Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



DISMAY, v.t. To deprive of that strength or firmness of mind which constitutes courage; to discourage; to dishearten; to sink or depress the spirits or resolution; hence, to affright or terrify.

Be strong, and of a good courage; be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed. Joshua 1:9.

DISMAY, n. Fall or loss of courage; a sinking of the spirits; depression; dejection; a yielding to fear; that loss of firmness which is effected by fear or terror; fear impressed; terror felt.

And each in others countenance read his own dismay.

DISMAYED, pp. Disheartened; deprived of courage.

DISMAYEDNESS, n. A state of being dismayed; dejection of courage; dispiritedness. [A useless word, and not used.]

DISMAYING, ppr. Depriving of courage.

DISME, DIME, n. A tenth part; a tithe.

DISMEMBER, v.t. [dis and member.]

1. To divide limb from limb; to separate a member from the body; to tear or cut in pieces; to dilacerate; to mutilate.

Fowls obscene dismembered his remains.

2. To separate a part from the main body; to divide; to sever; as, to dismember an empire, kingdom or republic. Poland was dismembered by the neighboring powers.

DISMEMBERED, pp. Divided member from member; torn or cut in pieces; divided by the separation of a part from the main body.

DISMEMBERING, ppr. Separating a limb or limbs from the body; dividing by taking a part or parts from the body.

DISMEMBERING, n. Mutilation.

DISMEMBERMENT, n. The act of severing a limb or limbs from the body; the act of tearing or cutting in pieces; mutilation; the act of severing a part from the main body; division; separation.

He pointed out the danger of a dismemberment of the republic.

DISMETTLED, a. Destitute of fire or spirit. [Not much used.]

DISMISS, v.t. [L.]

1. To send away; properly, to give leave of departure; to permit to depart; implying authority in a person to retain or keep. The town clerk dismissed the assembly.

2. To discard; to remove from office, service or employment. The king dismisses his ministers; the master dismisses his servant; and the employer, his workmen. Officers are dismissed from service, and students from college.

3. To send; to dispatch.

He dismissed embassadors from Pekin to Tooshoo Loomboo. [Improper.]

4. To send or remove from a docket; to discontinue; as, to dismiss a bill in chancery.

DISMISS, n. Discharge; dismission. [Not used.]

DISMISSAL, n. Dismission.

DISMISSED, pp. Sent away; permitted to depart; removed from office or employment.

DISMISSING, ppr. Sending away; giving leave to depart; removing from office or service.


1. The act of sending away; leave to depart; as the dismission of the grand jury.

2. Removal from office or employment; discharge, either with honor or disgrace.

3. An act requiring departure. [Not usual.]

4. Removal of a suit in equity.

DISMISSIVE, a. Giving dismission.

DISMORTGAGE, v.t. dismorgage. To redeem from mortgage.

DISMOUNT, v.i. [dis and mount.]

1. To alight from a horse; to descend or get off, as a rider from a beast; as, the officer ordered his troops to dismount.

2. To descend from an elevation.


1. To throw or remove from a horse; to unhorse; as, the soldier dismounted his adversary.

2. To throw or bring down from any elevation.

3. To throw or remove cannon or other artillery from their carriages; or to break the carriages or wheels, and render guns useless.


1. Thrown from a horse, or from an elevation; unhorsed, or removed from horses by order; as dismounted troops. Applied to horses, it signifies unfit for service.

2. Thrown or removed from carriages.

DISMOUNTING, ppr. Throwing from a horse; unhorsing; removing from an elevation; throwing or removing from carriages.

DISNATURALIZE, v.t. To make alien; to deprive of the privileges of birth.

DISNATURED, a. Deprived or destitute of natural feelings; unnatural.

DISOBEDIENCE, n. [dis and obedience.]

1. Neglect or refusal to obey; violation of a command or prohibition; the omission of that which is commanded to be done, or the doing of that which is forbid; breach of duty prescribed by authority.

By one man’s disobedience, many were made sinners. Romans 5:19.

2. Non-compliance.

This disobedience of the moon.


1. Neglecting or refusing to obey; omitting to do what is commanded, or doing what is prohibited; refractory; not observant of duty or rules prescribed by authority; as children disobedient to parents; citizens disobedient to the laws.

I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision. Acts 26:19.

2. Not yielding to exciting force or power.

Medicines used unnecessarily contribute to shorten life, by sooner rendering peculiar parts of the system disobedient to stimuli.

DISOBEY, v.t. [dis and obey.] To neglect or refuse to obey; to omit or refuse to do what is commanded, or to do what is forbid; to transgress or violate an order or injunction. Refractory children disobey their parents; men disobey their maker and the laws; and we all disobey the precepts of the gospel. [The word is applicable both to the command and to the person commanding.]

