Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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CAPTIOUSLY — CARICATURIST

CAPTIOUSLY, adv. In a captious manner; with an inclination or intention to object, or censure.

CAPTIOUSNESS, n. Disposition to find fault; inclination to object; peevishness.

CAPTIVATE, v.t.

1. To take prisoner; to seize by force; as an enemy in war.

2. To subdue; to bring into bondage.

3. To overpower and gain with excellence or beauty; to charm; to engage the affections; to bind in love.

4. To enslave; with to; as, captivated to error.

CAPTIVATE, a. Taken prisoner.

CAPTIVATED, pp. Made prisoner; charmed.

CAPTIVATING, ppr.

1. Taking prisoner; engaging the affections.

2. a. Having power to engage the affections.

CAPTIVATION, n. The act of taking a prisoner; a taking one captive.

CAPTIVE, n.

1. A prisoner taken by force or stratagem in war, by an enemy; followed by to; as a captive to the victor.

2. One who is charmed or subdued by beauty or excellence; one whose affections are seized, or who is held by strong ties of love.

3. One who is ensnared by love or flattery, or by wiles. 2 Timothy 2:26.

4. A slave. Anciently captives were enslaved by their conquerors. But in modern times, they are not made slaves in Christian countries; and the word captive, in a literal sense, rarely signifies a slave.

CAPTIVE, v.t. To take prisoner; to bring into subjection.

CAPTIVITY, n.

1. The state of being a prisoner, or of being in the power of an enemy by force or the fate of war.

2. Subjection to love.

3. Subjection; a state of being under control.

Bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ. 2 Corinthians 10:5.

4. Subjection; servitude; slavery.

But I see another law in my members--bringing me into captivity to the law of sin. Romans 7:23.

To lead captivity captive, in scripture, is to subdue those who have held others in slavery, or captivity. Psalm 68:18.

CAPTOR, n. One who takes, as a prisoner or a prize. It is appropriately one who takes a prize at sea.

CAPTURE, n.

1. In a general sense, the act of taking or seizing; as the capture of an enemy, of a ship, or of booty, by force, surprise or stratagem.

2. The thing taken; a prize; prey taken by force, surprise or stratagem.

3. Seizure; arrest as the capture of a criminal or debtor.

CAPTURE, v.t. To take or seize by force, surprise or stratagem, as an enemy or his property; to take by force under the authority of a commission; as to capture a ship.

CAPTURED, pp. Taken as a prize.

CAPTURING, ppr. Seizing as a prize.

CAPUCCIO, n. A capuchin or hood.

CAPUCHED, a. Covered with a hood.

CAPUCHIN, n.

1. A garment for females, consisting of a cloke and hood, made in imitation of the dress of capuchin monks.

2. A pigeon whose head is covered with feathers.

CAPUCHINS, n. Monks of the order of St. Francis, who cover their heads with a capuce, capuchon, a stuff-cap or cowl. They are clothed in brown or gray, go bare-footed, and never shave their faces.

CAPUCINE, n. A species of monkey, the sagoo or sai.

CAPULIN, n. The Mexican cherry.

CAR, CAER, CHAR, in names of places, is sometimes the Celtic Caer, a town or city, as in Caermarthen.

CAR, n.

1. A small vehicle moved on wheels, usually drawn by one horse.

2. In poetical language, any vehicle of dignity or splendor; a chariot of war, or of triumph.

3. The constellation called Charless wain or the bear.

CARABINE, CARBINE, n. A short gun or fire arm, carrying a ball of 24 to the pound, borne by light horsemen, and hanging by a belt over the left shoulder. The barrel is two feet and a half long, and sometimes furrowed.

CARABINEER, n. A man who carries a carabine; one who carries a longer carabine than others, which is sometimes used on foot.

CARAC, CARACK, n. A large ship of burden; a Portuguese Indiaman.

CARACOL, n.

