Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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DISTINGUISHED — DIUTURNAL

DISTINGUISHED, pp.

1. Separated or known by a mark of difference, or by different qualities.

2. a. Separated from others by superior or extraordinary qualities; whence, eminent; extraordinary; transcendent; noted; famous; celebrated. Thus, we admire distinguished men, distinguished talents or virtues, and distinguished services.

DISTINGUISHER, n.

1. He or that which distinguishes, or that separates one thing from another by marks of diversity.

2. One who discerns accurately the difference of thins; a nice or judicious observer.

DISTINGUISHING, ppr.

1. Separating from others by a note of diversity; ascertaining difference by a mark.

2. Ascertaining, knowing or perceiving a difference.

3. a. Constituting difference, or distinction from every thing else; peculiar; as the distinguishing doctrines of Christianity.

DISTINGUISHINGLY, adv. With distinction; with some mark of preference.

DISTINGUISHMENT, n. Distinction; observation of difference.

DISTITLE, v.t. To deprive of right.

DISTORT, v.t. [L., to twist.]

1. To twist out of natural or regular shape; as, to distort the neck, the limbs or the body; to distort the features.

2. To force or put out of the true posture or direction.

Wrath and malice, envy and revenge distort the understanding.

3. To wrest from the true meaning; to pervert; as, to distort passages of scripture, or their meaning.

DISTORT, a. Distorted.

DISTORTED, pp. Twisted out of natural or regular shape; wrested; perverted.

DISTORTING, ppr. Twisting out of shape; wresting; perverting.

DISTORTION, n. [L.]

1. The act of distorting or wresting; a twisting out of regular shape; a twisting or writhing motion; as the distortions of the face or body.

2. The state of being twisted out of shape; deviation from natural shape or position; crookedness; grimace.

3. A perversion of the true meaning of words.

DISTRACT, v.t. [L., to draw. See Draw and Drag. The old participle distraught is obsolete.]

1. Literally, to draw apart; to pull in different directions, and separate. Hence, to divide; to separate; and hence, to throw into confusion. Sometimes in a literal sense. Contradictory or mistaken orders may distract an army.

2. To turn or draw from any object; to divert from any point, towards another point or toward various other objects; as, to distract the eye or the attention.

If he cannot avoid the eye of the observer, he hopes to distract it by a multiplicity of the object.

3. To draw towards different objects; to fill with different considerations; to perplex; to confound; to harass; as, to distract the mind with cares; you distract me with your clamor.

While I suffer thy terrors, I am distracted. Psalm 88:15.

4. To disorder the reason; the derange the regular operations of intellect; to render raving or furious; most frequently used in the participle distracted.

DISTRACT, a. Mad. [Not in use.]

DISTRACTED, pp.

1. Drawn apart; drawn in different directions; diverted from its object; perplexed; harassed; confounded.

2. a. Deranged; disordered in intellect; raving; furious; mad; frantic.

DISTRACTEDLY, adv. Madly; furiously; wildly.

DISTRACTEDNESS, n. A state of being mad; madness.

DISTRACTER, n. One who distracts.

DISTRACTING, ppr. Drawing apart; separating; diverting from an object; perplexing; harassing; disordering the intellect.

DISTRACTION, n. [L.]

1. The act of distracting; a drawing apart; separation.

2. Confusion from a multiplicity of objects crowding on the mind and calling the attention different ways; perturbation of mind; perplexity; as, the family was in a state of distraction. [See 1 Corinthians 7:35.]

3. Confusion of affairs; tumult; disorder; as political distractions.

Never was known a night of such distraction.

4. Madness; a state of disordered reason; franticness; furiousness. [We usually apply this word to a state of derangement which produces raving and violence in the patient.]

5. Folly in the extreme, or amounting to insanity.

On the supposition of the truth of the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, irreligion is nothing better than distraction.

DISTRACTIVE, a. Causing perplexity; as distractive cases.

