Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



CANCELATED, a. Cross-barred; marked with cross lines.

CANCELATION, n. The act of defacing by cross lines; a canceling.

CANCELED, pp. Crossed; obliterated; annulled.

CANCELING, ppr. Crossing; obliterating; annulling.


1. The crab or crab-fish. This genus of animals have generally eight legs, and two claws which serve as hands; two distant eyes, supported by a kind of peduncles, and they are elongated and movable. They have also two clawed palpi, and the tail is jointed. To this genus belong the lobster, shrimp, cray-fish, etc.

2. In astronomy, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac, represented by the form of a crab, and limiting the suns course northward in summer; hence, the sign of the summer solstice.

3. In medicine, a roundish, hard, unequal, scirrous tumor of the glands, which usually ulcerates, is very painful, and generally fatal.

CANCERATE, v.i. To grow into a cancer; to become cancerous.

CANCERATION, n. A growing cancerous, or into a cancer.

CANCEROUS, a. Like a cancer; having the qualities of a cancer.

CANCEROUSNESS, n. The state of being cancerous.


1. Cancerous.

2. Having the form of a cancer or crab.

CANCRINE, a. Having the qualities of a crab.

CANCRITE, n. A fossil or petrified crab.

CANDENT, a. Very hot; heated to whiteness; glowing with heat.

CANDICANT, a. Growing white.


1. White.

2. Fair; open; frank; ingenuous; free from undue bias; disposed to think and judge according to truth and justice, or without partiality or prejudice; applied to persons.

3. Fair; just; impartial; applied to things; as a candid view, or construction.


1. A man who seeks or aspires to an office; one who offers himself, or is proposed for preferment, by election or appointment; usually followed by for; as a candidate for the office of sheriff.

2. One who is in contemplation for an office, or for preferment, by those who have power to elect or appoint, though he does not offer himself.

3. One who, by his services or actions, will or may justly obtain preferment or reward, or whose conduct tends to secure it; as a candidate for praise.

4. A man who is qualified, according to the rules of the church, to preach the gospel, and take the charge of a parish or religious society, and proposes to settle in the ministry.

5. One who is in a state of trial or probation for a reward, in another life; as a candidate for heaven or for eternity.

CANDIDLY, adv. Openly; frankly; without trick or disguise; ingenuously.

CANDIDNESS, n. Openness of mind; frankness; fairness; ingenuousness.

CANDIED, pp. or a. Preserved with sugar, or incrusted with it; covered with crystals of sugar or ice, or with matter resembling them; as candied raisins.


1. A long, but small cylindrical body of tallow, wax or spermaceti, formed on a wick composed of linen or cotton threads, twisted loosely; used for a portable light of domestic use.

2. A light.

3. A light; a luminary. In scripture, the candle of the Lord is the divine favor and blessing, Job 29:3, or the conscience or understanding. Proverbs 20:27.

Excommunication by inch of candle, is when the offender is allowed time to repent, while a candle burns, and is then excommunicated.

Sale by inch of candle, is an auction in which persons are allowed to bid, only till a small piece of candle burns out.

Medicated candle, in medicine, a bougie.

Rush-candles are used in some countries; they are made of the pith of certain rushes, peeled except on one side, and dipped in grease.

CANDLE-BERRY TREE, n. The Maraca cerifera, or wax-bearing myrtle; a shrub common in North America, from the berries of which a kind of wax or oil is procured, of which candles are made. The oil is obtained by boiling the berries in water; the oil rising to the surface is skimmed of, and when cool, is of the consistence of wax, and of a dull green color. In popular language, this is called bayberry tallow.

CANDLE-BOMB, n. A small glass bubble, filled with water, place in the wick of a candle, where it bursts with a report.

CANDLE-HOLDER, n. A person that holds a candle. Hence, one that remotely assists another, but is otherwise not of importance.

CANDLE-LIGHT, n. The light of a candle; the necessary candles for use.

CANDLEMAS, n. The feast of the church celebrated on the second day of February, in honor of the purification of the Virgin Mary; so called from the great number of lights used on that occasion. This feast is supposed to have originated in the declaration of Simeon, that our Savior was to be a light to lighten the Gentiles. On this day, the Catholics consecrate all the candles and tapers which are to be used in their churches during the whole year. In Rome, the pope performs the ceremony himself, and distributes wax candles to the cardinals and others, who carry them in procession through the great hall of the popes palace. The ceremony was prohibited in England by an order of council in 1548. But candlemas is one of the four terms for paying and receiving rents and interest; and it gives name to a law term, beginning Jan. 15, and ending Feb. 3.

CANDLE-STICK, n. An instrument or utensil to hold a candle, made in different forms and of different materials; originally a stick or piece of wood.