DISOBEYED, pp. Not obeyed; neglected; transgressed.

DISOBEYING, ppr. Omitting or refusing to obey; violating; transgressing, as authority or law.

DISOBLIGATION, n. [dis and obligation.] The act of disobliging; an offense; cause of disgust.

DISOBLIGATORY, a. Releasing obligation.

DISOBLIGE, v.t. [dis and oblige.]

1. To do an act which contravenes the will or desires of another; to offend by an act of unkindness or incivility; to injure in a slight degree; a term by which offense is tenderly expressed.

My plan has given offense to some gentlemen, whom it would not be very safe to disoblige.

2. To release from obligation. [Not used.]

DISOBLIGED, pp. Offended; slightly injured.

DISOBLIGEMENT, n. The act of disobliging.

DISOBLIGER, n. One who disobliges.


1. Offending; contravening the wishes of; injuring slightly.

2. a. Not obliging; not disposed to gratify the wishes of another; not disposed to please; unkind; offensive; unpleasing; unaccommodating; as a disobliging coachman.

DISOBLIGINGLY, adv. In a disobliging manner; offensively.

DISOBLIGINGNESS, n. Offensiveness; disposition to displease, or want of readiness to please.

DISOPINION, n. Difference of opinion. [A bad word and not used.]

DISORBED, a. [dis and orb.] Thrown out of the proper orbit; as a star disorbed.

DISORDER, n. [dis and order.]

1. Want of order or regular disposition; irregularity; immethodical distribution; confusion; a word of general application; as, the troops were thrown into disorder; the papers are in disorder.

2. Tumult; disturbance of the peace of society; as, the city is sometimes troubled with the disorders of its citizens.

3. Neglect of rule; irregularity.

From vulgar bounds with brave disorder part, and snatch a grace beyond the reach of art.

4. Breach of laws; violation of standing rules, or institutions.

5. Irregularity, disturbance or interruption of the functions of the animal economy; disease; distemper; sickness. [See Disease.] disorder however is more frequently used to express a slight disease.

6. Discomposure of the mind; turbulence of passions.

7. Irregularity in the functions of the brain; derangement of the intellect or reason.


1. To break order; to derange; to disturb any regular disposition or arrangement of things; to put out of method; to throw into confusion; to confuse; applicable to every thing susceptible of order.

2. To disturb or interrupt the natural functions of the animal economy; to produce sickness or indisposition; as, to disorder the head or stomach.

3. To discompose or disturb the mind; to ruffle.

4. To disturb the regular operations of reason; to derange; as, the man’s reason is disordered.

5. To depose from holy orders. [Unusual.]

DISORDERED, pp. Put out of order; derranged; disturbed; discomposed; confused; sick; indisposed.

DISORDERED, a. Disorderly; irregular; vicious; loose; unrestrained in behavior.

DISORDEREDNESS, n. A state of disorder or irregularity; confusion.

DISORDERLY, a. Confused; immethodical; irregular; being without proper order or disposition; as, the books and papers are in a disorderly state.

2. Tumultuous; irregular; as the disorderly motions of the spirits.

3. Lawless; contrary to law; violating or disposed to violate law and good order; as disorderly people; disorderly assemblies.

4. Inclined to break loose from restraint; unruly; as disorderly cattle.


1. Without order, rule or method; irregularly; confusedly; in a disorderly manner.

Savages fighting disorderly with stones.

2. In a manner violating law and good order; in a manner contrary to rules or established institutions.

Withdraw from every brother that walketh disorderly. 2 Thessalonians 3:6.

DISORDINATE, a. Disorderly; living irregularly.

DISORDINATELY, adv. Inordinately; irregularly; viciously.

DISORGANIZATION, n. [See Disorganize.]

1. The act of disorganizing; the act of destroying organic structure, or connected system; the act of destroying order.

2. The state of being disorganized. We speak of the disorganization of the body, or of government, or of society, or of an army.

DISORGANIZE, v.t. [dis and organize. See Organ.] To break or destroy organic structure or connected system; to dissolve regular system or union or parts; as, to disorganize a government or society; to disorganize an army.

Every account of the settlement of Plymouth mentions the conduct of Lyford, who attempted to disorganize the church.

DISORGANIZED, pp. Reduced to disorder; being in a confused state.

DISORGANIZER, n. One who disorganizes; one who destroys or attempts to interrupt regular order or system; one who introduces disorder and confusion.


1. Destroying regular and connected system; throwing into confusion.

2. a. Disposed or tending to disorganize; as a disorganizing spirit.

DISOWN, v.t. [dis and own.]

1. To deny; not to own; to refuse to acknowledge as belonging to ones self. A parent and hardly disown his child. An author will sometimes disown his writings.

2. To deny; not to allow.

To disown a brothers better claim.

DISOWNED, pp. Not owned; not acknowledged as ones own; denied; disallowed.

