Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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CHIROLOGY — CHOSE

CHIROLOGY, n. [See Chirologist.] The art or practice of communicating thoughts by signs made by the hands and fingers; a substitute for language or discourse, much used by the deaf and dumb, and by others who communicate with them.

CHIROMANCER, n. [See Chiromancy.] One who attempts to foretell future events, or to tell the fortunes and dispositions of persons, by inspecting the hands.

CHIROMANCY, n. Divination by the hand; the art or practice of attempting to foretell events, or to discover the dispositions of a person, by inspecting the lines and lineaments of his hand.

CHIROMANTIC, a. Pertaining to chiromancy, or divination by the hand.

Chiromantic deception.

CHIRP, v.i. Cherp. To make the noise of certain small birds, or of certain insects; as a chirping lark, or cricket.

CHIRP, v.t. To make cheerful.
CHIRP, n. A particular voice of certain birds or insects.

CHIRPER, n. One that chirps, or is cheerful.

CHIRPING, ppr. Making the noise of certain small birds.

CHIRPING, n. The noise of certain small birds and insects.

CHIRURGEON, n. A surgeon; one whose profession is to heal diseases by manual operations, instruments or external applications.

CHIRURGERY, n. That part of the medical art which consists in healing diseases and wounds by instruments and external applications; now written surgery.

CHIRURGIC, CHIRURGICAL, a.

1. Pertaining to surgery, or to the art of healing diseases and wounds by manual operations, instruments or external applications.

2. Having qualities useful in external applications, for healing diseases or injuries.

It is now written surgical.

CHISEL, n. An instrument of iron or steel, used in carpentry, joinery, cabinet work, masonry, sculpture, etc., either for paring, hewing or gouging. Chisels are of different sizes and shapes, fitted for particular uses.

CHISEL, v.t. To cut, pare, gouge, or engrave with a chisel.

CHISELED, pp. Cut or engraved with a chisel.

CHISELING, ppr. Cutting with a chisel.

CHISLEU, n. The ninth month of the Jewish year, answering to a part of November and a part of December, in the modern division of the year.

CHIT, n.

1. A shoot or sprout; the first shooting or germination of a seed or plant. Hence,

2. A child or babe, in familiar language.

3. A freckle, that is, a push.

CHIT, v.i. To sprout; to shoot, as a seed or plant.

CHIT-CHAT, n. [See Chat, Chatter.] Prattle; familiar or trifling talk.

CHITTERLING, n. The frill to the breast of a shirt.

CHITTERLINGS, n. plu. The guts or bowels; sausages.

CHITTY, a.

1. Childish; like a babe.

2. Full of chits or warts.

CHIVALROUS, a. [See Chivalry.] Pertaining to chivalry, or knight errantry; warlike; bold; gallant.

CHIVALRY, n.

1. Knighthood; a military dignity, founded on the service of soldiers on horseback, called knights; a service formerly deemed more honorable than service in infantry.

2. The qualifications of a knight, as valor and dexterity in arms.

3. The system of knighthood; the privileges, characteristics or manners of knights; the practice of knight-errantry, or the heroic defense of life and honor.

4. An adventure or exploit, as of a knight.

5. The body or order of knights.

6. In English law, a tenure of lands by knights service; that is, by the condition of performing service on horseback, or of performing some noble or military service to his lord. This was general or special; general, when the tenant held per servitium militare, without specification of the particular service; special, when the particular service was designated. When the tenant held only of the king, the tenure was regal; when he held of a common person, it was called common. This service was also grand sergeantry, as when the tenant was bound to perform service to the king in his own person; and petit sergeantry, when he was bound to yield to the king annually some small thing, as a sword or dagger. Chivalry that might be held of a common person, was called escuage, scutagium, or shield service.

Court of chivalry, a court formerly held before the Lord High Constable and Earl Marshal of England, having cognizance of contracts and other matters relating to deeds of arms and war. It had jurisdiction both of civil and criminal causes, but no power to enforce its decisions by fine or imprisonment, not being a court of record. It is now nearly extinct.

CHIVE, n. A species of small onion.

CHIVES, n. plu. In botany, slender threads or filaments in the blossoms of plants. [See Stamen.]

CHLORATE, n. [See Chlorine.] A compound of chloric acid with a salifiable base.

CHLORIC, a. Pertaining to chlorine, or obtained from it; as chloric acid.

CHLORIDE, CHLORID, n. [See Chlorine.] A compound of chlorine with a combustible body.

CHLORIDIC, a. Pertaining to a chloride.

CHLORINE, CHLORIN, n. Chloric gas; a new name given to what has been called oxymuriatic gas. This substance has hitherto resisted all efforts to decompose it, and as it is not known to contain oxygen, and is apparently a simple substance, it has been denominated from its color, chlorine, or chloric gas.