CANDLE-STUFF, n. A material of which candles are made, as tallow, wax, etc.

CANDLES-ENDS, n. Scraps; fragments.

CANDOC, n. A plant or weed tha grows in rivers.

CANDOR, n. Openness of heart; frankness; ingenuousness of mind; a disposition to treat subjects with fairness; freedom from tricks or disguise; sincerity.

CANDY, v.t.

1. To conserve or dress with sugar; to boil in sugar.

2. To from into congelations or crystals.

3. To cover or incrust with congelations, or crystals of ice.

CANDY, v.i. To from into crystals, or become congealed; to take on the form of candied sugar.

CANDYING, ppr. Conserving with sugar.

CANDYING, n. The act of preserving simples in substance, by boiling them in sugar.


1. A plant, the Iberis.

2. A Cretan flower.

CANE, n.

1. In botany, this term is applied to several species of plants belonging to several species of plants belonging to different genera, such as Arundo, Calamus, Saccharum, etc. Among these is the bamboo of the East Indies, with a strong stem, which serves for pipes, poles, and walking sticks. The sugar cane, a native of Asia, Africa and America, furnishes the juice from which are made, sugar, melasses and spirit. [See Sugar Cane.]

2. A walking stick.

3. A long measure, in several countries of Europe; at Naples, the length is 7 feet 3 inches; in Thoulouse in France, 5 feet 8 inches; in Provence, etc., 6 feet 5 inches.

CANE, v.t. To beat with a cane or walking stick.

CANE-BRAKE, n. A thicket of canes.

CANE-HOLE, n. A hole or trench for planting the cuttings of cane, on sugar plantations.

CANE-TRASH, n. Refuse of canes, or macerated rinds of cane, reserved for fuel to boil the cane-juice.

CANESCENT, a. Growing white or hoary.

CANICULA, CANICULE, n. A star in the constellation of Canis Major, called also the dog-star, or Sirius; a star of the first magnitude, and the largest and brightest of all the fixed stars. From the rising of this heliacally, or at its emersion from the suns rays, the ancients reckoned their dog-days.

CANICULAR, a. Pertaining to the dog-star.

CANINE, a. Pertaining to dogs; having the properties or qualities of a dog; as a canine appetite, insatiable hunger; canine madness, or hydrophobia.

Canine teeth are two sharp pointed teeth in each jaw of an animal, one on each side, between the incisors and grinders; so named from their resemblance to a dogs teeth.

CANING, n. A beating with a stick or cane.

CANISTER, n. Properly, a small basket, as in Dryden; but more generally, a small box or case, for tea, coffee, etc.


1. A disease incident to trees, which causes the bark to rot and fall.

2. A popular name of certain small eroding ulcers in the mouth, particularly of children. They are generally covered with a whitish slough.

3. A virulent, corroding ulcer; or any thing that corrodes, corrupts or destroys.

Sacrilege may prove an eating canker.

And their word will eat as doth a canker. 2 Timothy 2:17.

4. An eating, corroding, virulent humor; corrosion.

5. A kind of rose, the dog rose.

6. In farriery, a running thrush of the worst kind; a disease in horses feet, discharging a fetid matter from the cleft in the middle of the frog.

CANKER, v.i. To grow corrupt; to decay, or waste away by means of any noxious cause; to grow rusty, or to be oxydized, as a metal.

CANKERBIT, a. Bitten with a cankered or envenomed tooth.


1. Corrupted.

2. a. Crabbed; uncivil.

CANKEREDLY, adv. Crossly; adversely.

CANKER-FLY, n. A fly that preys on fruit.

CANKER-LIKE, a. Eating or corrupting like a canker.

CANKEROUS, a. Corroding like a canker.

CANKER-WORM, n. A worm, destructive to trees or plants. In America, this name is given to a worm that, in some years, destroys the leaves and fruit of apple trees. This animal springs from an egg deposited by a miller, that issues from the ground.

CANKERY, a. Rusty

CANNABINE, a. Pertaining to hemp; hempen.

CANNEL-COAL, CANDLE-COAL, n. A hard, opake, inflammable fossil coal of a black color, sufficiently solid to be cut and polished. On fire it decrepitates and breaks into angular fragments. It is sometimes used for inkholders and toys.

CANNEQUIN, n. White cotton cloth from the East Indies, suitable for the Guinea trade.

CANNIBAL, n. A human being that east human flesh; a man-eater, or anthropophagite.


1. The act or practice of eating human flesh, by mankind.

2. Murderous cruelty; barbarity.

CANNIBALLY, adv. In the manner of a cannibal.

