. But this class includes all plants that have any number of stamens from twelve to nineteen inclusive.

DODECANDRIAN, a. Pertaining to the plants or class of plants that have twelve stamens, or from twelve to nineteen.

DODECATEMORION, n. [Gr., twelfth; part.] A twelfth part. [Little used.]

DODECATEMORY, n. A denomination sometimes given to each of the twelve signs of the zodiac.

DODGE, v.i. doj. [from some root signifying to shoot, dart or start.]

1. To start suddenly aside; to shift place by a sudden start.

2. To play tricks; to be evasive; to use tergiversation; to play fast and loose; to raise expectations and disappoint them; to quibble.

DODGE, v.t. To evade by a sudden shift of place; to escape by starting aside; as, to dodge a blow aimed; to dodge a canon ball. [This is a common word, very expressive and useful, but not admissible in solemn discourse or elegant composition.]

DODGER, n. One who dodges or evades.

DODGING, ppr. Starting aside; evading.

DODKIN, n. A little doit; a small coin.

DODMAN, n. A fish that casts its shell, like the lobster and crab.

DODO, n. The Didus, a genus of fowls of the gallinaceous order. The hooded dodo is large than a swan, with a strong hooked bill. The general color of the plumage is cinereous; the belly and thighs whitish. The head is large, and seems as if covered with a hood. The solitary dodo is a large fowl, and is said to weigh sometimes forty five pounds. The plumage is gray and brown mixed.

DOE, n. Do. A she deer; the female of the fallow-deer. The male is called a buck.

DOE, n. A feat. [Not used.]

DOER, n. [from do.]

1. One who does; one who performs or executes; an actor; an agent.

2. One who performs what is required; one who observes, keeps or obeys, in practice.

The doers of the law shall be justified. Romans 2:13.

DOES, the third person of the verb do, indicative mode, present tense, contracted from doeth.

DOFF, v.t.

1. To put off, as dress.

And made us doff our easy robes of peace.

2. To strip or divest; as, he doffs himself.

3. To put or thrust away; to get rid of.

To doff their dire distresses.

4. To put off; to shift off; with a view to delay.

Every day thou doffst me with some device.

[This word is, I believe, entirely obsolete in discourse, at least in the United States, but is retained in poetry.]

DOG, n.

1. A species of quadrupeds, belonging to the genus Canis, of many varieties, as the mastiff, the hound, the spaniel, the shepherds dog, the terrier, the harrier, the bloodhound, etc.

2. It is used for male, when applied to several other animals; as a dog-fox; a dog-otter; dog-ape. It is prefixed to other words, denoting what is mean, degenerate or worthless; as dog-rose.

3. An andiron, so named from the figure of a dogs head on the top.

4. A term of reproach or contempt given to a man.

5. A constellation called Sirius or Canicula. [See Dog-day.]

6. An iron hook or bar with a sharp fang, used by seamen.

7. An iron used by sawyers to fasten a log of timber in a saw-pit.

8. A gay young man; a buck. [Not in use.]

To give or throw to the dogs, is to throw away, as useless.

To go to the dogs, is to be ruined.

DOG, v.t. To hunt; to follow insidiously or indefatigably; to follow close; to urge; to worry with importunity.

I have been pursued, dogged and and way-laid.

DOGATE, n. [See Doge.] The office or dignity of a doge.

DOGBERRY, n. The berry of the dogwood.

DOGBERRY-TREE, n. The dogwood.

DOGBRIER, n. The brier that bears the hip; the cynosbaton.

DOG-CABBAGE, n. A plant growing in the south of Europe, the cynocrambe, constituting the genus Theligonum.

DOGCHEAP, a. Cheap as dogs meat, or offal; very cheap.

DOGDAY, n. One of the days when Sirius or the dogstar rises and sets with the sun. The dogdays commence the latter part of July, and end the beginning of September.

DOGDRAW, n. A manifest deprehension of an offender against the venison in the forest, when he is found drawing after the deer by the scent of a hound led by the hand.

DOGE, n. [L., to lead.] The chief magistrate of Venice and Genoa.

DOGFIGHT, n. A battle between two dogs.

DOGFISH, n. A name given to several species of shark, as the spotted shark or greater dogfish, the piked dogfish, etc.

DOGFLY, n. A voracious, biting fly.


1. Pursued closely; urged frequently and importunately.

2. a. Sullen; sour; morose; surly; severe.

DOGGEDLY, adv. Sullenly; gloomily; sourly; morosely; severely.

DOGGEDNESS, n. Sullenness; moroseness.

DOGGER, n. A Dutch fishing vessel used in the German ocean, particularly in the herring fishery. It is equipped with two masts, a main-mast and a mizen-mast, somewhat resembling a ketch.

DOGGEREL, a. An epithet given to a kind of loose, irregular measure in burlesque poetry, like that of Hudibras; as doggerel verse or rhyme.

DOGGEREL, n. A loose, irregular kind of poetry; used in burlesque.

DOGGERMAN, n. A sailor belonging to a dogger.

DOGGERS, n. In English alum works, a sort of stone found in the mines with the true alum-rock, containing some alum.

DOGGING, ppr. [from dog.] Hunting; pursuing incessantly or importunately.

