Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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CRYPTOLOGY — CULVERTAIL

CRYPTOLOGY, n. [Gr., secret, and discourse.] Secret or enigmatical language.

CRYSTAL, n. [L. Gr., frost.]

1. In chemistry and mineralogy, an inorganic body, which, by the operation of affinity, has assumed the form of a regular solid, terminated by a certain number of plane and smooth surfaces.

2. A factitious body, cast in glass houses, called crystal glass; a species of glass, more perfect in its composition and manufacture, than common glass. The best kind is the Venice crystal. It is called also factitious crystal or paste.

3. A substance of any kind having the form of a crystal.

4. The glass of a watch-case.

Rock crystal, or mountain crystal, a general name for all the transparent crystals of quartz, particularly of limpid or colorless quartz.

Iceland crystal, a variety of calcarious spar, or crystalized carbonate of lime, brought from Iceland. It occurs in laminated masses, easily divisible into rhombs, and is remarkable for its double refraction.

CRYSTAL, a. Consisting of crystal, or like crystal; clear; transparent; lucid; pellucid.

By crystal streams that murmur thorough the meads.

CRYSTAL-FORM, a. Having the form of crystal.

CRYSTALINE, a. [L., Gr.]

1. Consisting of crystal; as a crystaline palace.

2. Resembling crystal; pure; clear; transparent; pellucid; as a crystalline sky.

Crystaline heavens, in ancient astronomy, two spheres imagined between the primum mobile and the firmament, in the Ptolemaic system, which supposed the heavens to be solid and only susceptible of a single motion.

Crystaline humor, Crystaline lens, a lentiform pellucid body, composed of a very white, transparent, firm substance, inclosed in a membranous capsule, and situated in a depression in the anterior part of the vitreous humor of the eye. It is somewhat convex, and serves to transmit and refract the rays of light to the vitreous humor.

CRYSTALIZABLE, a. [from crystalize.] That may be crystalized; that may form or be formed into crystals.

CRYSTALIZATION, n. [from crystalize.]

1. The act or process by which the parts of a solid body, separated by the intervention of a fluid or by fusion, again coalesce or unite, and form a solid body. If the process is slow and undisturbed, the particles assume a regular arrangement, each substance taking a determinate and regular form, according to its natural laws; but if the process is rapid or disturbed, the substance takes an irregular form. This process is the effect of refrigeration or evaporation.

2. The mass or body formed by the process of crystalizing.

CRYSTALIZE, v.t. To cause to form crystals.

Common salt is crystalized by the evaporation of sea water.

CRYSTALIZE, v.i. To be converted into a crystal; to unite, as the separate particles of a substance, and form a determinate and regular solid.

Each species of salt crystalizes in a peculiar form.

CRYSTALIZED, pp. Formed into crystals.

CRYSTALIZING, ppr. Causing to crystalize; forming or uniting in crystals.

CRYSTALLITE, n. A name given to whinstone, cooled slowly after fusion.

CRYSTALOGRAPHER, n. [infra.] One who describes crystals, or the manner of their formation.

CRYSTALOGRAPHIC, CRYSTALOGRAPHICAL, a. Pertaining to crystalography.

CRYSTALOGRAPHICALLY, adv. IN the manner of crystalography.

CRYSTALOGRAPHY, n. [crystal, as above, and description.]

1. The doctrine or science of crystalization, teaching the principles of the process, and the forms and structure of crystals.

2. A discourse or treatise on crystalization.

CUB, n.

1. The young of certain quadrupeds, as the bear and the fox; a puppy; a whelp. Waller uses the word for the young of the whale.

2. A young boy or girl, in contempt.

CUB, n. A stall for cattle. [Not in use.]
CUB, v.t. To bring forth a cub, or cubs. In contempt, to bring forth young, as a woman.
CUB, v.t. To shut up or confine. [Not in use.]

CUBATION, n. [L., to lie down.] The act of lying down; a reclining.

CUBATORY, a. Lying down; reclining; incumbent.

CUBATURE, n. [from cube.] The finding exactly the solid or cubic contents of a body.

CUBE, n. [Gr., L., a die or cube; to set or throw down, that which is set or laid, a solid mass.]

1. In geometry, a regular solid body, with six equal sides, and containing equal angles.

2. In arithmetic, the product of a number multiplied into itself, and that product multiplied into the same number; or it is formed by multiplying any number twice by itself; as, 4 times 4 = 16, and 16 times 4 = 64, the cube of 4.

The law of the planets is, that the squares of the times of their revolutions are in proportion to the cubes of their mean distances.