CHLORIODIC, a. Consisting of chlorine and iodine, or obtained from them.

CHLORIS, n. The green finch, a small bird.

CHLORITE, n. A mineral of a grass green color, opake, usually friable or easily pulverized, composed of little spangles, scales, prisms or shining small grains. It is classed by Kirwan with the muriatic genus. There are four subspecies, chlorite earth, common chlorite, chlorite slate, and foliated chlorite.

CHLORO-CARBONIC, CHLORO-CARBONOUS, a. The terms, chloro-carbonic acid and chloro-carbonous acid, are applied, the former by Thomson, and the latter by Ure, to a compound of chlorine and carbonic oxyd, formed by exposing a mixture of the two gases to the direct solar rays. It was discovered by Dr. J. Davy, and called by him phosgene gas.

CHLOROPAL, n. A newly observed mineral, of two varieties, the conchoidal and the earthy; the conchoidal is of a pistachio green color; the other has an earthy fracture, and both varieties are possessed of magnetic properties.

CHLOROPHANE, n. A variety of fluor spar, from Siberia. When placed on a heated iron, it gives a beautiful emerald green light.

CHLOROPHEITE, n. A rare mineral found in small nodules.

CHLOROPHYL, n. The green matter of the leaves of vegetables.

CHLOROSIS, n. The green sickness; a disease of females, characterized by a pale or greenish hue of the skin, weakness, palpitation, dyspepsy, etc.

CHLOROTIC, a.

1. Pertaining to chlorosis; as, chlorotic affections. Medical Repository.

2. Affected by chlorosis; as, chlorotic nuns.

CHLOROUS, a. Pertaining to chlorine; as chlorous oxyd.

CHOAK, [See Choke.]

CHOCK, n. In marine language, a kind of wedge for confining a cask or other body, to prevent it from moving.

Chocks of the rudder, are pieces of timber kept in readiness to stop the motion of the rudder, in case of an accident, etc.

CHOCK, an encounter. [See Shock.]

CHOCOLATE, n.

1. A paste or cake composed of the kernel of cacao, with other ingredients, usually a little sugar, cinnamon or vanilla. The nut is first ground fine, mixed with the ingredients, and put in a mold.

2. The liquor made by dissolving chocolate in boiling water.

CHOCOLATE-HOUSE, n. A house where company many be served with chocolate.

CHOCOLATE-NUT. [See Cacao.]

CHODE, the old preterit of chide, which see.

CHOICE, n.

1. The act of choosing; the voluntary act of selecting or separating from two or more things that which is preferred; or the determination of the mind in preferring one thing to another; election.

Ye know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my moth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. Acts 15:7.

2. The power of choosing; option.

Where there is force, there can be no choice.

Of these alternatives we have our own choice.

3. Care in selecting; judgment or skill in distinguishing what is to be preferred, and in giving a preference.

I imagine Cesars apothems were collected with judgment and choice.

4. The thing chosen; that which is approved and selected in preference to others; selection.

Nor let thy conquests only be her choice.

5. The best part of any thing; that which is preferable, and properly the object of choice.

In the choice of our sepulchers bury thy dead. Genesis 23:6.

6. The act of electing to office by vote; election.

To make choice of, to choose; to select; to separate and take in preference.

CHOICE, a.

1. Worthy of being preferred; select; precious; very valuable.

My choicest hours of life are lost.

My revenue is better than choice silver. Proverbs 8:19.

2. Holding dear; preserving or using with care, as valuable; frugal; as, to be choice of time or of advantages.

3. Selecting with care, and due attention to preference; as, to be choice of ones company.

CHOICE-DRAWN, a. Selected with particular care.

CHOICELESS, a. Not having the power of choosing; not free.

CHOICELY, adv.

1. With care in choosing; with nice regard to preference; with exact choice; as a band of men choicely collected.

2. Valuably; excellently; preferably; curiously.

3. With great care; carefully; as a thing choicely preserved.

CHOICENESS, n. Valuableness; particular value or worth; as the choiceness of a plant or of wine.

CHOIR, n.

1. A collection of singers, especially in divine service, in a church.

2. Any collection of singers.

3. That part of a church appropriated for the singers, separated from the chancel and the nave. In congregational and some other churches, the singers are placed in certain seats in the galleries.

4. In nunneries, a large hall adjoining to the body of the church, separated by a grate, where the nuns sing the office.

CHOIR-SERVICE, n. The service of singing performed by a choir.

CHOKE, v.t.

1. To stop the passage of the breath, by filling the windpipe or compressing the neck. The word is used to express a temporary or partial stoppage, as to choke with dirt or smoke; or an entire stoppage that causes death; to suffocate; to strangle. Mark 5:13.