DOGGISH, a. Like a dog; churlish; growling; snappish; brutal.

DOGHEARTED, a. Cruel; pitiless; malicious.

DOGHOLE, n. A place fit only for dogs; a vile, mean habitation.

DOGHOUSE, n. A kennel for dogs.

DOGKENNEL, n. A kennel or hut for dogs.

DOGLEACH, n. A dog-doctor.

DOGLOUSE, n. An insect that is found on dogs.

DOGLY, a. Like a dog. [Not in use.]

DOG-MAD, a. Mad as a dog.

DOGMA, n. [Gr., to think; L.] A settled opinion; a principle, maxim or tenet; a doctrinal notion, particularly in matters of faith and philosophy; as the dogmas of the church; the dogmas of Plato.

Compliment my dogma, and I will compliment yours.


1. Pertaining to a dogma, or to settled opinion.

2. Positive; magisterial; asserting or disposed to assert with authority or with overbearing and arrogance; applied to persons; as a dogmatic schoolman or philosopher.

3. Positive; asserted with authority; authoritative; as a dogmatical opinion.

4. Arrogant; overbearing in asserting and maintaining opinions.

DOGMATICALLY, adv. Positively; in a magisterial manner; arrogantly.

DOGMATICALNESS, n. The quality of being dogmatical; positiveness.

DOGMATISM, n. Positive assertion; arrogance; positiveness in opinion.

DOGMATIST, n. A positive asserter; a magisterial teacher; a bold or arrogant advancer of principles.

DOGMATIZE, v.i. To assert positively; to teach with bold and undue confidence; to advance with arrogance.

Men often dogmatize most, when they are least supported by reason.

DOGMATIZER, n. One who dogmatizes; a bold assertor; a magisterial teacher.

DOGMATIZING, ppr. Asserting with excess of confidence.

DOGROSE, n. The flower of the hip.

DOG’S-BANE, n. [Gr.] A genus of plants, the Apocynum, of several species; also, the Asclepias.

DOG’S-EAR, n. The corner of a leaf in a book turned down like a dogs ear.

DOGSICK, a. Sick as a dog.

DOGSKIN, a. Made of the skin of a dog.

DOGSLEEP, n. Pretended sleep.

DOG’S-MEAT, n. Refuse; offal; meat for dogs.

DOG’S-RUE, n. A plant, a species of Scrophularia.

DOGSTAR, n. Sirius, a star of the first magnitude, whose rising and setting with the sun gives name to the dogdays.

DOGSTONES, n. A plant, the Orchis or fool-stones.

DOGTOOTH, n. plu. Dogteeth. A sharp-pointed human tooth growing between the foreteeth and grinders, and resembling a dogs tooth. It is called also an eye tooth.

DOGTOOTH-VIOLET, n. A plant, the Erythronium.

DOGTRICK, n. A currish trick; brutal treatment.

DOGTROT, n. A gentle trot like that of a dog.

DOGVANE, n. Among seamen, a small vane composed of thread, cork and feathers, fastened to a half pike and placed on the weather gun-wale, to assist in steering a ship on the wind.

DOGWATCH, n. Among seamen, a watch of two hours. The dogwatches are two reliefs between 4 and 8 o’clock, P.M.

DOGWEARY, a. Quite tired; much fatigued.

DOGWOOD, n. A common name of different species of Cornus or cornelian cherry.

DOGWOOD-TREE, n. The Piscidia erythrina, a tree growing in Jamaica.


1. A species of woolen stuff, said to be so called from the first maker.

2. Linen made into a small napkin.

DOING, ppr. [See Do.] Performing; executing.

DOINGS, n. plu.

1. Things done; transactions; feats; actions, good or bad.

2. Behavior; conduct.

3. Stir; bustle.

DOIT, n. [G.]

1. A small piece of money.

2. A trifle. Hence our vulgar phrase, I care not a doit. It is used adverbially and commonly pronounced dite.

DOLABRIFORM, a. [L., an ax; form.] Having the form of an ax or hatchet.

DOLE, n. [See Deal.]

1. The act of dealing or distributing; as the power of dole and donative. [Not in use.]

2. That which is dealt or distributed; a part, share or portion.

3. That which is given in charity; gratuity.

4. Blows dealt out.

5. Boundary. [Not in use.]

6. A void space left in tillage. [Local.]

DOLE, n. [L., pain, grief.] Grief; sorrow.
DOLE, v.t. To deal; to distribute. [Not used.]

DOLEFUL, a. [dole and full.]

1. Sorrowful; expressing grief; as a doleful whine; a doleful cry.

2. Melancholy; sad; afflicted; as a doleful sire.

3. Dismal; impressing sorrow; gloomy; as doleful shades.

DOLEFULLY, adv. In a doleful manner; sorrowfully; dismally; sadly.

DOLEFULNESS, n. Sorrow; melancholy; querulousness; gloominess; dismalness.

DOLENT, a. [L.] Sorrowful. [Not in use.]

DOLESOME, a. Gloomy; dismal; sorrowful; doleful.

The dolesome passage to th infernal sky.

DOLESOMENESS, n. Gloom; dismalness.