Cube root, is the number or quantity, which, multiplied into itself, and then into the product, produces the cube; or which, twice multiplied into itself, produces the number of which it is the root; thus, 3 is the cube root or side of 27, for 3 times 3 = 9, and 3 times 9 = 27.

CUBE-ORE, n. Hexahedral olivenite, or arseniate or iron, a mineral of a greenish color.

CUBEB, n. The small spicy berry of the Piper cubeba, from Java and the other E. India isles. It was formerly called, from its short stems, Piper caudatum, or tailed pepper. It resembles a grain of pepper, but is somewhat longer. In aromatic warmth and pungency, it is far inferior to pepper.

CUBIC, CUBICAL, a. [L. See Cube.] Having the form or properties of a cube; that may be or is contained within a cube. A cubic foot of water is the water that may be contained within six equal sides, each a foot square.

Cubic number, is a number produced by multiplying a number into itself, and that product by the same number; or it is the number arising from the multiplication of a square number by its root. [See Cube.]

CUBICALNESS, n. The state or quality of being cubical.

CUBICULAR, a. [L.] Belonging to a chamber.

CUBICULARY, a. [L., a bedroom.] Fitted for the posture of lying down. [Little used.]

CUBIFORM, a. Having the form of a cube.

CUBIT, n. [L., the elbow; signifying a turn or corner; Gr.]

1. In anatomy, the fore arm; the ulna, and bone of the arm from the elbow to the wrist.

2. In mensuration, the length of a man’s arm from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger. The cubit among the ancients was of a different length among different nations. Dr. Arbuthnot states the Roman cubit at seventeen inches and four tenths; the cubit of the scriptures at a little less than 22 inches; and the English cubit at 18 inches.

CUBITAL, a.

1. Of the length or measure of a cubit.

2. Pertaining to the cubit or ulna; as the cubital nerve; cubital artery; cubital muscle.

CUBITED, a. Having the measure of a cubit.

CUBO-DODECAHEDRAL, a. Presenting the two forms, a cube and a dodecahedron.

CUBOID, a. Having the form of a cube, or differing little from it.

CUBOIDAL, a. [Gr., cube, and form.] Cubiform; in the shape of a cube; as the cuboidal bone of the foot.

CUBO-OCTAHEDRAL, a. [cube and octahedral.] Presenting a combination of the two forms, a cube and an octahedron.

CUCKINGSTOOL, n. An engine for punishing scolds and refractory women; also brewers and bakers; called also a tumbrel and a trebuchet. The culprit was seated on the stool and thus immersed in water.

CUCKOLD, n. A man whose wife is false to his bed; the husband of an adulteress.

CUCKOLD, v.t.

1. To make a man a cuckold by criminal conversation with his wife; applied to the seducer.

2. To make a husband a cuckold by criminal conversation with another man; applied to the wife.

CUCKOLDDOM, n. The act of adultery; the state of a cuckold.

CUCKOLDLY, a. Having the qualities of a cuckold; mean; sneaking.

CUCKOLD-MAKER, n. One who has criminal conversation with another man’s wife; one who makes a cuckold.

CUCKOO, n. [L., Gr. See Gawk.] A bird of the genus Cuculus, whose name is supposed to be called from its note. The note is a call to love, and continued only during the amorous season. It is said the cuckoo lays its eggs in a nest formed by another bird, by which they are hatched.

CUCKOO-FLOWER, CUCKOO-BUD, n. A plant, a species of Cardamine.

CUCKOO-PINT, n. A plant, of the genus Arum.

CUCKOO-SPIT, CUCKOO-SPITTLE, n. A dew or exudation found on plants, especially about the joints of lavender and rosemary. Or a froth or spume found on the leaves of certain plants, as on white field-lychnis or catch-fly, called sometimes spatling poppy.

CUCQUEAN, n. A vile lewd woman. [Not in use.]

CUCULLATE, CUCULLATED, a. [L., a hood, a cowl.]

1. Hooded; cowled; covered as with a hood.

2. Having the shape or resemblance of a hood; or wide at the top and drawn to a point below, in shape of a conical roll of paper; as a cucullate leaf.

CUCUMBER, n. [L.] The name of a plant and its fruit, of the genus Cucumis. The flower is yellow and bell-shaped; and the stalks are long, slender and trailing on the ground, or climbing by their claspers.

CUCURBIT, n. [L., a gourd.] A chemical vessel in the shape of a gourd; but some of them are shallow, with a wide mouth. It may be made of copper, glass, tin or stone ware, and is used in distillation. This vessel, with its head or cover, constitutes the alembic.

CUCURBITACEOUS, a. Resembling a gourd; as cucurbitaceous plants, such as the melon and pumpkin or pompion.