DISOWNING, ppr. Not owning; denying; disallowing.

DISOXYDATE, v.t. [dis and oxydate.] To reduce from oxydation; to reduce from the state of an oxyd, by disengaging oxygen from a substance; as, to disoxydate iron or copper.

DISOXYDATED, pp. Reduced from the state of an oxyd.

DISOXYDATING, ppr. Reducing from the state of an oxyd.

DISOXYDATION, n. The act or process of freeing from oxygen and reducing from the state of an oxyd. [This word seems to be preferable to deoxydate.]

DISOXYGENATE, v.t. [dis and oxygenate.] To deprive of oxygen.

DISOXYGENATED, pp. Freed from oxygen.

DISOXYGENATING, ppr. Freeing from oxygen.

DISOXYGENATION, n. The act or process of separating oxygen from any substance containing it.

DISPACE, v.i. [dis and spatior, L.] To range about.

DISPAIR, v.t. [dis and pair.] To separate a pair or couple.

DISPAND, v.t. [L.] To display. [Not in use.]

DISPANSION, n. The act of spreading or displaying. [Not in use.]

DISPARADISED, a. [dis and paradise.] Removed from paradise.


1. To marry one to another of inferior condition or rank; to dishonor by an unequal match or marriage, against the rules of decency.

2. To match unequally; to injure or dishonor by union with something of inferior excellence.

3. To injure or dishonor by a comparison with something of less value or excellence.

4. To treat with contempt; to undervalue; to lower in rank or estimation; to vilify; to bring reproach on; to reproach; to debase by words or actions; to dishonor.

Thou durst not thus disparage glorious arms.

DISPARAGED, pp. Married to one beneath his or her condition; unequally matched; dishonored or injured by comparison with something inferior; undervalued; vilified; debased; reproached.


1. The matching of a man or woman to one of inferior rank or condition, and against the rule of decency.

2. Injury by union or comparison with something of inferior excellence.

3. Diminution of value or excellence; reproach; disgrace; indignity; dishonor; followed by to.

It ought to be no disparagement to a stat that it is not the sun.

To be a humble Christian is not disparagement to a prince, or a nobleman.

DISPARAGER, n. One who disparages or dishonors; one who vilifies or disgraces.

DISPARAGING, ppr. Marrying one to another of inferior condition; dishonoring by an unequal union or comparison; disgracing; dishonoring.

DISPARAGINGLY, adv. In a manner to disparage or dishonor.

DISPARATE, a. [L., equal.] Unequal; unlike; dissimilar.

DISPARATES, n. plu. Things so unequal or unlike that they cannot be compared with each other.


1. Irregularity; difference in degree, in age, rank, condition or excellence; as a disparity of year or of age; disparity of condition or circumstances; followed by of or in. We say, disparity in or of years.

2. Dissimilitude; unlikeness.

DISPARK, v.t. [dis and park.]

1. To throw open a park; to lay open.

2. To set at large; to release from inclosure or confinement.

DISPART, v.t. [dis and part. L. See Part. Dis and part both imply separation.] To part asunder; to divide; to separate; to sever; to burst; to rend; to rive or split; as disparted air; disparted towers; disparted chaos. [An elegant poetic word.]

DISPART, v.i. To separate; to open; to cleave.
DISPART, n. In gunnery, the thickness of the metal of a piece of ordnance at the mouth and britch.
DISPART, v.t. In gunnery, to set a mark on the muzzle-ring of a piece of ordnance, so that a sight-line from the top of the base-ring to the mark on or near the muzzle may be parallel to the axis of the bore or hollow cylinder.

DISPARTED, pp. Divided; separated; parted; rent asunder.

DISPARTING, ppr. Severing; dividing; bursting; cleaving.

DISPASSION, n. [dis and passion.] Freedom from passion; an undisturbed state of the mind; apathy.


1. Free from passion; calm; composed; impartial; moderate; temperate; unmoved by feelings; applied to persons; as dispassionate men or judges.

2. Not dictated by passion; not proceeding from temper or bias; impartial; applied to things; as dispassionate proceedings.

DISPASSIONATELY, adv. Without passion; calmly; coolly.

DISPATCH, v.t. [L.]

1. To send or send away; particularly applied to the sending of messengers, agents and letters on special business, and often implying haste. The king dispatched and envoy to the court of Madrid. He dispatched a messenger to his envoy in France. He dispatched orders or letters to the commander of the forces in Spain. The president dispatched a special envoy to the court of St. James in 1794.

2. To send out of the world; to put to death.

The company shall stone them with stones, and dispatch them with their swords. Ezekiel 23:47.

3. To perform; to execute speedily; to finish; as, the business was dispatched in due time.

DISPATCH, v.i. To conclude an affair with another; to transact and finish. [Not now used.]