2. To stop by filling; to obstruct; to block up; as, to choke the entrance of a harbor, or any passage.

3. To hinder by obstruction or impediments; to hinder or check growth, expansion, or progress; as, to choke plants; to choke the spreading of the fruit.

Thorns choke them. Matthew 13:7; Luke 8:7.

4. To smother or suffocate, as fire.

5. To suppress or stifle; as, to choke the strong conception.

6. To offend; to cause to take an exception; as, I was choked at this word.

We observe that this word generally implies crowding, stuffing or covering. A channel is choked by stones and sand, but not by a boom.

CHOKE, v.i.

1. To have the wind-pipe stopped; as, cattle are apt to choke when eating potatoes.

2. To be offended; to take exceptions.

CHOKE, n. The filamentous or capillary part of the artichoke.

CHOKE-CHERRY, n. The popular name of a species of wild cherry, remarkable for its astringent qualities.

CHOKED, pp. Suffocated; strangled; obstructed by filling; stifled; suppressed; smothered.

CHOKE-FULL, a. [choke and full.] Full as possible; quite full.

CHOKE-PEAR, n.

1. A kind of pear that has a rough astringent taste, and is swallowed with difficulty, or which contracts the parts of the mouth.

2. An aspersion or sarcasm by which a person is put to silence.

CHOKER, n. One that chokes another; one that puts another to silence; that which cannot be answered.

CHOKE-WEED, n. A plant so called.

CHOKY, a. That tends to suffocate, or has power to suffocate.

CHOLAGOGUE, n. A medicine that has the specific quality of evacuating the bile.

CHOLER, n.

1. The bile. By the superabundance of this fluid, anger was formerly supposed to be produced; or perhaps the opinion was that the bile caused the inflamed appearance of the face in anger. Hence,

2. Anger; wrath; irritation of the passions.

Cholera Morbus, a sudden evacuation of bile, both upwards and downwards.

CHOLERIC, a.

1. Abounding with choler.

2. Easily irritated; irascible; inclined to anger; as a choleric man.

3. Angry; indicating anger; excited by anger; as a choleric speech.

CHOLERICNESS, n. Pertaining to cholesterin, or obtained from it; as cholesteric acid.

CHOLESTERINE, CHOLESTERIN, n. A name given by M. Chevreul, to the pearly or crystaline substance of human biliary calculi.

CHOLIAMBIC, n. A verse in poetry having an iambic foot in the fifth place, and a spondee in the sixth or last.

CHOMER, [See Homer.]

CHONDRODITE, n. A mineral, called also Brucite. It occurs in grains or imperfect crystals, or in four-sided prisms with rhombic bases, truncated on the two acute lateral edges. It is translucent; and its color varies from reddish or amber yellow to grayish brown.

CHOOSE, v.t.

1. To pick out; to select; to take by way of preference from two or more things offered; to make choice of.

The man the Lord doth choose shall be holy. Numbers 16:7.

2. To take in preference.

Let us choose to us judgment. Job 34:4.

3. To prefer; to choose for imitation; to follow.

Envy not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways. Proverbs 3:31.

4. To elect for eternal happiness; to predestinate to life.

Many are called but few chosen. Matthew 20:16.

For his elects sake, whom he hath chosen. Mark 13:20.

5. To elect or designate to office or employment by votes or suffrages. In the United States, the people choose representatives by votes, usually by ballot.

CHOOSE, v.i.

1. To prefer; as, I choose to go.

2. To have the power of choice. The phrase, he cannot choose but stay, denotes that he has not the power of choice, whether to stay or not.

The verb, in these phrases, is really transitive; the following verb standing as the object, instead of a noun.

CHOOSER, n. He that chooses he that has the power or right of choosing; an elector.

CHOOSING, ppr. Selecting; taking in preference; electing.

CHOOSING, n. Choice; election.

CHOP, v.t.

1. To cut off or separate, by striking with a sharp instrument, either by a single blow or by repeated blows; as, to chop off a head; to chop wood.

2. To cut into small pieces; to mince; as, to chop meat; to chop straw.

3. To grand and mince with the teeth; to devour eagerly; with up; as, to chop up an entertainment.

4. To break or open into chinks or fissures; to crack; to chap. [See Chap.]

CHOP, v.i.

1. To buy, or rather to barter, truck, exchange.

2. To exchange; to put one thing in the place of another; as, to chop and change our friends.

3. To bandy; to altercate; to return one word or thing for another.

Let not the council chop with the judge.

CHOP, v.i. To turn, vary, change or shift suddenly; as in the seamans phrase, the wind chops, or chops about. [The various senses of this verb seem to center in that of thrusting, driving, or a sudden motion or exertion of force.]
CHOP, n.