CUD, n. [See Chew and Jaw.]

1. The food which ruminating animals chew at leisure, when not grazing or eating; or that portion of it which is brought from the first stomach and chewed at once.

2. A portion of tobacco held in the mouth and chewed.

3. The inside of the mouth or throat of a beast that chews the cud.

CUDDEN, CUDDY, n. A clown; a low rustic; a dolt. [Not used.]

CUDDLE, v.i. To retire from sight; to lie close or snug; to squat.

CUDDY, n.

1. In ships, an apartment; a cabin under the poop, or a cook-room. It is applied to different apartments, in different kinds of ships.

2. The cole-fish.

CUDGEL, n. A short thick stick of wood, such as may be used by the hand in beating. It differs strictly from a club, which is larger at one end than the other. It is shorter than a pole, and thicker than a rod.

To cross the cudgels, to forbear the contest; a phrase borrowed from the practice of cudgel-players, who lay one cudgel over another.

CUDGEL, v.t.

1. To beat with a cudgel, or thick stick.

2. To beat in general.

CUDGELER, n. One who beats with a cudgel.

CUDGEL-PROOF, a. Able to resist a cudgel; not to be hurt by beating.

CUDLE, n. A small sea fish.

CUDWEED, n. A plant of the genus Gnaphalium, goldy-locks or eternal flower, of many species. The flowers are remarkable for retaining their beauty for years, if gathered in dry weather.

CUE, n. [L.]

1. The tail; the end of a thing; as the long curl of a wig, or a long roll of hair.

2. The last words of a speech, which a player, who is to answer, catches and regards as an intimation to begin. A hint given to an actor on the stage, what or when to speak.

3. A hint; an intimation; a short direction.

4. The part which any man is to play in his turn.

Were it my cue to fight.

5. Humor; turn or temper of mind. [Vulgar.]

6. A farthing, or farthings worth.

7. The straight rod, used in playing billiards.

CUERPO, n. [L., body.] To be in cuerpo, or to walk in cuerpo, are Spanish phrases for being without a cloke or upper garment, or without the formalities of a full dress, so that the shape of the body is exposed.

CUFF, n. [L., Gr.]

1. A blow with the fist; a stroke; a box.

2. It is used of fowls that fight with their talons.

To be at fisty-cuffs, to fight with blows of the fist.

CUFF, v.t. To strike with the fist, as a man; or with talons or wings, as a fowl.
CUFF, v.i. To fight; to scuffle.
CUFF, n. [This word probably signifies a fold or doubling.] The fold at the end of a sleeve; the part of a sleeve turned back from the hand.

CUINAGE, n. The making up of tin into pigs, etc. for carriage.

CUIRASS, n. A breast-plate; a piece of defensive armor, made or iron plate, well hammered, and covering the body from the neck to the girdle.

CUIRASSIER, n. A soldier armed with a cuirass, or breast plate.

CUISH, n. Defensive armor for the thighs.

CULDEE, n. [L., worshipers of God.] A monkish priest, remarkable for religious duties. The Culdees formerly inhabited Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

CULERAGE, n. Another name of the arse-smart.

CULICIFORM, a. [L., a gnat or flea; form.] Of the form or shape of a flea; resembling a flea.

CULINARY, a. [L., a kitchen. See Kiln.] Relating to the kitchen, or to the art of cookery; used in kitchens; as a culinary fire; a culinary vessel; culinary herbs.

CULL, v.t. To pick out; to separate one or more things from others; to select from many; as, to cull flowers; to cull hoops and staves for market.

CULLED, pp. Picked out; selected from many.

CULLER, n.

1. One who picks or chooses from many.

2. An inspector who selects merchantable hoops and staves for market.

CULLIBILITY, n. [from cully.] Credulity; easiness of belief. [Not elegant nor used.]

CULLING, ppr. Selecting; choosing from many.

CULLION, n.

1. A mean wretch. If from cully, one easily deceived; a dupe.

2. A round or bulbous root; orchis. L.

CULLIONLY, a. Mean; base. [A bad word, and not used.]

CULLIS, n.

1. Broth of boiled meat strained.

2. A kind of jelly.

CULLY, n. [See the Verb.] A person who is meanly deceived, tricked or imposed on, as by a sharper, jilt, or strumpet; a mean dupe.

CULLY, v.t. To deceive; to trick, cheat or impose on; to jilt.

CULLYISM, n. The state of a cully. [Cully and its derivatives are not elegant words.]

CULM, n. [L. See Quill and Haulm.]

1. In botany, the stalk or stem of corn and grasses, usually jointed and hollow, and supporting the leaves and fructification.