DISTRAIN, v.t. [L. Dis and stringo. See Strain. Blackstone writes distrein.]

1. To seize for debt; to take a personal chatel from the possession of a wrong-doer into the possession of the injured party, to satisfy a demand, or compel the performance of a duty; as, to distrain goods for rent, or for an amercement.

2. To rend; to tear.

DISTRAIN, v.i. To make seizure of goods.

On whom I cannot distrain for debt.

For neglecting to do suit to the lords court, or other personal service, the lord may distrain of common right.

[In this phrase however some word seems to be understood; as, to distrain goods.]

DISTRAINABLE, a. That is liable to be taken for distress.

DISTRAINED, pp. Seized for debt or to compel the performance of duty.

DISTRAINING, ppr. Seizing for debt, or for neglect of suit and service.

DISTRAINOR, n. He who seizes goods for debt or service.

DISTRAUGHT, Obs. [See Distract.]

DISTREAM, v.i. [dis and stream.] To spread or flow over.

Yet oer that virtuous blush distreams a tear.

DISTRESS, n. [See Stress.]

1. The act of distraining; the taking of any personal chattel from a wrong-doer, to answer a demand, or procure satisfaction for a wrong committed.

2. The thing taken by distraining; that which is seized to procure satisfaction.

A distress of household goods shall be impounded under cover. If the lessor does not find sufficient distress on the premises, etc.

3. Extreme pain; anguish of body or mind; as, to suffer great distress from the gout, or from the loss of near friends.

4. Affliction; calamity; misery.

On earth distress of nations. Luke 21:25.

5. A state of danger; as a ship in distress, from leaking, loss of spars, or want of provisions or water, etc.

DISTRESS, v.t.

1. To pain; to afflict with pain or anguish; applied to the body or the mind. [Literally, to press or strain.]

2. To afflict greatly; to harass; to oppress with calamity; to make miserable.

Distress not the Moabites. Deuteronomy 2:9.

We are troubled on every side, but not distressed. 2 Corinthians 4:8.

3. To compel by pain or suffering.

There are men who can neither be distressed nor won into a sacrifice of duty.

DISTRESSED, pp. Suffering great pain or torture; severely afflicted; harassed; oppressed with calamity or misfortune.

DISTRESSEDNESS, n. A state of being greatly pained.

DISTRESSFUL, a.

1. Inflicting or bringing distress; as a distressful stroke.

2. Indicating distress; proceeding from pain or anguish; as distressful cries.

3. Calamitous; as a distressful event.

4. Attended with poverty; as distressful bread.

DISTRESSING, ppr.

1. Giving severe pain; oppressing with affliction.

2. a. Very afflicting; affecting with severe pain; as a distressing sickness.

DISTRIBUTABLE, a. [See Distribute.] That may be distributed; that may be assigned in portions.

DISTRIBUTE, v.t. [L., to give or divide.]

1. To divide among two or more; to deal; to give or bestow in parts or portions. Moses distributed lands to the tribes of Israel. Christ distributed the loaves to his disciples.

2. To dispense; to administer; as, to distribute justice.

3. To divide or separate, as into classes, orders, kinds or species.

4. To give in charity.

Distributing to the necessities of the saints. Romans 12:13.

5. In printing, to separate types, and place them in their proper cells in the cases.

DISTRIBUTED, pp. Divided among a number; dealt out; assigned in portions; separated; bestowed.

DISTRIBUTER, n. One who divides or deals out in parts; one who bestows in portions; a dispenser.

DISTRIBUTING, ppr. Dividing among a number; dealing out; dispensing.

DISTRIBUTION, n. [L.]

1. The act of dividing among a number; a dealing in parts or portions; as the distribution of an estate among heirs or children.

2. The act of giving in charity; a bestowing in parts.

3. Dispensation; administration to numbers; a rendering to individuals; as the distribution of justice.

4. The act of separating into distinct parts or classes; as the distribution of plants into genera and species.

5. In architecture, the dividing and disposing of the several parts of the building, according to some plan, or to the rules of the art.