1. A piece chopped off; a small piece of meat; as a mutton chop.

2. A crack or cleft. See Chap, which, with the broad sound of a, is often pronounced chap.

3. The chap; the jaw; plu. The jaws; the mouth; the sides of a rivers mouth or channel. [See Chap.]

CHOP-CHURCH, n. An exchange or an exchanger of benefices.

CHOP-FALLEN, a. Dejected; dispirited.

CHOP-HOUSE, n. A house where provision ready dressed is sold.

CHOPIN, n. A liquid measure in France, containing nearly a pint Winchester measure. In Scotland, a quart of wine measure.

CHOPPED, pp. Cut; minced.

CHOPPING, ppr. Cutting; mincing; buying; bartering.

CHOPPING, a. Stout; lusty; plump.
CHOPPING, n.

1. A high-heeled shoe, worn by ladies in Italy. [See Chioppine.]

2. A cutting; a mincing; from chop.

CHOPPING-BLOCK, n. A block on which any thing is laid to be chopped.

CHOPPING-KNIFE, n. A knife for mincing meat.

CHOPPY, a. Full of clefts or cracks.

CHOPS, [See Chop.]

CHORAL, a.

1. Belonging to or composing a choir or concert; as, choral symphonies.

2. Singing in a choir; as, choral seraphs.

CHORALLY, adv. In the manner of a chorus.

CHORD, n.

1. The string of a musical instrument.

2. In music, the union of two or more sounds uttered at the same time, forming an entire harmony; as a third, fifth and eighth, which are perfect chords, or consonancies. The fourth and sixth are imperfect chords.

3. In geometry, a right line drawn or supposed to extend from one end of an arch of a circle to the other. Hence the chord of an arch is a right line joining the extremities of that arch.

CHORD, v.t. To string.

CHORDEE, n. [See Chord.] In medicine and surgery, an inflammatory or spasmodic contraction of the fraenum, attending gonorrhea and accompanied with pain.

CHORE, n. In America, this word denotes small work of a domestic kind, as distinguished from the principal work of the day. It is generally used in the plural, chores, which includes the daily or occasional business of feeding cattle and other animals, preparing fuel, sweeping the house, cleaning furniture, etc. [See Char.]

CHOREPISCOPAL, a. Pertaining to the power of a suffragan or local bishop.

CHOREUS, n. In ancient poetry, a foot of two syllables, the first long and the second short; the trochee.

CHORIAMB, CHORIAMBUS, n. In ancient poetry, a foot consisting of four syllables, of which the first and last are long, and the others short; that is, a choreus or trochee and an iambus united; as, nobilitas, anxietas.

CHORIAMBIC, n. A choriamb.

CHORIAMBIC, a. Pertaining to a choriamb.

CHORION, n. In anatomy, the exterior membrane which invests the fetus in utero.

CHORIST, n. A singing man in a choir.

CHORISTER, n.

1. Literally, a singer; one of a choir; a singer in a concert.

2. One who leads a choir in church music. This is the sense in the United States.

CHOROGRAPHER, n. [See Chorography.] A person who describes a particular region or country; or one who forms a map or maps of particular regions or countries.

CHOROGRAPHICAL, a. Pertaining to chorography; descriptive of particular regions or countries; laying down or marking the bounds of particular countries.

CHOROGRAPHICALLY, adv. In a chorographical manner; in a manner descriptive of particular regions.

CHOROGRAPHY, n. The art or practice of making a map of a particular region, country, or province; or of marking its limits, bounds or position. Chorography differs from geography, as the description of a particular country differs from that of the whole earth; and from topography, as the description of a country differs from that of a town, city or district.

CHOROID, n. In anatomy, a term applied to several parts of the body that resemble the chorion; as the inner membrane investing the brain, or the pia mater; the second coat of the eye; the fold of the carotid artery in the brain, in which is the pineal gland.

CHORUS, n.

1. A number of singers; a company of persons singing in concert.

2. The persons who are supposed to behold what passes in the acts of a tragedy, and sing their sentiments between the acts.

3. The song between the acts of a tragedy.

4. Verses of a song in which the company join the singer; or the union of a company with a singer, in repeating certain couplets or verses, at certain periods in a song.

5. A musical composition of two or more parts.

6. Among the Greeks, a chorus consisted of a number of singers and dancers.

CHOSE, n. In law, property in action; a right to possession; or that which may be demanded and recovered by suit or action at law. Thus, money due on a bond or note is a chose in action; a recompense for damage done is a chose in action; the former proceeding from an express, the latter from an implied contract. A contract executed is a chose in possession; a contract executory conveys only a chose in action. A chose local is annexed to a place, as a mill or the like; a chose transitory is a thing which is movable.

CHOSE, s as z, pret. and pp. of choose.