2. The straw or dry stalks of corn and grasses.

3. A species of fossil coal, found in small masses, not adhering when heated, difficult to be ignited, and burning with little flame, but yielding a disagreeable smell.

CULMIFEROUS, a. [L., a stalk; to bear.] Producing stalks. Culmiferous plants have a smooth jointed stalk, usually hollow, and wrapped about at each joint with single, narrow, sharp-pointed leaves, and their seeds contained in chaffy husks, as wheat, rye, oats and barley.

CULMINATE, v.i. [L., a top or ridge.] To be vertical; to come or be in the meridian; to be in the highest point of altitude; as a planet.

CULMINATION, n.

1. The transit of a planet over the meridian, or highest point of altitude for the day.

2. Top; crown.

CULPABILITY, n. [See Culpable.] Blamableness; culpableness.

CULPABLE, a. [L., a fault.]

1. Blamable; deserving censure; as the person who has done wrong, or the act, conduct or negligence of the person. We say, the man is culpable, or voluntary ignorance is culpable.

2. Sinful; criminal; immoral; faulty. But generally, culpable is applied to acts less atrocious than crimes.

3. Guilty of; as culpable of a crime. [Not used.]

CULPABLENESS, n. Blamableness; guilt; the quality of deserving blame.

CULPABLY, adv. Blamably; in a faulty manner; in a manner to merit censure.

CULPRIT, n. [supposed to be formed from cul, for culpable, and prit, ready; certain abbreviations used by the clerks in noting the arraignment of criminals; the prisoner is guilty, and the king is ready to prove him so.]

1. A person arraigned in court for a crime.

2. Any person convicted of a crime; a criminal.

CULTER, n. [L.] A colter, which see.

CULTIVABLE, a. [See Cultivate.] Capable of being tilled or cultivated.

CULTIVATE, v.t. [L., to till, to dwell.]

1. To till; to prepare for crops; to manure, plow, dress, sow and reap; to labor on manage and improve in husbandry; as, to cultivate land; to cultivate a farm.

2. To improve by labor or study; to advance the growth of; to refine and improve by correction of faults, and enlargement of powers or good qualities; as, to cultivate talents; to cultivate a taste for poetry.

3. To study; to labor to improve or advance; as, to cultivate philosophy; to cultivate the mind.

4. To cherish; to foster; to labor to promote and increase; as, to cultivate the love of excellence; to cultivate gracious affections.

5. To improve; to meliorate, or to labor to make better; to correct; to civilize; as, to cultivate the wild savage.

6. To raise or produce by tillage; as, to cultivate corn or grass.

CULTIVATED, pp. Tilled; improved in excellence or condition; corrected and enlarged; cherished; meliorated; civilized; produced by tillage.

CULTIVATING, ppr. Tilling; preparing for crops; improving in worth or good qualities; meliorating; enlarging; correcting; fostering; civilizing; producing by tillage.

CULTIVATION, n.

1. The art or practice of tilling and preparing for crops; husbandry; the management of land. Land is often made better by cultivation. Ten acres under good cultivation will produce more than twenty when badly tilled.

2. Study, care and practice directed to improvement, correction, enlargement or increase; the application of the means of improvement; as, men may grow wiser by the cultivation of talents; they may grow better by the cultivation of the mind, of virtue, and of piety.

3. The producing by tillage; as the cultivation of corn or grass.

CULTIVATOR, n.

1. One who tills, or prepares land for crops; one who manages a farm, or carries on the operations of husbandry in general; a farmer; a husbandman; an agriculturist.

2. One who studies or labors to improve, to promote and advance in good qualities, or in growth.

CULTRATED, a. [L, a knife.] Sharp-edged and pointed; formed like a knife; as, the beak of a bird is convex and cultrated.

CULTURE, n. [L. See Cultivate.]

1. The act of tilling and preparing the earth for crops; cultivation; the application of labor or other means of improvement.

We ought to blame the culture, not the soil.

2. The application of labor or other means to improve good qualities in, or growth; as the culture of the mind; the culture of virtue.

3. The application of labor or other means in producing; as the culture of corn, or grass.

4. Any labor or means employed for improvement, correction or growth.

CULTURE, v.t. To cultivate.

CULVER, n. [L.] A pigeon, or wood pigeon.

CULVER-HOUSE, n. A dove-cote.

CULVERIN, n. [L., a serpent.] A long slender piece of ordnance or artillery, serving to carry a ball to a great distance.

CULVERKEY, n. A plant or flower.

CULVERT, n. A passage under a road or canal, covered with a bridge; an arched drain for the passage of water.

CULVERTAIL, n. [culver and tail.] Dove-tail, in joinery and carpentry.