6. In rhetoric, a division and enumeration of the several qualities of a subject.

7. In general, the division and disposition of the parts of any thing.

8. In printing, the taking a form apart; the separating of the types, and placing each letter in its proper cell in the cases.

DISTRIBUTIVE, a.

1. That distributes; that divides and assigns in portions; that deals to each his proper share; as distributive justice.

2. That assigns the various species of a general term.

3. That separates or divides; as a distributive adjective.

DISTRIBUTIVE, n. In grammar, a word that divides or distributes, as each and every, which represent the individuals of a collective number as separate.

DISTRIBUTIVELY, adv. By distribution; singly; not collectively.

DISTRIBUTIVENESS, n. Desire of distributing. [Little used.]

DISTRICT, n. [L., to press hard, to bind. See Distrain.]

1. Properly, a limited extent of country; a circuit within which power, right or authority may be exercised, and to which it is restrained; a word applicable to any portion of land or country, or to any part of a city or town, which is defined by law or agreement. A governor, a prefect, or a judge may have his district. Some of the states are divided into districts for the choice of senators, representatives or electors. Cities and towns are divided into districts for various purposes, as for school, etc. The United States are divided into districts for the collection of the revenue.

2. A region; a territory within given lines; as the district of the earth which lies between the tropics, or that which is north of a polar circle.

3. A region; a country; a portion of territory without very definite limits; as the districts of Russia covered by forest.

DISTRICT, v.t. To divide into districts or limited portions of territory. Legislatures district states for the choice of senators. In New England, towns are districted for the purpose of establishing and managing schools.

DISTRICT-COURT, n. A court which has cognizance of certain causes within a district defined by law. The district-courts of the United States are courts of subordinate jurisdiction.

DISTRICT-JUDGE, n. The judge of a district-court.

DISTRICT-SCHOOL, n. A school within a certain district of a town.

DISTRICTED, pp. Divided into districts or definite portions.

DISTRICTING, ppr. Dividing into limited or definite portions.

DISTRICTING, ppr. Dividing into limited or definite portions.

DISTRICTION, n. Sudden display. [Unusual.]

DISTRINGAS, n. In law, a writ commanding the sheriff to distrain a person for debt, or for his appearance at a certain day.

DISTRUST, v.t. [dis and trust. See Mistrust.]

1. To doubt or suspect the truth, fidelity, firmness or sincerity of; not to confide in or rely on. We distrust a man, when we question his veracity, etc. We may often distrust our own firmness.

2. To doubt; to suspect not to be real, true, sincere or firm. We distrust a man’s courage, friendship, veracity, declarations, intentions or promises, when we question their reality or sincerity. We cannot distrust the declarations of God. We often have reason to distrust our own resolutions.

DISTRUST, n.

1. Doubt or suspicion of reality or sincerity; want of confidence, faith or reliance. Sycophants should be heard with distrust. Distrust mars the pleasures of friendship and social intercourse.

2. Discredit; loss of confidence.

DISTRUSTED, pp. Doubted; suspected.

DISTRUSTFUL, a.

1. Apt to distrust; suspicious.

2. Not confident; diffident; as distrustful of ourselves.

3. Diffident; modest.

DISTRUSTFULLY, adv. In a distrustful manner; with doubt or suspicion.

DISTRUSTFULNESS, n. The state of being distrustful; want of confidence.

DISTRUSTING, ppr. Doubting the reality or sincerity of; suspecting; not relying on or confiding in.

DISTRUSTLESS, a. Free from distrust or suspicion.

DISTUNE, v.t. To put out of tune. [Not used.]

DISTURB, v.t. [L., to trouble, disorder, discompose; a crowd, a tumult; Gr., a tumult. The primary sense seems to be to stir, or to turn or whirl round.]

