Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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CHURLISHNESS — CIRCULATORIOUS

CHURLISHNESS, n. Rudeness of manners or temper, but generally the word refers to the temper or disposition of mind; sullenness; austerity; indisposition to kindness or courtesy.

CHURLY, a. Rude; boisterous.

CHURME, CHIRM, n. Noise; clamor, or confused noise.

CHURN, n. A vessel in which cream or milk is agitated for separating the oily part from the caseous and serous parts, to make butter.

CHURN, v.t.

1. To stir or agitate cream for making butter.

2. To shake or agitate with violence or continued motion, as in the operation of making butter.

CHURNED, pp. Agitated; made into butter.

CHURNING, ppr. Agitating to make butter; shaking; stirring.

CHURNING, n.

1. The operation of making butter from cream by agitation; a shaking or stirring.

2. As much butter as is made at one operation.

CHURN-STAFF, n. The staff or instrument used in churning.

CHURNWORM, n. An insect that turns about nimbly, called also a fancricket.

CHUSE, [See Choose.]

CHUSITE, n. A yellowish mineral found by Saussure in the cavities of porphyries in the environs of Limbourg.

CHYLACEOUS, a. [See Chyle.] Belonging to chyle; consisting of chyle.

CHYLE, n. In animal bodies, a white or milky fluid separated from aliments by means of digestion. It is absorbed by the lacteal vessels, by which it is conveyed into the circulation, assimilated into blood, and converted into nutriment.

CHYLIFACTION, n. The act or process by which chyle is formed from food in animal bodies.

CHYLIFACTIVE, a. Forming or changing into chyle; having the power to make chyle.

CHYLIFEROUS, a. [L.] Transmitting chyle.

CHYLOPOETIC, adv. Chylifactive; having the power to change into chyle; making chyle.

CHYLOUS, a. Consisting of chyle, or partaking of it.

CHYME, n. That particular modification which food assumes after it has undergone the action of the stomach.

Among the older authors, juice; chyle, or the finest part of the chyle contained in the lacteals and thoracic duct; any humor incrassated by concoction, whether fit or unfit for preserving and nourishing the body.

CHYMIC, CHYMIST, CHYMISTRY. [See Chimical, Chimist, Chimistry.]

CHYMIFICATION, n. The process of becoming or of forming chyme.

CHYMIFIED, pp. Formed into chyme.

CHYMIFY, v.t. To form into chyme.

CIBARIOUS, a. Pertaining to food; useful for food; edible.

CIBOL, n. A sort of small onion.

CICADA, n. The frog-hopper, or flea locust; a genus of insects of many species.

CICATRICLE, n. The germinating or fetal point in the embryo of a seed or the yolk of an egg; as, germinating cicatricle.

CICATRISIVE, a. Tending to promote the formation of a cicatrix.

CICATRIX, CICATRICE, n. A scar; a little seam or elevation of flesh remaining after a wound or ulcer is healed.

CICATRIZANT, n. A medicine or application that promotes the formation of a cicatrix, such as Armenian bole, powder of tutty, etc. It is called also an escharotic, epulotic, incarnative, agglutinant, etc.

CICATRIZATION, n. The process of healing or forming a cicatrix; or the state of being healed, cicatrized or skinned over.

CICATRIZE, v.t. To heal, or induce the formation of a cicatrix, in wounded or ulcerated flesh; or to apply medicines for that purpose.

CICATRIZE, v.i. To heal or be healed; to skin over; as wounded flesh cicatrizes.

CICATRIZED, pp. Healed, as wounded flesh; having a cicatrix formed.

CICATRIZING, ppr. Healing; skinning over; forming a cicatrix.

CICELY, n. A plant, a species of Chaerophyllum. The sweet cicely is a species of Scandix.

CICERONE, n. A guide; one who explains curiosities.

CICERONIAN, a. Resembling Cicero, either in style or action; in style, diffuse and flowing; in manner, vehement.

CICERONIANISM, n. Imitation or resemblance of the style or action of Cicero.

CICHORACEOUS, a. Having the qualities of succory.

CICISBEISM, n. The practice of dangling about females.

CICISBEO, n. A dangler about females.

CICURATE, v.t. To tame; to reclaim from wildness.

CICURATION, n. The act of taming wild animals.

CICUTA, n. Water-hemlock, a plant whose root is poisonous. This term was used by the ancients and by medical writers for the Conium maculatum, or common hemlock, the expressed juice of which was used as a common poison. Socrates and Phocion perished by it. It is now used medicinally in moderate doses, with good effect.

CIDER, n. The juice of apples expressed, a liquor used for drink. The word was formerly used to signify the juice of other fruits, and other kinds of strong liquor; but it is now appropriated to the juice of apples, before and after fermentation.