They have dispatched with Pompey.


1. Speedy performance; execution or transaction of business with due diligence.

2. Speed; haste; expedition; due diligence; as, the business was done with dispatch; go, but make dispatch.

3. Conduct; management. [Not used.]

4. A letter sent or to be sent with expedition, by a messenger express; or a letter on some affair of state, or of public concern; or a packet of letters, sent by some public officer, on public business. It is often used in the plural. A vessel or a messenger has arrived with dispatches for the American minister. A dispatch was immediately sent to the admiral. The secretary was preparing his dispatches.

DISPATCHED, pp. Sent with haste or by a courier express; sent out of the world; put to death; performed; finished.


1. One that dispatches; one that kills.

2. One that sends on a special errand.

DISPATCHFUL, a. Bent on haste; indicating haste; intent on speedy execution of business; as dispatchful looks.

DISPATCHING, ppr. Sending away in haste; putting to death; executing; finishing.

DISPAUPER, v.t. [dis and pauper.] To deprive of the claim of a pauper to public support, or of the capacity of suing in forma pauperis; to reduce back from the state of a pauper.

A man is dispaupered, when he has lands fallen to him or property given him.

DISPEL, v.t. [L., to drive., Gr. See Appeal, Peal, Pulse and Bawl.] To scatter by driving or force; to disperse; to dissipate; to banish; as, to dispel vapors; to dispel darkness or gloom; to dispel fears; to dispel cares or sorrows; to dispel doubts.

DISPELLED, pp. Driven away; scattered; dissipated.

DISPELLING, ppr. Driving away; dispersing; scattering.

DISPEND, v.t. [L., to weigh.] To spend; to lay out; to consume. [See Expend, which is generally used.]

DISPENDER, n. One that distributes.

DISPENSABLE, a. That may be dispensed with.

DISPENSABLENESS, n. The capability of being dispensed with.

DISPENSARY, n. A house, place or store, in which medicines are dispensed to the poor, and medical advice given, gratis.

DISPENSATION, n. [L. See Dispense.]

1. Distribution; the act of dealing out to different persons or places; as the dispensation of water indifferently to all parts of the earth.

2. The dealing of God to his creatures; the distribution of good and evil, natural or moral, in the divine government.

Neither are Gods methods or intentions different in his dispensations to each private man.

3. The granting of a license, or the license itself, to do what is forbidden by laws or canons, or to omit something which is commanded; that is, the dispensing with a law or canon, or the exemption of a particular person from the obligation to comply with its injunctions. The pope has power to dispense with the canons of the church, but has no right to grant dispensations to the injury of a third person.

A dispensation was obtained to enable Dr. Barrow to marry.

4. That which is dispensed or bestowed; a system of principles and rites enjoined; as the Mosaic dispensation; the gospel dispensation; including, the former the Levitical law and rites; the latter the scheme of redemption by Christ.

DISPENSATIVE, a. Granting dispensation.

DISPENSATIVELY, adv. By dispensation.

DISPENSATORY, n. [L.] One whose employment is to deal out or distribute; a distributor; a dispenser; the latter word is generally used.

DISPENSATORY, a. Having power to grant dispensations.
DISPENSATORY, n. A book containing the method of preparing the various kinds of medicines used in pharmacy, or containing directions for the composition of medicines, with the proportions of the ingredients, and the methods of preparing them.

DISPENSE, v.t. dispens. [L., to weigh, primarily to move; and perhaps the original idea of expending was to weigh off, or to distribute by weight.]

1. To deal or divide out in parts or portions; to distribute. The steward dispenses provisions to every man, according to his directions. The society dispenses medicines to the poor gratuitously or at first cost. God dispenses his favors according to his good pleasure.

2. To administer; to apply, as laws to particular cases; to distribute justice.

While you dispense the laws and guide the state.

To dispense with,

1. To permit not to take effect; to neglect or pass by; to suspend the operation or application of something required, established or customary; as, to dispense with the law, in favor of a friend; I cannot dispense with the conditions of the covenant. So we say, to dispense with oaths; to dispense with forms and ceremonies.

2. To excuse from; to give leave not to do or observe what is required or commanded. The court will dispense with your attendance, or with you compliance.

3. To permit the want of a thing which is useful or convenient; or in the vulgar phrase, to do without. I can dispense with your services. I can dispense with my cloke. In this application, the phrase has an allusion to the requisitions of law or necessity; the thing dispensed with being supposed, in some degree, necessary or required.

I could not dispense with myself from making a voyage to Caprea. [Not to be imitated.]

Canst thou dispense with heaven for such an oath? [Not legitimate.]

DISPENSE, n. Dispens.

1. Dispensation. [Not used.]

2. Expense; profusion. [Not in use.]

DISPENSED, pp. Distributed; administered.