1. In the manege, a semi-round, or half turn which a horseman makes, either to the right or left. In the army, the cavalry make a caracol after each discharge, in order to pass to the rear of the squadron.

2. In architecture, a staircase in a helix or spiral form.

CARACOL, v.i. To move in a caracol; to wheel.

CARACOLY, n. A mixture of gold, silver and copper, of which are made rings pendants and other toys for the savages.

CARAT, n.

1. The weight of four grains, used by gold-smiths and jewelers in weighing precious stones and pearls.

2. The weight that expresses the fineness of gold. The whole mass of gold is divided into 24 equal parts, and as many 24th parts as it contains of pure gold, it is called gold of so many carats. Thus gold of twenty-two parts of pure metal, is gold of twenty-two carats. The carat in Great Britain is divided into four grains; among the Germans into twelve parts; and among the French into thirty-two.

3. The value of any thing.

CARAVAN, n. A company of travellers, pilgrims or merchants, marching or proceeding in a body over the deserts of Arabia, or other region infested with robbers.

CARAVANSARY, n. A place appointed for receiving and loading caravans; a kind of inn, where the caravans res at night, being a large square building, with a spacious court in the middle.

CARAVEL, CARVEL, n.

1. A small vessel on the coast of France, used in the herring fishery. These vessels are usually from 25 to 30 tons burden.

2. A light, round, old-fashioned ship.

CARAWAY, n. A plant of the genus Carum, a biennial plant, with a taper root like a parsnip, which, when young, is good eating. The seeds have an aromatic smell and a warm pungent taste. They are used in cakes, incrusted with sugar, and distilled with spirituous liquors.

CARBON, n. Pure charcoal; a simple body, black, brittle, light and inodorous. It is usually the remains of some vegetable body, from which all its volatile matter has been expelled by heat. When crystalized, it forms the diamond; and by means of a galvanic apparatus, it is found to be capable of fusion.

CARBONACEOUS, a. Pertaining to charcoal. [See Carbonic.]

CARBONADE, CARBONADO, n. In cookery, flesh, fowl or the like, cut across, seasoned and broiled on coals.

CARBONADE, CARBONADO, v.t. To cut or hack.

CARBONATE, v.t. In chimistry, a compound formed by the union of carbonic acid with a base; as the carbonate of lime; a carbonate of copper.

CARBONATED, a. Combined with carbon.

CARBONIC, a. Pertaining to carbon, or obtained from it. The carbonic acid is a saturated combination of carbon and oxygen. It has been called fixed air, aerial acid, mephitic gas, and cretaceous acid, or acid of chalk. It is found, in some places, in a state of gas; it exists in the atmosphere, and is disengaged from fermenting liquors, and from decomposing vegetable and animal substances. It is heavier than common air, and subsides into low places, vaults and wells.

CARBONIFEROUS, a. Producing carbon, or coal.

CARBONIZATION, n. The act or process of carbonizing.

CARBONIZE, v.t. To convert into carbon by combustion or the action of fire; to expel from wood or other substance all volatile matter.

CARBONIZED, pp. Converted into carbon or charcoal.

CARBONOHYDROUS, a. Composed of carbon and hydrogen.

CARBONOUS, a. Carbonous acid is carbon not fully saturated with oxygen.

CARBONCLE, n.

1. An anthrax; an inflammatory tumor, or painful gangrenous boil or ulcer.

2. A beautiful gem, of a deep red color, with a mixture of scarlet, called by the Greeks anthrax, found in the East Indies. It is foundpure, and adhering to a heavy ferruginous stone, of the emery kind. It is usually a quarter of an inch in length, and two-thirds of that in diameter, of an angular figure. When held up to the sun, it loses its deep tinge, and becomes exactly of the color of a burning coal.

The carbuncle of the ancients is supposed to have been a garnet.

3. In heraldry, a charge or bearing consisting of eight radii, four of which make a common cross, and the other four, a saltier.

