Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



CHARIOTED, pp. Borne in a chariot.

CHARIOTEER, n. The person who drives or conducts a chariot. It is used in speaking of military chariots and those in the ancient games, but not of modern drivers.

CHARIOT-MAN, n. The driver of a chariot. 2 Chronicles 18:33.

CHARIOT-RACE, n. A race with chariots; a sport in which chariots were driven in contest for a prize.


1. Benevolent and kind; as a charitable disposition.

2. Liberal in benefactions to the poor, and in relieving them in distress; as a charitable man.

3. Pertaining to charity; springing from charity, or intended for charity; benevolent; as a charitable institution, or society; a charitable purpose.

4. Formed on charitable principles; favorable; dictated by kindness; as a charitable construction of words or actions.


1. The disposition to be charitable; or the exercise of charity.

2. Liberality to the poor.

CHARITABLY, adv. Kindly; liberally; benevolently; with a disposition to help the poor; favorably.


1. In a general sense, love, benevolence, good will; that disposition of heart which inclines men to think favorably of their fellow men to think favorably of their fellow men, and to do them good. In a theological sense, it includes supreme love to God, and universal good will to men. 1 Corinthians 8:1; Colossians 3:14; 1 Timothy 1:5.

2. In a more particular sense, love, kindness, affection, tenderness, springing from natural relations; as the charities of father, son and brother.

3. Liberality to the poor, consisting in almsgiving or benefactions, or in gratuitous services to relieve them in distress.

4. Alms; whatever is bestowed gratuitously on the poor for their relief.

5. Liberality in gifts and services to promote public objects of utility, as to found and support bible societies, missionary societies, and others.

6. Candor; liberality in judging of men and their actions; a disposition which inclines men to think and judge favorably, and to put the best construction on words and actions which the case will admit. The highest exercise of charity, is charity towards the uncharitable.

7. Any act of kindness, or benevolence; as the charities of life.

8. A charitable institution. Charity-school, is a school maintained by voluntary contributions for educating poor children.

CHARK, v.t. To burn to a coal; to char.

CHARLATAN, n. One who prates much in his own favor, and makes unwarrantable pretensions to skill; a quack; an empiric; a mountebank.

CHARLATANICAL, a. Quackish; making undue pretensions to skill; ignorant.

CHARLATANRY, n. Undue pretensions to skill; quackery; wheedling; deception by fair words.

CHARLES’S-WAIN, n. In astronomy, seven stars in the constellation called Ursa Major, or the Great Bear.

CHARLOCK, n. The English name of the Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapis arvensis, very pernicious weeds among grain. One kind has yellow flowers; another, white, with jointed pods.


1. Words, characters or other things imagined to possess some occult or unintelligible power; hence, a magic power or spell, by which with the supposed assistance of the devil, witches and sorcerers have been supposed to do wonderful things. Spell; enchantment. Hence,

2. That which has power to subdue opposition, and gain the affections; that which can please irresistible; that which delights and attracts the heart; generally in the plural.

The smiles of nature and the charms of art.

Good humor only teaches charms to last.

CHARM, v.t.

1. To subdue or control by incantation or secret influence.

I will send serpents among you - which will not be charmed. Jeremiah 8:17.

2. To subdue by secret power, especially by that which pleases and delights the mind; to allay, or appease.

Music the fiercest grief can charm.

3. To give exquisite pleasure to the mind or senses; to delight.

We were charmed with the conversation.

The aerial songster charms us with her melodious notes.

4. To fortify with charms against evil.

I have a charmed life, which must not yield.

5. To make powerful by charms.

6. To summon by incantation.

7. To temper agreeably.

CHARM, v.i. To sound harmonically.

CHARMA, n. A fish resembling the sea-wolf.

CHARMED, pp. Subdued by charms; delighted; enchanted.


1. One that charms, or has power to charm; one that uses or has the power of enchantment. Deuteronomy 18:11.

2. One who delights and attracts the affections.

CHARMERESS, n. An enchantress.