CIDERIST, n. A maker of cider.

CIDERKIN, n. The liquor made of the gross matter of apples, after the cider is pressed out, and a quantity of boiled water is added; the whole steeping forty eight hours.

CIERGE, n. A candle carried in processions.

CIGAR, n. A small roll of tobacco, so formed as to be tubular, used for smoking. Cigars are of Spanish origin.

CILIARY, a. Belonging to the eyelids.

CILIATED, a. In botany, furnished or surrounded with parallel filaments, or bristles, resembling the hairs of the eye-lids, as a ciliated leaf, etc.

CILICIOUS, a. Made or consisting of hair.

CIMA, [See Cyma.]

CIMBAL, n. A kind of cake.

CIMBRIC, a. Pertaining to the Cimbri, the inhabitants of the modern Jutland, in Denmark, which was anciently called the Cimbric Chesonese. Hence the modern names, Cymru, Wales, Cambria; Cymro, a Welshman; Cymreig, Welsh, or the Welsh language; names indicating the Welsh to be a colony of the Cimbri or from the same stock.

CIMBRIC, n. The language of the Cimbri.

CIMITER, n. A short sword with a convex edge or recurvated point, used by the Persians and Turks.

CIMMERIAN, a. Pertaining to Cimmerium, a town at the mouth of the Palus Maeotis. The ancients pretended that this country was involved in darkness; whence the phrase Cimmerian darkness, to denote a deep or continual obscurity. The country is now called Crimea, or Krim-Tartary.

CIMOLITE, n. A species of clay, used by the ancients, as a remedy for erysipelas and other inflammations. It is white, or a loose, soft texture, molders into a fine powder, and effervesces with acids. It is useful in taking spots from cloth. Another species, of a purple color, is the steatite or soap-rock. From another species, found in the isle of Wight, tobacco pipes are made.

CINCHONA, n. The Peruvian bark, quinquina, of which there are three varieties, the red, yellow and pale.

CINCTURE, n.

1. A belt, a girdle, or something worn round the body.

2. That which encompasses, or incloses.

3. In architecture, a ring or list at the top and bottom of a column, separating the shaft at one end from the base; at the other, from the capital. It is supposed to be in imitation of the girths or ferrils anciently used to strengthen columns.

CINDER, n.

1. Small coals or particles of fire mixed with ashes; embers.

2. Small particles of matter, remaining after combustion, in which fire is extinct; as the cinders of a forge.

CINDER-WENCH, CINDER-WOMAN, n. A woman whose business is to rake into heaps of ashes for cinders.

CINERATION, n. The reducing of any thing to ashes by combustion.

CINEREOUS, a. Like ashes; having the color of the ashes of wood.

CINERITIOUS, a. Having the color or consistence of ashes.

CINGLE, n. A girth; but the word is little used. [See Surcingle.]

CINNABAR, n. Red sulphuret of mercury. Native cinnabar is an ore of quicksilver, moderately compact, very heavy, and of an elegant striated red color. It is called native vermilion, and its chief use is in painting. The intensity of its color is reduced by bruising and dividing it into small parts. It is found amorphous, or under some imitative form, or crystalized. Factitious cinnabar is a mixture of mercury and sulphur sublimed, and thus reduced into a fine red glebe.

CINNABARINE, a. Pertaining to cinnabar; consisting of cinnabar, or containing it; as, cinnabarine sand.

CINNAMON, n. The bark of two species of Laurus. The true cinnamon is the inner bark of the Laurus Cinnamomum, a native of Ceylon. The base cinnamon is from the Laurus Cassia. The true cinnamon is a most grateful aromatic, of a fragrant smell, moderately pungent taste, accompanied with some degree of sweetness and astringency. It is one of the best cordial, carminative and restorative spices. The essential oil is of great price.

Cinnamon stone, called by Hauy, Essonite, is a rare mineral from Ceylon, of a hyacinth red color, yellowish brown or honey yellow; sometimes used in jewelry.

Cinnamon-water, is made by distilling the bark, first infused in barley water, in spirit of wine, brandy or white wine.

Clove-cinnamon, is the bark of a tree growing in Brazil, which is often substituted for real cloves.

White-cinnamon, or Winters bark, is the bark of a tree, growing in the West Indies, of a sharp biting taste, like pepper.

CINQUE, n. A five; a word used in games.

CINQUE-FOIL, n. Five-leaved clover, a species of Potentilla.

CINQUE-PACE, n. A kind of grave dance.