CARBUNCLED, a. Set with carbuncles; spotted.

CARBUNCULAR, a. Belonging to a carbuncle; resembling a carbuncle; red; inflamed.

CARBUNCULATION, n. The blasting of the young buds of trees or plants, by excessive heat or cold.

CARBURET, n. A combination of carbon with a metal, earth or alkali. A combination of carbon with a simple inflammable or a metal.

CARBURETED, a. Combined with carbon, or holding carbon in colution; as carbureted hydrogen gas. Carbureted hydrogen consists of one prime equivalent of each. Carbureted hydrogen gas is called hydro-carbonate, being resolvable into carbonic acid and water, by combustion with oxygen. Carbureted is applied to gaseous compounds. Thus we say carbureted hydrogen, instead of carburet of hydrogen.

CARCAJO, n. The glutton, a voracious carnivorous animal.

CARCANET, n. A chain or collar of jewels.

CARCASS, n.

1. The body of an animal; usually the body when dead. It is not applied to the living body of the human species, except in low or ludicrous language.

2. The decaying remains of a bulky thing, as of a boat or ship.

3. The frame or main parts of a thing, unfinished or without ornament. This seems to be the primary sense of the word. [See the next word.]

CARCASS, n. An iron case or hollow vessel, about the size of a bomb, of an oval figure, filled with combustible and other substances, as meal-powder, salt-peter, sulphur, broken glass, turpentine, etc., to be thrown from a mortar into a town, to set fire to buildings. It has two or three apertures, from which the fire blazes, and the light sometimes serves as a direction in throwing shells. It is equipped with pistol-barrels, loaded with powder to the muzzle, which explode as the composition burns down to them. This instrument is probably named from the ribs of iron that form it, which resemble the ribs of a human carcass.

CARCELAGE, n. Prison fees.

CARCERAL, a. Belonging to a prison.

CARCINOMA, n. A cancer; also, a turgesence of the veins of the eye.

CARCINOMATOUS, a. Cancerous; like a cancer, or tending to it.

CARD, n.

1. A paper or pasteboard of a oblong figure, on which are painted figures or points; used in games.

2. A blank piece of paper, or the like paper with some writing upon it, used in messages of civility, or business.

3. The paper on which the points of the compass are marked.

Reason the card, but passion is the gale.

CARD, v.i. To play much at cards; to gain.
CARD, n. An instrument for combing, opening and breaking wool or flax, freeing it from the coarser parts, and from extraneous matter. It is made by inserting bent teeth of wire in a thick piece of leather, and nailing this to a piece of oblong board, to which a handle is attached.
CARD, v.t. To comb, or open wool, flax, hemp, etc., with a card, for the purpose of cleansing it of extraneous matter, separating the coarser parts, and making it fine and soft for spinning.

CARDAMINE, n. The plant, meadow cresses, or cuckow flower.

CARDAMOM, n. A plant of the genus Amomum, and its seeds, a native of India. The seeds of this plant, which grow in a pod, have a warm aromatic flavor, and are used in medicine.

CARDED, pp. Combed; opened; cleansed with cards.

CARDER, n. One who cards wool; also, one who plays much at cards.

CARDIAC, CARDIACAL, a.

1. Pertaining to the heart.

2. Exciting action in the heart, through the medium of the stomach; having the quality of stimulating action in the system, invigorating the spirits, and giving strength and cheerfulness.

CARDIAC, n. A medicine which excites action in the stomach, and animates the spirits.

CARDIALGY, n. The heart-burn, a violent sensation of heat and acrimony in the upper or left orifice of the stomach, seemingly at the heart, but rising into the oesophagus. It is called also the cardiac passion.

CARDINAL, a. Chief, principal, preeminent, or fundamental; as the cardinal virtues, which Pagans supposed to be justice, prudence, temperance and fortitude.

CARDINAL, n.