CHARMFUL, a. Abounding with charms.


1. Using charms; enchanting.

2. a. Pleasing n the highest degree; delighting.

Music is but an elegant and charming species of elocution.

CHARMINGLY, adv. Delightfully; in a manner to charm, or to give delight.

She smiled very charmingly.

CHARMINGNESS, n. The power to please.

CHARMLESS, a. Destitute of charms.

CHARNEL, a. Containing flesh or carcasses.

CHARNEL-HOUSE, n. A place under or near churches, where the bones of the dead are reposited. Anciently, a kind of portico or gallery, in or near a church-yard, over which the bones of the dead were laid, after the flesh was consumed.

CHARON, n. In fabulous history, the son of Erebus and Nox, whose office was to ferry the souls of the deceased over the waters of Acheron and Styx, for a piece of money.

CHARR, n. A fish, a species of Salmo.

CHARRING, ppr. Reducing to coal; depriving of volatile matter.

CHARRY, a. [See Char.] Pertaining to charcoal; like charcoal, or partaking of its qualities.

CHART, n. A hydrographical or marine map; a draught or projection of some part of the earths superficies on paper, with the coasts, isles, rocks, banks, channels or entrances into harbors, rivers, and bays, the points of compass, soundings or depth of water, etc., to regulate the courses of ships in their voyages. The term chart is applied to a marine map; map is applied to a draught of some portion of land.

A plan chart is a representation of some part of the superficies of the globe, in which the meridians are supposed parallel to each other, the parallels of latitude at equal distances, and of course the degrees of latitude and longitude are every where equal to each other.

Mercators chart, is one on which the meridians are straight lines, parallel and equidistant; the parallels are straight lines and parallel to each other, but the distance between them increases from the equinoctial towards either pole, in the ratio of the secant of the latitude to the radius.

Globular chart, is a meridional projection in which the distance of the eye from the plane of the meridian, on which the projection is made, is supposed to be equal to the sine of the angle of forty-five degrees.

Selenographic charts, represent the spots and appearances of the moon.

Topographic charts, are draughts of particular places, or small parts of the earth.


1. A written instrument, executed with usual forms, given as evidence of a grant, contract, or whatever is done between man and man. In its more usual sense, it is the instrument of a grant conferring powers, rights and privileges, either from a king or other wovereign power, or from a private person, as a charter of exemption, that no person shall be empannelled on a jury, a charter of pardon, etc. The charters under which most of the colonies in America were settled, were given by the king of England, and incorporated certain persons, with powers to hold the lands granted, to establish a government, and make laws for their own regulation. These were called charter-governments.

2. Any instrument, executed with form and solemnity, bestowing rights or privileges.

3. Privilege; immunity; exemption.

My mother, Who has a charter to extol her blood, When she does praise me, grieves me.


1. To hire or to let a ship by charter. [See Charter-party.]

2. To establish by charter.

CHARTER-LAND, n. Land held by charter, or in soccage.

CHARTER-PARTY, n. In commerce, an agreement respecting the hire of a vessel and the freight. This is to be signed by the proprietor or master of the ship and by the merchant who hires or freights it. It must contain the name and burden of the vessel, the names of the master and freighter, the price or rate of the freight, the time of loading and unloading, and other stipulated conditions.


1. Hired or let, as a ship.

2. Invested with privileges by charter; privileged.

3. Granted by charter; as chartered rights; chartered power.


1. Giving a charter; establishing by charter.

2. Hiring or letting by charter.

CHARTLESS, a. Without a chart; of which no chart has been made; not delineated on paper; as the charless main.

CHARTULARY, n. An officer in the ancient Latin church, who had the care of charters and other papers of a public nature. Blackstone uses this word for a record or register, as of a monastery.

CHARY, a. [Sax. Cearig. See Care.] Careful; wary; frugal.

CHASABLE, a. That may be chased; fit for the chase.

CHASE, v.t.

