Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary




1. A writing or agreement between states at war, for the exchange of prisoners, or for some mutual advantage; also, a vessel employed to convey the messenger on this occasion.

2. A letter of defiance or challenge; a challenge to single combat. This sense the word has still in France and Italy; but with us it is obsolete.

Cartel-ship, is a ship employed in the exchange of prisoners, or in carrying propositions to an enemy.

CARTEL, v.i. To defy.

CARTER, n. The man who drives a cart, or whose occupation is to drive a cart.

CARTESIAN, a. Pertaining to the philosopher Des Cartes, or to his philosophy, which taught the doctrine of vortexes round the sun and planets.

CARTESIAN, n. One who adopts the philosophy of Des Cartes.

CARTHAGINIAN, a. Pertaining to ancient Carthage, a celebrated city on the Northern Coast of Africa, about twelve miles from the modern Tunis. It was founded by the Phenicians, and destroyed by the Romans.

CARTHAGINIAN, n. An inhabitant or native of Carthage.

CARTHAMUS, n. The generic name of Bastard Saffron. [See Safflower.]

CARTHUSIAN, n. One of an order of monks, so called from Chartreuse, the place of their institution. They are remarkable for their austerity. They cannot go out of their cells, except to church, nor speak to any person without leave.

CARTILAGE, n. Gristle; a smooth, solid, elastic substance, softer than bone, of a pearly color and homogeneous texture, without cells or cavities. It is invested with a particular membrane called perichondrium, which in the articular cartilages, is a reflexion of the synovial membrane.


1. Pertaining to or resembling a cartilage; gristly; consisting of cartilage.

2. In ichthyology, cartilaginous fishes are those whose muscles are supported by cartilages instead of bones, or whose skeleton is cartilaginous. Many of these are viviparous, as the ray and shark, whose young are excluded from an egg hatched within them. Others are oviparous, as the sturgeon. Some of them have no gill-covers, but breathe through apertures, on the sides of the neck or top of the head; others have gill-covers, but destitute of bony rays.

CARTOON, n. In painting, a design drawn on strong paper, to be afterward calked through and transferred on the fresh plaster of a wall, to be painted in fresco. Also, a design colored for working in Mosaic, tapestry, etc.


1. A case of wood, about three inches thick at the bottom girt with marlin, holding about four hundred musket balls, and six or eight iron balls of a pound weight, to be fired out of a howitz, for defending a pass. A cartouch is sometimes made of a globular form, and filled with a ball of a pound weight; and sometimes for guns, being of a ball of a half or quarter of a pound weight, tied in the form of a bunch of grapes, on a tompion of wood and coated over.

2. A portable box for charges. [See Cartridge-box.]

3. A roll or scroll on the cornice of a column.

CARTRIDGE, n. [a corruption of cartouch.] A case of pasteboard or parchment, holding the charge of powder or powder and balls, for a cannon, mortar, musket or pistol. The cartridges for small arms, prepared for battle, contain the powder and ball; those for cannon and mortars are made of paste-board, or tin. Cartridges, without balls, are called blank cartridges.

CARTRIDGE-BOX, n. A case, usually of wood, covered with leather, with cells for cartridges. It is worn upon a belt thrown over the left shoulder, and hangs a little below the pocket-hole on the right side.

CARTULARY, n. A register-book, or record, as of a monastery. Blackstone writes it chartulary; and primarily it signifies the officer who has the care of charters and other public papers.

CARUCATE, n. As much land as one team can plow in the year.


1. A small fleshy excrescence, either natural or morbid.

2. The fleshy comb on the head of a fowl.

CARUNCULAR, a. In the form of a caruncle.

CARUNCULATED, a. Having a fleshy excrescence, or soft fleshy protuberance.

CARVE, v.t.

1. To cut into small pieces or slices, as meat at tale.

2. To cut wood, stone or other material into some particular form, with an instrument, usually a chisel; to engrave; to cut figures or devices on hard materials.

3. To make or shape by cutting; as, to carve an image.

4. To apportion; to distribute; to provide at pleasure; to select and take, as to ones self, or to select and give to another.