1. To stir; to move; to discompose; to excite from a state of rest or tranquillity. We say, the man is asleep, do not disturb him. Let the vessel stand, do not move the liquor, you will disturb the sediment. Disturb not the public peace.

2. To move or agitate; to disquiet; to excite uneasiness or a slight degree of anger in the mind; to move the passions; to ruffle. The mind may be disturbed by an offense given, by misfortune, surprise, contention, discord, jealousy, envy, etc.

3. To move from any regular course or operation; to interrupt regular order; to make irregular. It has been supposed that the approach of a comet may disturb the motions of the planets in their orbits. An unexpected cause may disturb a chemical operation, or the operation of medicine.

4. To interrupt; to hinder; to incommode. Care disturbs study. Let no person disturb my franchise.

5. To turn off from any direction; with from. [Unusual.]

--And disturb his inmost counsels from their destind aim.

DISTURB, n. Confusion; disorder. [Not used.]

DISTURBANCE, n.

1. A stirring or excitement; any disquiet or interruption of peace; as, to enter the church without making disturbance.

2. Interruption of a settled state of things; disorder; tumult. We have read much at times of disturbances in Spain, England and Ireland.

3. Emotion of the mind; agitation; excitement of passion; perturbation. The merchant received the news of his losses without apparent disturbance.

4. Disorder of thoughts; confusion.

They can survey a variety of complicated ideas, without fatigue or disturbance.

5. In law, the hindering or disquieting of a person in the lawful and peaceable enjoyment of his right; the interruption of a right; as the disturbance of a franchise, of common, of ways, of tenure, of patronage.

DISTURBED, pp. Stirred; moved; excited; discomposed; disquieted; agitated; uneasy.

DISTURBER, n.

1. One who disturbs or disquiets; a violator of peace; one who causes tumults or disorders.

2. He or that which excites passion or agitation; he or that which causes perturbation.

3. In law, one that interrupts or incommodes another in the peaceable enjoyment of his right.

DISTURBING, ppr. Moving; exciting; rendering uneasy; making a tumult; interrupting peace; incommoding the quiet enjoyment of.

DISTURN, v.t. [dis and turn.] To turn aside. [Not in use.]

DISUNIFORM, a. Disyuniform. Not uniform. [Not in use.]

DISUNION, n. Disyunion. [dis and union.] Separation; disjunction; or a state of not being united. It sometimes denotes a breach of concord, and its effect, contention.

DISUNITE, v.t. disyunite. [dis and unite.] To separate; to disjoin; to part; as, to disunite two allied countries; to disunite particles of matter; to disunite friends.

DISUNITE, v.i. To part; To fall asunder; to become separate. Particles of matter may spontaneously disunite.

DISUNITED, pp. Separated; disjoined.

DISUNITER, n. He or that which disjoins.

DISUNITING, ppr. Separating; parting.

DISUNITY, n. Disyunity. A state of separation.

DISUSAGE, n. Disyuzage. [dis and usage.] Gradual cessation of use or custom; neglect of use, exercise or practice. We lose words by disusage.

DISUSE, n. Disyuse. [dis and use.]

1. Cessation of use, practice or exercise; as, the limbs lose their strength and pliability by disuse; language is altered by the disuse of words.

2. Cessation of custom; desuetude.

DISUSE, v.t. disyuze. [dis and use.]

1. To cease to use; to neglect or omit to practice.

2. To disaccustom; with from, in or to; as disused to toils; disused from pain.

DISUSED, pp. Disyuzed.

1. No longer used; obsolete, as words, etc.

Priam in arms disused.

2. Disaccustomed.

DISUSING, ppr. Disyuzing. Ceasing to use; disaccustoming.

DISVALUATION, n. [See Disvalue.] Disesteem; disreputation.

DISVALUE, v.t. [dis and value.] To undervalue; to disesteem.

DISVALUE, n. Disesteem; disregard.

DISVOUCH, v.t. [dis and vouch.] to discredit; to contradict.