1. Literally to drive, urge, press forward with vehemence; hence, to pursue for the purpose of taking, as game; to hunt.

2. To purse, or drive, as a defeated or flying enemy. Leviticus 26:7; Deuteronomy 32:30.

3. To follow or pursue, as an object of desire; to pursue for the purpose of taking; as, to chase a ship.

4. To drive; to pursue.

Chased by their brothers endless malice.

To chase away, is to compel to depart; to disperse.

To chase metals. [See Enchase.]


1. Vehement pursuit; a running or driving after; as game, in hunting; a flying enemy, in war; a ship a sea, etc.

2. Pursuit with an ardent desire to obtain, as pleasure, profit, fame, etc.; earnest seeking.

3. That which may be chased; that which is usually taken by chase; as beasts of chase.

4. That which is pursued or hunted; as, seek some other chase. So at sea, a ship chased is called the chase.

5. In law, a driving of cattle to or from a place.

6. An open ground, or place of retreat for deer and other wild beasts; differing from a forest, which is not private property and is invested with privileges, and from a park which is inclosed. A chase is private property, and well stored with wild beasts or game.

7. An iron frame used by printers to confine types, when set in columns.

8. Chase of a gun, is the whole length of the bore.

9. A term in the game of tennis.

Chase guns, in a ship of war, guns used in chasing an enemy or in defending a ship when chased. These have their ports at the head or stern. A gun at the head is called a bow-chase; at the stern, a stern-chase.

CHASED, pp. Pursed; sought ardently; driven.


1. One who chases; a pursuer; a driver; a hunter.

2. An enchaser. [See Enchase.]

CHASIDEANS, [See Assideans.]

CHASING, ppr. Pursuing; driving; hunting.


1. A cleft; a fissure; a gap; properly, an opening made by disrupture, as a beach in the earth or a rock.

2. A void space; a vacuity.

Between the two propositions, that the gospel is true and that it is false, what a fearful chasm! The unsettled reason hovers over it in dismay.

CHASMED, a. Having gaps or a chasm.

CHASSELAS, n. A sort of grape.


1. Pure from all unlawful commerce of sexes. Applied to persons before marriage, it signifies pure from all sexual commerce, undefiled; applied to married persons, true to the marriage bed.

2. Free from obscenity.

While they behold your chaste conversation. 1 Peter 3:2.

3. In language, pure; genuine; uncorrupt; free from barbarous words and phrases, and from quaint, affected, extravagant expressions.

CHASTE-EYED, a. Having modest eyes.

CHASTE-TREE, n. The agnus castus, or vitex; a tree that grows to the highth of eight or ten feet, producing spikes of flowers at the end of every strong shoot in autumn.

CHASTELY, adv. In a chaste manner; without unlawful commerce of sexes; without obscenity; purely; without barbarisms or unnatural phrases.


1. To correct by punishment; to punish; to inflict pain for the purpose of reclaiming an offender; as, to chasten a son with a rod.

I will chasten him with the rod of men. 2 Samuel 7:14.

2. To afflict by other means.

As many as I love I rebuke and chasten. Revelation 3:19.

3. To purify from errors or faults.

CHASTENED, pp. Corrected; punished; afflicted for correction.

CHASTENER, n. One who punishes, for the purpose of correction.

CHASTENESS, n. Chastity; purity.

CHASTENING, ppr. Correcting; afflicting for correction.

CHASTENING, n. Correction; punishment for the purpose of reclaiming.

No chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous but grievous. Hebrews 12:11.

CHASTISABLE, a. Deserving of chastisement.


1. To correct by punishing; to punish; to inflict pain by stripes, or in other manner, for the purpose of punishing an offender and recalling him to his duty.

I will chastise you seven times for your sins. Leviticus 26:28.

2. To reduce to order or obedience; to restrain; to awe; to repress.

The gay social sense, By decency chastisd.

3. To correct; to purify by expunging faults; as, to chastise a poem.

CHASTISED, pp. Punished; corrected.

CHASTISEMENT, n. Correction; punishment; pain inflicted for punishment and correction, either by stripes or otherwise.