5. To cut; to hew.

To care out, is to cut out, or to lay out, by design; to plan.

CARVE, v.t.

1. To cut up meat; followed sometimes by for; as, to carve for all the quests.

2. To exercise the trade of a sculptor.

3. To engrave or cut figures.

CARVE, n. A carucate.

CARVED, pp. Cut or divided; engraved; formed by carving.

CARVEL, n. [See Caravel.] The urtica marina, or sea blubber.


1. One who cuts meat at tale; a sculptor; one who apportions or distributes at will, or one who takes or gives at pleasure.

2. A large table knife for carving.

CARVING, ppr. Cutting, dividing, as meat; cutting in stone, wood or metal; apportioning; distributing.

CARVING, n. The act of cutting, as meat; the act or art of cutting figures in wood or stone; sculpture; figures carved.

CARYATES, CARYATIDES, n. In architecture, figures of women dressed in long robes, after the Asiatic manner, serving to support entablatures. The Athenians had been long at war with the Caryans; the latter being at length vanquished and their wives led captive, the Greeks, to perpetuate this event, erected trophies, in which figures of women, dressed in the Caryatic manner, were used to support entablatures. Other female figures were afterwards used in the same manner, but they were called by the same name.

They were called Caryatides, from Carya, a city in the Peloponnesus, which sided with the Persians, and on that account was sacked by the other Greeks, its males butchered, and its females reduced to slavery.

CARYATIC, a. Pertaining to the Caryans or Caryatides.

CARYOPHYLLEOUS, n. Having five petals with long claws, in a tubular calyx; applied to flowers.

CARYOPHYLLOID, n. A species of mica, the scales of which are concentric and perpendicular.

CASARCA, n. A fowl of the genus Anas, called also ruddy-goose, larger than a mallard, found in Russia and Siberia.

CASCABEL, n. The knob or pummelion of a cannon.

CASCADE, n. A waterfall; a steep fall or flowing of water over a precipice, in a river or natural stream; or an artificial fall in a garden. The word is applied to falls that are less than a cataract.

CASCALHO, n. In Brazil, a deposit of pebbles, gravel and sand in which the diamond is usually found.

CASE, n.

1. A covering, box or sheath; that which incloses or contains; as a case for knives; a case for books; a watch case; a printers case; a pillow case.

2. The outer part of a building.

3. A certain quantity; as a case of crown glass.

4. A building unfurnished.

CASE, v.t.

1. To cover with a case; to surround with any material that shall inclose or defend.

2. To put in a case or box.

3. To strip off a case, covering, or the skin.

CASE, n. Literally, that which falls, comes, or happens; an event. Hence, the particular state, condition, or circumstances that befall a person, or in which he is placed; as, make the case your own; this is the case with my friend; this is his present case.

2. The state of the body, with respect to health or disease; as a case of fever; he is in a consumptive case; his case is desperate.

To be in good case, is to be fat, and this phrase is customarily abridged, to be in case; applied to beasts, but not to men, except in a sense rather ludicrous.

3. A question; a state of facts involving a question for discussion or decision; as, the lawyer stated the case.

4. A cause or suit in court; as, the case was tried at the last term. In this sense, case is nearly synonymous with cause, whose primary sense is nearly the same.

5. In grammar, the inflection of nouns, or a change of termination, to express a difference of relation in the word to others, or to the thing represented. The variation of nouns and adjectives is called declension; both case and declension signifying, falling or leaning from the first state of the word. Thus, liber is a book; libri, of a book; libro, to a book. In other words, case denotes a variation in the termination of a noun, to show how the noun acts upon the verb with which it is connected, or is acted upon by it, or by an agent. The cases, except the nominative, are called oblique cases.

In case, is a phrase denoting condition or supposition; literally, in the event or contingency; if it should so fall out or happen.

Put the case, suppose the event, or a certain state of things.

Action on the case, in law, is an action in which the whole cause of complaint is set out in the writ.

CASE, v.i. To put cases.

CASED, pp. Covered with a case.

CASE-HARDEN, v.t. To harden the outer part or superficies, as of iron, by converting it into steel. This may be done by putting the iron into an iron box, with a cement, and exposing it, for some hours, to a red heat.