CANNON, n. A large military engine for throwing balls, and other instruments of death, by the force of gun powder. Guns of this kind are made of iron or brass and of different sizes, carrying balls from three or four pounds, to forty eight pounds weight. In some countries, they have been made of much larger size. The smaller guns of this kind are called field pieces.

CANNONADE, n. The act of discharging cannon and throwing balls, for the purpose of destroying an army, or battering a town, ship or fort. The term usually implies an attack of some continuance.

CANNONADE, v.t. To attack with heavy artillery; to throw balls, or other deadly weapons, as chain-shot or langrage, against an enemys army, town, fortress or ship; to batter with cannon shot.
CANNONADE, v.i. To discharge cannon; to play with large guns.

CANNON-BALL, n. A ball, usually made of cast iron, to be thrown from cannon. Cannon bullet, of the like signification, is not now used. Cannon balls were originally of stone.

CANNONEER, CANNONIER, n. A man who manages cannon; an engineer.

CANNON-PROOF, a. Proof against cannon shot.

CANNON-SHOT, n. A ball for cannon; also, the range or distance a cannon will throw a ball.

CANNOT, [can and not.] These words are usually united, but perhaps without good reason; canst and not are never united.

CANNULAR, a. Tubular; having the form of a tube.


1. A boat used by rude nations, formed of the body or trunk of a tree, excavated, by cutting or burning, into a suitable shape. Similar boats are now used by civilized men, for fishing and other purposes. It is impelled by a paddle, instead of an oar.

2. A boat made of bark or skins, used by savages.


1. In ecclesiastical affairs, a law, or rule of doctrine or discipline, enacted by a council and confirmed by the sovereign; a decision of matters in religion, or a regulation of policy or discipline, by a general or provincial council.

2. A law or rule in general.

3. The genuine books of the Holy Scriptures, called the sacred cannon, or general rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration.

4. A dignitary of the church; a person who possesses a prebend or revenue allotted for the performance of divine service in a cathedral or collegiate church.

A cardinal canon is one attached to a church, incardinatus, as a priest to a parish.

Domicellary canons, are young canons, not in orders, having no right in any particular chapters.

Expectative canons, having no revenue or prebend, but having the title and dignities of canons, a voice in the chapter and a place in the choir, till a prebend should fall.

Foreign canons, such as did not officiate in their canonries; opposed to mansionary or residentiary canons.

Lay, secular or honorary canons, laymen admitted out of honor or respect, into some chapter of canons.

Regular canons, who live in monasteries or in community, and who, to the practice of their rules, have added the profession of vows.

Tertiary canons, who have only the third part of the revenue of the canonicate.

5. In monasteries, a book containing the rules of the order.

6. A catalogue of saints acknowledged and canonized in the Romish Church.

7. The secret words of the mass from the preface to the Pater, in the middle of which the priest consecrates the host. The people are to rehearse this part of the service, on their knees, and in a voice lower than can be heard.

8. In ancient music, a rule or method for determining the intervals of notes, invented by Ptolemy.

9. In modern music, a kind of perpetual fugue, in which the different parts, beginning one after another, repeat incessantly the same air.

10. In geometry and algebra, a general rule for the solution of cases of a like nature with the present inquiry. Every last step of an equation is a canon.

11. In pharmacy, a rule for compounding medicines.

12. In surgery, an instrument used in sewing up wounds.

Canon-law, is a collection of ecclesiastical laws, serving as the rule of church government.

CANON-BIT, n. That part of a bit let into a horses mouth.

CANONESS, n. A woman who enjoys a prebend, affixed, by the foundation, to maids, without obliging them to make any vows or renounce the world.

CANONICAL, a. Pertaining to a canon; according to the canon or rule.

Canonical books or canonical scriptures, are those books of the scriptures which are admitted by the canons of the church, to be of divine origin. The Roman catholic church admits the Apocryphal books to be canonical; the Protestants reject them.

Canonical hours, are certain stated times of the day, fixed by the ecclesiastical laws, or appropriated to the offices of prayer and devotion. In Great Britain, these hours are from eight o’clock to twelve in the forenoon, before and after which marriage cannot be legally performed in the church.

Canonical obedience, is submission to the canons of a church, especially the submission of the inferior clergy to their bishops, and other religious orders to their superiors.

Canonical punishments, are such as the church may inflict, as excommunication, degradation, penance, etc.

Canonical life, is the method or rule of living prescribed by the ancient clergy who lived in community, a course of living prescribed for clerks, less rigid than the monastic and more restrained than the secular.

Canonical sins, in the ancient church, were those for which capital punishment was inflicted; as idolatry, murder, adultery, heresy, etc.