1. An ecclesiastical prince in the Romish church, who has a voice in the conclave at the election of a Pope, who is taken from their number. The cardinals are divided into three classes or orders, containing six bishops, fifty priests, and fourteen deacons, making seventy. These constitute the sacred college, and compose the Popes council. Originally they were subordinate in rank to bishops; but they have now the precedence. The dress of a cardinal is a red soutaine or cassock, a rocket, a short purple mantle and a red hat.

2. A womans cloke.

Cardinal-flower, a plant of the genus Lobelia, of many species. They are fibrous-rooted perennials, rising from two to five or six feet high, with erect stalks, ornamented with oblong, oval, spear-shaped simple leaves, and spikes of beautiful monopetalous flowers of scarlet, blue and violet colors. The natives of this country use a decoction of one species, the siphilitica, as a remedy in the venereal disease.

Cardinal numbers, are the numbers, one, two, three, etc., in distinction from first, second, third, etc., which are called ordinal numbers.

Cardinal points, in cosmography, are the four intersections of the horizon with the meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or North and South, East and West. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of the sun, the zenith and nadir.

Cardinal signs, in astronomy, are Aries, Libra, Cancer and Capricorn.

Cardinal winds, are those which blow from the cardinal points.

CARDINALATE, CARDINALSHIP, n. The office, rank or dignity of a cardinal.

CARDINALIZE, v.t. To make a cardinal.

CARDING, ppr.

1. Combing, as flax, wool, etc.

2. The act of playing at cards.

CARDING-MACHINE, n. A machine lately invented, for combing, breaking and cleansing wool and cotton. It consists of cylinders, thick set with teeth, and moved by the force of water, steam, etc.

CARDIOID, n. An algebraic curve, so called from its resemblance to a heart.

CARDITE, n. Fossil or petrified shells of the genus Cardium.

CARD-MAKER, n. A maker of cards.

CARD-MATCH, n. A match made by dipping pieces of card in melted sulphur.

CARDOON, n. A species of Cynara, resembling the artichoke, but larger.

CARD-TABLE, n. The table appropriated to the use of gamesters, or used for playing cards on.

CARE, n.

1. Concern; anxiety; solicitude; nothing some degree of pain in the mind, from apprehension of evil.

They shall eat bread by weight and with care. Ezekiel 4:16.

2. Caution; a looking to; regard; attention, or heed, with a view to safety or protection, as in the phrase, take care of yourself.

A want of care does more damage than a want of knowledge.

3. Charge or oversight, implying concern for safety and prosperity; as, he was under the care of a physician.

That which cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches. 2 Corinthians 11:28.

4. The object of care, or watchful regard and attention; as, Is she thy care?

CARE, v.t.

1. To be anxious or solicitous; to be concerned about.

Master, carest thou not that we perish? Mark 4:38.

2. To be inclined or disposed; to have regard to; with for before a noun, and to before a verb. Not caring to observe the wind. Great masters in painting never care for drawing people in the fashion. In this sense the word implies a less degree of concern. The different degrees of anxiety expressed by this word constitute the chief differences in its signification or applications.

CARE-CRAZED, a. [care and craze.] Broken or disordered by care, or solicitude; as a care-crazed mother.

CARE-DEFYING, a. Bidding defiance to care.

CARE-DEFYING, a. Bidding defiance to care.

CARE-TUNED, a. Tuned by care; mournful.

CARE-WOUNDED, a. Wounded with care.

CAREEN, v.t. In sea language, to heave or bring a ship to lie on one side, for the purpose of calking, repairing, cleansing, or paying over with pitch, the other side.

CAREEN, v.i. To incline to one side, as a ship under a press of sail.

CAREENED, pp. Laid on one side; inclined.

CAREENING, ppr. Heaving down on one side; inclining.

CAREENING, n. The act of heaving down on one side, as a ship.

CAREER, n.

1. A course; a race, or running; a rapid running; speed in motion.

2. General course of action or movement; procedure; course of proceeding.

Continue and proceed in honors fair career.