CINQUE-PORTS, n. Five havens on the eastern shore of England, towards France, viz. Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover and Sandwich. To these ports, Winchelsea and Rye have been added. These were anciently deemed of so much importance, in the defense of the kingdom against an invasion from France, that they received royal grants of particular privileges, on condition of providing a certain number of ships in war at their own expense. Over these is appointed a warden, and each has a right to send two barons to Parliament.

CINQUE-SPOTTED, a. Having five spots.

CION, n. A young shoot, twig or sprout of a tree, or plant, or rather the cutting of a twig, intended for ingrafting on another stock; also, the shoot or slip inserted in a stock for propagation.

CIPHER, n.

1. In arithmetic, an Arabian or Oriental character, of this form 0, which, standing by itself, expresses nothing, but increases or diminishes the value of other figures, according to its position. In whole numbers, when placed at the right hand of a figure, it increases its value ten fold; but in decimal fractions, placed at the left hand of a figure, it diminishes the value of that figure ten fold.

2. A character in general.

3. An intertexture of letters, as the initials of a name, engraved on a seal, box, plate, coach or tomb; a device; an enigmatical character. Anciently, merchants and tradesmen, not being permitted to bear family arms, bore, in lieu of them, their cyphers, or initials of their names, artfully interwoven about a cross.

4. A secret or disguised manner of writing; certain characters arbitrarily invented and agreed on by two or more persons, to stand for letters or words, and understood only by the persons who invent, or agree to use them. This is a mode of communicating information by letters, in time of war, with a view to conceal facts from an enemy, in case the letters should be intercepted. This art has given rise to another art, that of decyphering; and hence cipher is used for a key to unravel the characters. To have, or to learn a cipher, is to be able to interpret it.

CIPHER, v.i. In popular language, to use figures, or to practice arithmetic.
CIPHER, v.t.

1. To write in occult characters.

2. To designate; to characterize.

CIPHERING, ppr.

1. Using figures, or practicing arithmetic.

2. Writing in occult characters.

CIPOLIN, n. A green marble from Rome, containing white zones. It consists chiefly of carbonate of lime, with quartz, shistus, and a small portion of iron.

CIRC, [See Circus.]

CIRCEAN, a. Pertaining to Circe, the fabled daughter of Sol and Perseis, who was supposed to possess great knowledge of magic and venomous herbs, by which she was able to charm and fascinate.

CIRCENSIAN, a. Pertaining to the Circus, in Rome, where were practiced games of various kinds, as running, wrestling, combats, etc. The Circensian games accompanied most of the feasts of the Romans; but the grand games were held five days, commencing on the 15th of September.

CIRCINAL, a. Rolled in spirally downwards, the tip occupying the center; a term in foliation or leafing, as in ferns.

CIRCINATE, v.t. To make a circle; to compass.

CIRCINATION, n. An orbicular motion.

CIRCLE, n.

1. In geometry, a plane figure comprehended by a single curve line, called its circumference, every part of which is equally distant from a point called the center. Of course all lines drawn from the center to the circumference or periphery, are equal to each other.

2. In popular use, the line that comprehends the figure, the plane or surface comprehended, and the whole body or solid matter of a round substance, are denominated a circle; a ring; an orb; the earth.

3. Compass; circuit; as the circle of the forest.

4. An assembly surrounding the principal person. Hence, any company, or assembly; as a circle of friends, or of beauties. Hence the word came to signify indefinitely a number of persons of a particular character, whether associated or not; as a political circle; the circle of ones acquaintance; having however reference to a primary association.

5. A series ending where it begins, and perpetually repeated; a going round.

Thus in a circle runs the peasants pain.

6. Circumlocution; indirect form of words.

7. In logic, an inconclusive form of argument, when the same terms are proved in orbem by the same terms, and the parts of the syllogism alternately by each other, directly and indirectly; or when the foregoing proposition is proved by the following, and the following is inferred from the foregoing; as, that heavy bodies descend by gravity, and that gravity is a quality by which a heavy body descends.

8. Circles of the sphere, are such as cut the mundane sphere, and have their periphery either on its movable surface, as the meridians; or in another immovable, conterminous and equidistant surface, as the ecliptic, equator, and its parallels.

9. Circles of altitude or almucantars, are circles parallel to the horizon, having their common pole in the zenith, and diminishing as they approach the zenith.

10. Circles of latitude, are great circles perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, passing through its poles and through every star and planet.

11. Circles of longitude, are lesser circles parallel to the ecliptic, diminishing as they recede from it.

12. Circle of perpetual apparition, one of the lesser circles, parallel to the equator, described by any point of the sphere touching the northern point of the horizon, and carried about with the diurnal motion. The stars within this circle never set.

13. Circle of perpetual occultation, another lesser circle at a like distance from the equator, which includes all the stars which never appear in our hemisphere.