CASEIC, a. The caseic acid is the acid of cheese, or a substance so called, extracted from cheese.

CASE-KNIFE, n. A large table knife, often kept in a case.


1. In fortification, a vault of masons work in the flank of a bastion, next to the curtain, somewhat inclined toward the capital of the bastion, serving as a battery to defend the face of the opposite bastion, and the moat or ditch.

2. A well, with its subterraneous branches, dug in the passage of the bastion, till the miner is heard at work, and air given to the mine.


1. A hollow molding, usually one sixth or one fourth of a circle.

2. A little movable window, usually within a large, made to turn and open on hinges.

CASEOUS, a. Like cheese; having the qualities of cheese.

CASERN, n. A lodging for soldiers in garrison towns, usually near the rampart, containing each two beds.

CASESHOT, n. Musket balls, stones, old iron, etc., put in cases, to be discharged from cannon.

CASE-WORM, n. A worm that makes itself a case.

CASH, n. Money; primarily, ready money, money in chest or on hand, in bank or at command. It is properly silver and gold; but since the institution of banks, it denotes also bank notes equivalent to money. To pay in cash is opposed to payment in goods, commodities, or labor, as in barter.

CASH, v.t.

1. To turn into money, or to exchange for money; as, to cash a note or an order.

2. To pay money for; as, the clerks of a bank cash notes when presented.

CASH, v.t. To discard.

CASH-ACCOUNT, n. An account of money received, paid, or on hand.

CASH-BOOK, n. A book in which is kept a register or account of money.

CASH-KEEPER, n. One entrusted with the keeping of money.

CASHEW-NUT, n. A tree of the West-Indies, Anacardium, bearing a kidney-shaped nut. The fruit is as large as an orange, and full of an acid juice, which is often used to make punch. To the apex of this fruit grows a nut, of the size of a hares kidney, the shell of which is hard, and the kernel, which is sweet, is covered with a thin film.

CASHIER, n. One who has charge of money; as cash-keeper. In a banking institution, the cashier is the officer who superintends the books, payments and receipts of the bank. He also signs or countersigns the notes, and superintends all the transactions, under the order of the directors.


1. To dismiss from an office or place of trust, by annulling the commission; to break, as for mal-conduct, and therefore with reproach; as, to cashier an officer of the army.

2. To dismiss or discard from service or from society.

3. To reject; to annul or vacate.

CASHIERED, pp. Dismissed; discarded; annulled.

CASHIERER, n. One who rejects discards or breaks; as a cashierer of monarchs.

CASHIERING, ppr. Discarding; dismissing from service.

CASHOO, n. The juice or gum of a tree in the East Indies.

CASING, ppr. Covering with a case.


1. The act or operation of plastering a house with mortar on the outside, and striking it while wet, by a ruler, with the corner of a trowel, to make it resemble the joints of free-stone.

2. A covering; a case.

CASK, n. A head-piece; a helmet; a piece of defensive armor, to cover and protect the head and neck, in battle.

CASK, n. A close vessel for containing liquors, formed by staves, heading and hoops. This is a general term comprehending the pipe, hogshead, butt, barrel, etc.


1. A small chest or box, for jewels or other small articles.

2. In seamens language, a small rope, fastened to gromets or little rings upon the yards, used to fasten the sail to the yard in furling.

This is usually written gasket.

CASPIAN, a. An epithet given to a large lake between Persia and Astracan, called the Caspian Sea.

CASS, v.t. To quash; to defeat; to annul.

CASSADA, CASSAVI, n. A plant, of the genus Jatropha, of different species. The roots of the manihot or bitter cassada, and of the janipha, are made into a kind of bread which serves for food to the natives of Africa and the West Indies, and they are also roasted and eaten like potatoes. They yield also a great quantity of starch, which the Brasilians export in small lumps under the name of tapioca.

CASSAMUNAIR, n. An aromatic vegetable brought from the east.

CASSATE, v.t. To vacate, annul, or make void.

CASSATION, n. The act of annulling. In France there is a court of Cassation.