Shall I so much dishonour my fair stars, On equal terms to give him chastisement.

I have borne chastisement, I will not offend any more. Job 34:31.

The chastisement of our peace, in Scripture, was the pain which Christ suffered to purchase our peace and reconciliation to God. Isaiah 53:5.

CHASTISER, n. One who chastises; a punisher; a corrector.

CHASTISING, ppr. Punishing for correction; correcting.


1. Purity of the body; freedom from all unlawful commerce of sexes. Before marriage, purity from all commerce of sexes; after marriage, fidelity to the marriage bed.

2. Freedom from obscenity, as in language or conversation.

3. Freedom from bad mixture; purity in words and phrases.

4. Purity; unadulterated state; as the chastity of the gospel.

CHAT, v.i.

1. To talk in a familiar manner; to talk without form or ceremony.

2. To talk idly; to prate.

CHAT, v.t. To talk of.
CHAT, n. Free, familiar talk; idle talk; prate.
CHAT, n. A twig, or little stick. [See Chit.]

CHATEAU, n. A castle; a seat in the country.

CHATELET, n. A little castle.

CHATELLANY, n. The lordship or jurisdiction of a castellan, or governor of a castle. [See Castellany.]

CHATOYANT, a. A hard stone, a little transparent, which being cut smooth presents on its surface and in the interior, an undulating or wavy light. It is of a yellowish gray color or verging to an olive green. It rarely exceeds the size of a filbert.

CHATOYMENT, n. Changeable colors, or changeableness of color, in a mineral; play of colors.

CHATTEL, n. chatl. [See Cattle.] Primarily, any article of movable goods. In modern usage, the word chattels comprehends all goods, movable or immovable, except such as have the nature of freehold. Chattels are real or personal. Chattels real, are such as concern or savor of the realty, as a term for years of land, ward-ships in chivalry, the next presentation to a church, estates by statute merchant, elegit and the like. Chattels personal, are things movable, as animals, furniture of a house, jewels, corn, etc.

CHATTER, v.i. [See Chat.]

1. To utter sounds rapidly and indistinctly, as a magpie, or a monkey.

2. To make a noise by collision of the teeth. We say, the teeth chatter, when one is chilly and shivering.

3. To talk idly, carelessly or rapidly; to jabber.

CHATTER, n. Sounds like those of a pie or monkey; idle talk.

CHATTER-BOX, n. One that talks incessantly.

CHATTERER, n. A prater; an idle talker.

CHATTERING, ppr. Uttering rapid, indistinct sounds, as birds; talking idly; moving rapidly and clashing, as the teeth.

CHATTERING, n. Rapid, inarticulate sounds, as of birds; idle talk; rapid striking of the teeth, as in chilliness.

CHATTING, ppr. Talking familiarly.

CHATTY, a. Given to free conversation; talkative.

CHATWOOD, n. Little sticks; fuel.

CHAUMONTELLE, n. A sort of pear.

CHAUN, n. A gap.

CHAUN, v.i. To open; to yawn.

CHAVENDER, CHEVEN, n. The chub, a fish.

CHAW, v.t.

1. To grind with the teeth; to masticate, as food in eating; to ruminate, or to chew as the cud.

2. To ruminate in thought; to revolve and consider.

CHAW, n.

1. The jaw. Ezekiel 29:4. But in modern editions of the Bible it is printed jaw.

2. In vulgar language, a cud; as much as is put in the mouth at once.

CHAWDRON, n. Entrails.

CHAY, n. Chaya-root; the root of the Oldenlandia umbellata, used in dyeing red.


1. Bearing a low price, in market; that may be purchased at a low price; that is, at a price as low or lower than the usual price of the article or commodity, or at a price less than the real value. The sense is always comparative; for a price deemed cheap at one time is considered dear at another.

It is a principle which the progress of political science has clearly established; a principle that illustrates at once the wisdom of the creator and the blindness of human cupidity, that it is cheaper to hire the labor of freemen than to compel the labor of slaves.