14. Diurnal circles, are immovable circles supposed to be described by the several stars and other points in the heavens, in their diurnal rotation round the earth, or rather in the rotation of the earth round its axis.

15. Horary circles, in dialing, are the lines which show the hours on dials.

16. Circles of the empire, the provinces or principalities of the German empire, which have a right to be present at the diets. Maximilian I. divided the empire into six circles at first, and afterwards into ten; Austria, Burgundy, Lower Rhine, Bavaria, Upper Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Upper Rhine, Westphalia, and Lower Saxony.

17. Druidical circles, in British Topography, are certain ancient inclosures formed by rude stones circularly arranged; as Stone-henge near Salisbury.

CIRCLE, v.t.

1. To move round; to revolve round.

And other planets circle other suns.

2. To encircle; to encompass; to surround; to inclose.

3. To circle in, to confine; to keep together.

CIRCLE, v.i. To move circularly; as, the bowl circles; the circling years.

CIRCLED, pp. Surrounded; encompassed; inclosed.

CIRCLED, a. Having the form of a circle; round; as the moons circled orb.

CIRCLER, n. A mean poet, or circular poet.

CIRCLET, n. A little circle; a circle; an orb.

CIRCLING, ppr. Surrounding; going round; inclosing.

CIRCLING, a. Circular; round.

CIRCOCELE, n. A varix, or dilatation of the spermatic vein; a varicocele; hernia varicosa.

CIRCUIT, n.

1. The act of moving or passing round; as the periodical circuit of the earth round the sun, or of the moon round the earth.

2. The space inclosed in a circle, or within certain limits.

3. Any space or extent measured by traveling round.

4. That which encircles; a ring; a diadem.

5. In England, the journey of judges through several counties or boroughs, for the purpose of holding courts. In the United States, the journey of judges through certain states or counties for the same purpose.

6. The counties or states in which the same judge or judges hold courts and administer justice. It is common to designate a certain number of counties to form a circuit, and to assign one or more judges to each circuit. The courts in the circuits are called circuit courts. In the government of the United States, a certain number of states form a circuit.

7. A long deduction of reason.

8. In law, a longer course of proceedings than is necessary to recover the thing sued for.

Bailey gives this as the definition of circuity.

CIRCUIT, v.i. To move in a circle; to go round.
CIRCUIT, v.t. To move or go round.

CIRCUITEER, n. One that travels a circuit.

CIRCUITION, n. The act of going round; compass; circumlocution.

CIRCUITOUS, a. Going round in a circuit; not direct; as a circuitous road or course.

CIRCUITOUSLY, adv. In a circuit.

CIRCUITY, n. A going round; a course not direct.

CIRCULAR, a.

1. In the form of a circle; round; circumscribed by a circle; spherical; as, the sun appears to be circular.

2. Successive in order; always returning.

3. Vulgar; mean; circumforaneous; as a circular poet.

4. Ending in itself; used of a paralogism, where the second proposition at once proves the first, and is proved by it.

5. Addressed to a circle, or to a number of persons having a common interest; as a circular letter.

6. Circular lines, such straight lines as are divided from the divisions made in the arch of a circle; as the lines of sines, tangents and secants, on the plain scale and sector.

7. Circular numbers, are those whose powers terminate in the roots themselves; as 5 and 6, whose squares are 25 and 36.

8. Circular sailing, is the method of sailing by the arch of a great circle.

CIRCULAR, n. A circular letter, or paper.

CIRCULARITY, n. A circular form.

CIRCULARLY, adv. In a circular manner; in the formof a circle; in the form of going and returning.

CIRCULATE, v.i.

1. To move in a circle; to move or pass round; to move round and return to the same point; as, the blood circulates in the body.

2. To pass from place to place, from person to person, or from hand to hand; to be diffused; as, money circulates in the country; a story circulates in town.

3. To move round; to run; to flow in veins or channels, or in an inclosed place; as, the sap of plants circulates; water circulates in the earth, or air in a city or house.

CIRCULATE, v.t. To cause to pass from place to place, or from person to person; to put about; to spread; as, to circulate a report; to circulate bills of credit.

CIRCULATION, n.

1. The act of moving round, or in a circle, or in a course which brings or tends to bring the moving body to the point where its motion began; as the circulation of the blood in the body.

2. A series in which the same order is preserved and things return to the same state.

3. The act of going and returning; or of passing from place to place, or from person to person; as the circulation of money.

4. Currency; circulating coin, or notes or bills current for coin.

5. In chimistry, circulation is an operation by which the same vapor, raised by fire, falls back to be returned and distilled several times.

CIRCULATORIOUS, a. Travelling in a circuit, or from house to house.