CASSIA, n. A genus of plants of many species, among which are the fistula, or purging cassia, and the senna. The former is a native of Egypt and both Indies; the latter is a native of Persia, Syria and Arabia. The latter is a shrubby plant, the leaves of which are much used in medicine. The purging cassia is the pulp of the pods, and is a gentle laxative.

Cassia is also the name of a species of Laurus, the bark of which usually passes under the name of cinnamon, differing from real cinnamon chiefly in the strength of its qualities. From a plant of this kind was extracted an aromatic oil, used as a perfume by the Jews.

CASSIDONY, n. A species of plant, Gnaphalium, cotton-weed, cudweed or goldylocks; also, Lavandula stoechas or French lavender.

CASSIMER, n. A thin twilled woolen cloth.

CASSINO, n. A game at cards.

CASSIOBURY, n. A species of plant, of the genus Cassine, of which the most remarkable species is the Yapon of the Southern States of America. The berries are of a beautiful red color.

The Yapon is now arranged in the genus Ilex.

CASSIOPEIA, n. A constellation in the Northern Hemisphere, situated near to Cepheus, as the fabulous Cassiopeia was wife to Cepheus, king of Ethiopia. It contains fifty five stars.

CASSITERIA, n. A kind of crystals which appear to have an admixture of tin. The color is brown or whitish.

CASSOCK, n. A robe or gown worn over the other garments, particularly by the clergy. A close garment, now generally that which clergymen wear under their gowns.

CASSOCKED, a. Clothed with a cassock. The cassockd huntsman.

CASSONADE, n. Cask-sugar; sugar not refined.

CASSOWARY, n. A large fowl of the genus Struthio, nearly as large as the ostrich, but its legs are thicker and stronger in proportion. The wings are so small as not to appear, being hid under the feathers. The head is armed with a helmet of horny substance, consisting of plates one over another. It runs with great rapidity, outstripping the swiftest racer. It is now arranged in a separate genus, Casuarius.

CAST, v.t. pret. And pp. cast.

1. To throw, fling or send; that is, to drive from, by force, as from the hand, or from an engine.

Hagar cast the child under a shrub. Genesis 21:15.

Uzziah prepared slings to cast stones. 2 Chronicles 26:14.

2. To sow; to scatter seed.

If a man should cast seed into the ground. Mark 4:26.

3. To drive or impel by violence.

A mighty west wind cast the locusts into the sea. Exodus 10:19.

4. To shed or throw off; as, trees cast their fruit; a serpent casts his skin.

5. To throw or let fall; as, to cast anchor. Hence, to east anchor is to moor, as a ship, the effect of casting the anchor.

6. To throw, as dice or lots; as, to cast lots.

7. To throw on the ground, as in wrestling.

8. To throw away, as worthless.

His carcase was cast in the way. 1 Kings 13:24.

9. To emit or throw out.

This casts a sulphurous smell.

10. To throw, to extend, as a trench or rampart, including the sense of digging, raising, or forming.

Thy enemies shall cast a trench about thee. Luke 19:43.

11. To thrust; as, to cast into prison.

12. To put, or set, in a particular state.

Both chariot and horse were cast into a dead sleep. Psalm 76:6.

13. To condemn; to convict; as a criminal.

Both tried and both were cast.

14. To overcome in a civil suit, or in any contest of strength or skill; as, to cast the defendant or an antagonist.

15. To cashier or discard.

16. To lay aside, as unfit for use; to reject; as a garment.

17. To make to preponderate; to throw into one scale, for the purpose of giving it superior weight; to decide by a vote that gives a superiority in numbers; as, to cast the balance in ones favor; a casting vote or voice.

18. To throw together several particulars, to find the sum; as, to cast accounts. Hence, to throw together circumstances and facts, to find the result; to compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast the event of war.

To cast and see how many things there are which a man cannot do himself.

19. To contrive; to plan.

20. To judge, or to consider, in order to judge.

21. To fix, or distribute the parts of a play among the actors.

22. To throw, as the sight; to direct, or turn, as the eye; to glance; as, to cast a look, or glance, or the eye.

23. To found; to form into a particular shape, by pouring liquid metal into a mold; to run; as, to cast cannon.

Thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it. Exodus 25:12.