3. The ground on which a race is run.

4. In the manege, a place inclosed with a barrier, in which they run the ring.

5. In falconry, a flight or tour of the hawk, about 120 yards.

CAREER, v.i. To move or run rapidly.

When a ship is decked out in all her canvas, every sail swelled, and careering gayly over the curling waves, how lofty, how gallant she appears!

CAREERING, pp. Running or moving with speed.

CAREFUL, a. [See Care.]

1. Full of care; anxious; solicitous.

Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things. Luke 10:41.

2. Provident; attentive to support and protect; with of or for.

Thou hast been careful for us with all care. 2 Kings 4:13.

What could a careful father more have done. Dryden.

In present usage careful is generally followed by of; as, careful of health.

3. Watchful; cautious; giving good heed; as, be careful to maintain good works; be careful of your conversation.

4. Filling with care or solicitude; exposing to concern, anxiety or trouble; full of cares.

Raised to a careful height.

CAREFULLY, adv.

1. With care, anxiety, or solicitude.

Though he sought it carefully with tears. Hebrews 12:17.

2. Heedfully; watchfully; attentively; as, consider these precepts carefully.

If thou carefully hearken to the Lord. Deuteronomy 15:5.

3. In a manner that shows care.

Envy, how carefully does it look. Collier.

4. Providently; cautiously.

CAREFULNESS, n.

1. Anxiety; solicitude.

Drink thy water with trembling and with carefulness. Ezekiel 12:18.

2. Heedfulness; caution; vigilance, in guarding against evil, and providing for safety.

CARELESS, a. [care and less. See Loose.]

1. Having no care; heedless; negligent; unthinking; inattentive; regardless; unmindful; followed by of or about; as a careless mother; a mother careless of or about her children, is an unnatural parent.

2. Free from care or anxiety; whence, undisturbed; cheerful.

Thus wisely careless, innocently gay.

3. Done or said without care; unconsidered; as a careless throw; a careless expression.

4. Not regarding with care; unmoved by; unconcerned for; as, careless of money; careless of consequences.

5. Contrived without art.

CARELESSLY, adv. In a careless manner or way; negligently; heedlessly; inattentively; without care or concern.

CARELESSNESS, n. Heedlessness; inattention; negligence; manner without care.

CARENTANE, n. A papal indulgence, multiplying the remission of penance by forties.

CARESS, v.t. To treat with fondness, affection, or kindness; to fondle; to embrace with tender affection; as a parent a child.

CARESS, n. An act of endearment; any act or expression of affection; an embracing with tenderness; as conjugal caresses.

CARESSED, pp. Treated or embraced with affection.

CARESSING, ppr. Treating with endearment, or affection.

CARET, n. In writing, this mark ^, which shows that something, omitted in the line, is interlined above, or inserted in the margin, and should be read in that place.

CARGASON, n. A cargo; which see.

CARGO, n. The lading or freight of a ship; the goods, merchandize, or whatever is conveyed in a ship or other merchant vessel. The lading within the hold is called the inboard cargo, in distinction from horses, cattle and other things carried on deck. The person employed by a merchant to proceed with, oversee and dispose of the lading, is called a supercargo.

CARGOOSE, n. A fowl belonging to the genus Colymbus, called the crested diver. The cheeks and throat are surrounded with a long pendant ruff, of a bright tawny color, edged with black. The breast and belly are of a silvery white. It weighs two pounds and a half.

CARIATED, a. Carious. [See Carious.]

CARIBOO, n. A quadruped of the stag kind.

CARICA, n. The papaw, a tree bearing a fleshy fruit of the size of a small melon.

CARICATURE, n. A figure or description in which beauties are concealed and blemishes exaggerated, but still bearing a resemblance to the object.

CARICATURE, v.t. To make or draw a caricature; to represent as more ugly than the life.

CARICATURIST, n. One who caricatures others.