2. Being of small value; common; not respected; as cheap beauty.

Make not yourself cheap in the eyes of the world.

CHEAP, n. Bargain; purchase; as in the phrases, good cheap, better cheap; the original phrases from which we have cheap.


1. To attempt to buy; to ask the price of a commodity; to chaffer.

To shops in crowds the daggled females fly,

Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy.

2. To lessen value.

CHEAPENER, n. One who cheapens or bargains.

CHEAPLY, adv. At a small price; at a low rate.

CHEAPNESS, n. Lowness in price, considering the usual price, or real value.

CHEAR, [See Cheer.]

CHEAT, v.t.

1. To deceive and defraud in a bargain; to deceive for the purpose of gain in selling. Its proper application is to commerce, in which a person uses some arts, or misrepresentations, or withholds some facts, by which he deceives the purchaser.

2. To deceive by any artifice, trick or device, with a view to gain an advantage contrary to common honesty; as, to cheat a person at cards.

3. To impose on; to trick. It is followed by of or out of, and colloquially by into, as to cheat a child into a belief that a medicine is palatable.


1. A fraud committed by deception; a trick; imposition; imposture.

2. A person who cheats; one guilty of fraud by deceitful practices.

CHEATABLENESS, n. Liability to be cheated.

CHEAT-BREAD, n. Fine bread purchased, or not made in the family.

CHEATED, ppr. Defrauded by deception.

CHEATER, n. One who practices a fraud in commerce.

CHEATING, ppr. Defrauding by deception; imposing on.

CHEATING, n. The act of defrauding by deceitful arts.

CHECK, v.t.

1. To stop; to restrain; to hinder; to curb. It signifies to put an entire stop to motion, or to restrain its violence, and cause an abatement; to moderate.

2. To rebuke; to chide or reprove.

3. To compare any paper with its counterpart or with a cipher, with a view to ascertain its authenticity; to compare corresponding papers; to control by a counter-register.

4. In seamenship, to ease of a little of a rope, which is too stiffly extended; also, to stopper the cable.

CHECK, v.i.

1. To stop; to make a stop; with at.

The mid checks at any vigorous undertaking.

2. To clash or interfere.

I love to check with business.

3. To strike with repression.


1. A stop; hindrance; rebuff; sudden restraint, or continued restraint; curb; control; government.

2. That which stops or restrains, as reproof, reprimand, rebuke, slight or disgust, fear, apprehension, a person; any stop or obstruction.

3. In falconry, when a hawk forsakes her proper game, to follow rooks, pies, or other fowls, that cross her in her flight.

4. The correspondent cipher of a bank note; a corresponding indenture; any counter-register.

5. A term in chess, when one party obliges the other either to move or guard his king.

6. An order for money, drawn on a banker or on the cashier of a bank, payable to the bearer.

This is a sense derived from that in definition 4.

7. In popular use, checkered cloth; check, for checkered.

Check or check-roll, a roll or book containing the names of persons who are attendants and in the pay of a king or great personage, as domestic servants.

Clerk of the check, in the British Kings household, has the check and control of the yeomen of the guard, and all the ushers belonging to the royal family, the care of the watch, etc.

Clerk of the check, in the British Royal Dock-Yards, is an officer who keeps a register of all the men employed on board his majestys ships and vessels, and of all the artificers in the service of the navy, at the port where he is settled.

CHECKED, CHECKT, pp. Stopped; restrained; repressed; curbed; moderated; controlled; reprimanded.


1. To variegate with cross lines; to form into little squares, like a chess board, by lines or stripes of different colors. Hence,

2. To diversify; to variegate with different qualities, scenes, or events.

Our minds are, as it were, checkered with truth and falsehood.


1. One who checks or restrains; a rebuker.

2. A chess-board.

CHECKER, CHECKER-WORK, n. Work varied alternately as to its colors or materials; work consisting of cross lines.

CHECKERS, n. plu. A common game on a checkered board.

CHECKING, ppr. Stopping; curbing; restraining; moderating; controlling; rebuking.