24. Figuratively, to shape; to form by a model.

25. To communicate; to spread over; as, to cast a luster upon posterity; to cast splendor upon actions, or light upon a subject.

To cast aside, to dismiss or reject as useless or inconvenient.

To cast away, to reject. Leviticus 26:44; Isaiah 5:24; Romans 11:1, 2. Also, to throw away; to lavish or waste by profusion; to turn to no use; as, to cast away life.

Also, to wreck, as a ship.

To cast by, to reject; to dismiss or discard with neglect or hate, or as useless.

To cast down, to throw down; to deject or depress the mind.

Why art thou cast down, O my soul. Psalm 42:5.

To cast forth, to throw out, or eject, as from an inclosed place; to emit, or send abroad; to exhale.

To cast off, to discard or reject; to drive away; to put off; to put away; to disburden. Among huntsmen, to leave behind, as dogs; to set loose, or free. Among seamen, to loose, or untie.

To cast out, to send forth; to reject or turn out; to throw out, as words; to speak or give vent to.

To cast up, to compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast up accounts, or the cost. Also, to eject; to vomit.

To cast on, to refer or resign to.

To cast ones self on, to resign or yield ones self to the disposal of, without reserve.

To cast young, to miscarry; to suffer abortion. Genesis 31:38.

To cast in the teeth, to upbraid; to charge; to twit. So in Danish, kaster in I noesen, to cast in the nose.

CAST, v.i.

1. To throw forward, as the thoughts, with a view to some determination; or to turn or revolve in the mind; to contrive; sometimes followed by about.

I cast in careful mind to seek her out. Spenser.

To cast about how to perform or obtain. Bacon.

2. To receive form or shape.

Metal will cast and mold.

3. To warp; to twist from regular shape.

Stuff is said to cast or warp, when it alters its flatness or straightness.

Note. Cast, like throw and warp, implies a winding motion.

4. In seamens language, to fall off, or incline, so as to bring the side of a ship to the wind; applied particularly to a ship riding with her head to the wind, when her anchor is first loosened.

CAST, n.

1. The act of casting; a throw; the thing thrown; the form or state of throwing; kind or manner of throwing.

2. The distance passed by a thing thrown; or the space through which a thing thrown may ordinarily pass; as, about a stones cast. Luke 22:41.

3. A stroke; a touch.

This was a cast of Woods politics.

4. Motion or turn of the eye; direction, look or glance; a squinting.

Thy let you see by one cast of the eye.

5. A throw of dice; hence, a state of chance or hazard.

It is an even cast, whether the army should march this way or that way.

Hence the phrase, the last cast, is used to denote that all is ventured on one throw, or one effort.

6. Form; shape.

A heroic poem in another cast.

7. A tinge; a slight coloring, or slight degree of a color; as a cast of green. Hence, a slight alteration in external appearance.

The native hue of resolution is sicklied oer with the pale cast of thought. Shak.

8. Manner; air; mien; as, a peculiar cast of countenance. This sense implies, the turn or manner of throwing; as, the neat cast f verse.

9. A flight; a number of hawks let go at once.

10. A small statue of bronze.

11. Among founders, a tube of wax, fitted into a mold, to give shape to metal.

12. A cylindrical piece of brass or copper, slit in two lengthwise, to form a canal or conduit, in a mold, for conveying metal.

13. Among plumbers, a little brazen funnel, at one end of a mold, for casting pipes without sodering, by means of which the melted metal is poured into the mold.

14. A breed, race, lineage, kind, sort.

15. In Hindoostan, a tribe or class of the same rank or profession; as the cast of Bramins, or priests; of rajahs, or princes; of choutres, or artificers; and of parias, or poor people. Or according to some writers, of Bramins; of cuttery, or soldiers; of shuddery, or merchants; and of wyse, or mechanics.

The four casts of the Hindoos are the Brahmins or sacred order; the Chechteres or soldiers and rulers; the Bice, Vaissya, or husbandmen and merchants; and the Sooders, Sudras, or laborers and mechanics.