DISWARN, v.t. [dis and warn.] To direct by previous notice. [Not used.]

DISWITTED, a. Deprived of wits or understanding.

DISWONT, v.t. [dis and wont.] To wean; to deprive of wonted usage.

DISWORSHIP, n. [dis and worship.] Cause of disgrace.

DIT, n. A ditty. [Not used.]

DIT, v.t. To close up. [Not used.]

DITATION, n. [L.] The act of making rich. [Not used.]

DITCH, n. [G.]

1. A trench in the earth made by digging, particularly a trench for draining wet land, or for making a fence to guard inclosures, or for preventing an enemy from approaching a town or fortress. In the latter sense, it is called also a foss or moat, and is dug round the rampart or wall between the scarp and counterscarp.

2. Any long, hollow receptacle of water.

DITCH, v.i. To dig or make a ditch or ditches.
DITCH, v.t.

1. To dig a ditch or ditches in; to drain by a ditch; as, to ditch moist land.

2. To surround with a ditch.

DITCH-DELIVERED, a. Brought forth in a ditch.

DITCHER, n. One who digs ditches.

DITCHING, ppr. Digging ditches; also, draining by a ditch or ditches; as ditching a swamp.

DITETRAHEDRAL, a. [dis and tetrahedral.] In crystalography, having the form of a tetrahedral prism with dihedral summits.

DITHYRAMB, DITHYRAMBUS, n. [Gr.] In ancient poetry, a hymn in honor of Bacchus, full of transport and poetical rage. Of this species of writing we have no remains.

DITHYRAMBIC, n.

1. A song in honor of Bacchus, in which the wildness of intoxication is imitated.

2. Any poem written in wild enthusiastic strains.

DITHYRAMBIC, a. Wild; enthusiastic.

DITION, n. [L.] rule; power; government; dominion.

DITONE, n. [Gr., tone.] In music, an interval comprehending two tones. The proportion of the sounds that form the ditone is 4:5, and that of the semiditone, 5:6.

DITRIHEDRIA, n. [Gr., twice three sides.] In mineralogy, a genus of spars with six sides or planes; being formed of tow trigonal pyramids joined base to base, without an intermediate column.

DITTANDER, n. Pepper-wort, Lepidium, a genus of plants of many species. The common dittander has a hot biting taste, and is sometimes used in lieu of pepper.

DITTANY, n. [L., Gr.] The white dittany is a plant of the genus Dictamnus. Its leaves are covered with a white down; in smell, they resemble lemon-thyme, but are more aromatic. When fresh, they yield an essential oil.

Th dittany of crete is a species of Origanum, and the bastard dittany is a species of Marrubium.

DITTIED, a. [See Ditty.] Sung; adapted to music.

He, with his soft pipe, and smooth, and smooth dittied song.

DITTO, contracted into do, in books of accounts, is the Italian detto, from L. It denotes said, aforesaid, or the same thing; an abbreviation used to save repetition.

DITTY, n. [L.] A song; a sonnet or a little poem to be sung.

And to the warblign lute soft ditties sing.

DITTY, v.i. To sing; to warble a little tune.

DIURETIC, a. [Gr., urinam reddo; urine.] Having the power to provoke urine; tending to produce discharges of urine.

DIURETIC, n. A medicine that provokes urine, or increases its discharges.

DIURNAL, a. [L., daily.]

1. Relating to a day; pertaining to the daytime; as diurnal heat; diurnal hours.

2. Daily; happening every day; performed in a day; as a diurnal task.

3. Performed in 24 hours; as the diurnal revolution of the earth.

4. In medicine, an epithet of diseases whose exacerbations are in the day time; as a diurnal fever.

DIURNAL, n. A day-book; a journal. [See Journal, which is mostly used.]

DIURNALIST, n. A journalist. [Not in use.]

DIURNALLY, adv. Daily; every day.

DIUTURNAL, a. Lasting; being of long continuance.