16. A trick.

CASTALIAN, a. Pertaining to Castalia, a cool spring on Parnassus, sacred to the muses; as Castalian fount.

CASTANET, n. An instrument of music formed of small concave shells of ivory or hard wood, shaped like spoons, placed together, fastened to the thumb and beat with the middle finger. This instrument is used by the Spaniards, Moors and Bohemians, as an accompaniment to their dances, sarabands and guitars.

CASTAWAY, n. That which is thrown away. A person abandoned by God, as unworthy of his favor; a reprobate. 1 Corinthians 9:27.

CASTAWAY, a. Rejected; useless; of no value.

CASTED, pp. For cast, is not in use.

CASTELLAN, n. A governor or constable of a castle. In Poland, the name of a dignity or charge; a kind of lieutenant of a province, commanding part of a palatinate under a palatine. The castellans are senators, of the lower class, sitting, in the diets, on low seats behind the palatines.

CASTELLANY, n. [See Castle.] The lordship belonging to a castle; or the extent, of its land and jurisdiction.


1. Inclosed in a building, as a fountain or cistern.

2. Adorned with turrets, and battlements, like a castle.

CASTELLATION, n. The act of fortifying a house and rendering it a castle.


1. One who throws or casts; one who computes; a calculator; one who calculates fortunes.

2. A small phial or vessel for the table; as a set of casters.

3. A small wheel on a swivel, on which furniture is cast, or rolled, on the floor.

CASTIGATE, v.t. To chastise; to punish by stripes; to correct; to chasten; to check.

CASTIGATED, pp. Punished; corrected.

CASTIGATING, ppr. Punishing; correcting; chastising.


1. Punishment; correction; penance; discipline; emendation; restraint.

2. Among the Romans, a military punishment inflicted on offenders, by beating with a wand or switch.

CASTIGATOR, n. One who corrects.

CASTIGATORY, a. Tending to correction; corrective; punitive.

CASTIGATORY, n. An engine formerly used to punish and correct arrant scolds, called also a ducking stool, or trebucket.

CASTILE-SOAP, n. A kind of pure, refined soap.

CASTILIAN, a. Pertaining to Castile in Spain.

CASTILIAN, n. An inhabitant or native of Castile in Spain.

CASTING, ppr. Throwing; sending; computing; calculating; turning; giving a preponderancy; deciding; running, or throwing into a mold to give shape. [See Cast.]


1. The act of casting or founding.

2. That which is cast in a mold; any vessel formed by casting melted metal into a mold, or in sand.

3. The taking of casts and impressions of figures, busts, medals, etc.

CASTING-NET, n. A net which is cast and drawn, in distinction from a net that is set and left.

CASTING-VOTE, CASTING-VOICE, n. The vote of a presiding officer, in an assembly or council, which decides a question, when the votes of the assembly or house are equally divided between the affirmative and negative.

When there was an equal vote, the Governor had the casting voice.


1. A house fortified for defense against an enemy; a fortress. The term seems to include the house and the walls or other works around it. In old writers, the word is used for a town or village fortified.

2. The house or mansion of a nobleman or prince.

3. In a ship, there are two parts called by this name; the forecastle, a short deck in the fore part of the ship, above the upper deck; and the hindcastle, at the stern.

Castle in the air, a visionary project; a scheme that has no solid foundation.

CASTLE, v.t. In the game of chess, to cover the king with a castle, by a certain move.

CASTLE-BUILDER, n. One who forms visionary schemes.

CASTLE-BUILDER, n. The act of building castles in the air.

CASTLE-CROWNED, a. Crowned with a castle.

CASTLED, a. Furnished with castles; as a castled elephant.

CASTLE-GUARD, n. A feudal tenure, or knight service, which obliged the tenant to perform service within the realm, without limitation of time.

CASTLERY, n. The government of a castle.

CASTLET, n. A small castle.

CASTLE-WARD, n. An imposition laid upon subjects dwelling within a certain distance of a castle, for the purpose of maintaining watch and ward in the castle.

CASTLING, n. An abortion or abortive.