Canonical letters, anciently, were letters which passed between the orthodox clergy, as testimonials of their faith, to keep up the catholic communion, and to distinguish them from heretics.

Canonical epistles, is an appellation given to those epistles of the New Testament which are called general or catholic.

CANONICALLY, adv. In a manner agreeable to the canon.

CANONICALNESS, n. The quality of being canonical.

CANONICALS, n. plu. The full dress of the clergy, worn when they officiate.

CANONICATE, n. The office of a canon.

CANONIST, n. A professor of cannon law; one skilled in the study and practice of ecclesiastical law.

CANONISTIC, a. Having the knowledge of a canonist.

CANONIZATION, n. [See Canonize.]

1. The act of declaring a man a saint, or rather the act of ranking a deceased person in the catalogue of saints, called a canon. This act is preceded by beatification, and by an examination into the life and miracles of the person; after which the Pope decrees the canonization.

2. The state of being sainted.

CANONIZE, v.t. [from canon.] To declare a man a saint and rank him in the catalogue, called a canon.

CANONRY, CANONSHIP, n. An ecclesiastical benefice, in a cathedral or collegiate church, which has a prebend or stated allowance out of the revenues of the church commonly annexed to it. The benifice filled by a canon. A prebend may subsist without a canonry; but a canonicate is inseparable from a prebend.

CANOPIED, a. [See Canopy.] Covered with a canopy.


1. A covering over a throne, or over a bed; more generally, a covering over the head. So the sky is called a canopy, and a canopy is borne over the head in processions.

2. In architecture and sculpture, a magnificent decoration serving to cover and crown an altar, throne, tribunal, pulpit, chair or the like.

CANOPY, v.t. To cover with a canopy.

CANOROUS, a. Musical; tuneful.

CANOROUSNESS, n. Musicalness.

CANT, v.t.

1. In popular usage, to turn about, or to turn over, by a sudden push or thrust; as, to cant over a pail or a cask.

2. To toss; as, to cant a ball.

3. To speak with a whining voice, or an affected singing tone.

[In this sense, it is usually intransitive.]

4. To sell by auction, or to bid a price at auction.

CANT, n.

1. A toss; a throw, thrust or push with a sudden jerk; as, to give a ball a cant. [This is the literal sense.]

2. A whining, singing manner of speech; a quaint, affected mode of uttering words either in conversation or preaching.

3. The whining speech of beggars, as in asking alms and making complaints of their distresses.

4. The peculiar words and phrases of professional men; phrases often repeated, or not well authorized.

5. Any barbarous jargon in speech.

6. Whining pretension to goodness.

7. Outcry, at a public sale of goods; a call for bidders at an auction.

This use of the word is precisely equivalent to auction, auctio, a hawking, a crying out, or in the vulgar dialect, a singing out, but I believe not in use in the U. States.

CANT, n. A nich; a corner or retired place.

Cant-timbers, in a ship, are those which are situated at the two ends.

CANTABRIAN, a. Pertaining to Cantabria, on the Bay of Biscay, in Spain.

CANTALIVER, n. [cantle and eaves.] In architecture, a piece of wood, framed into the front or side of a house, to suspend the moldings and eaves over it.

CANTAR, CANTARO, n. An eastern weight; at Acra in Turkey, 603 pounds; at Tunis and Tripoli, 114 pounds, In Egypt, it consists of 100 or 150 rotolos; at Naples, it is 25 pounds; at Genoa, 150; at Leghorn, 150, 151, or 160.

At Alicant in Spain, the cantaro is a liquid measure of 3 gallons. In Cochin, a measure of capacity, of 4 rubies; the rubi, 32 rotolos.

CANTATA, n. A poem set to music; a composition or song, intermixed with recitatives and airs, chiefly intended for a single voice.

CANTATION, a. A singing.

CANTEEN, n. A tin vessel used by soldiers for carrying liquor for drink.

CANTELEUP, n. A variety of muskmelon.

CANTER, v.i. To move as a horse in a moderate gallop, raising the two fore feet nearly at the same time, with a leap or spring.

CANTER, v.t. To ride upon a canter.

1. A moderate gallop.

2. One who cants or whines.

CANTERBURY BELL, n. A species of campanula. [See Bell-Flower.]

CANTERBURY TALE, n. A fabulous story; so called from the tales of Chaucer.

CANTERING, ppr. Moving or riding with a slow gallop.

CANTHARIDIN, n. That peculiar substance existing in the Meloe vesicatorius, or cantharides, which causes vesication.

CANTHARIS or plu. CANTHARIDES, n. Spanish flies; a species of Meloe. This fly is nine or ten lines in length, of a shining green color, mixed with azure, and has a nauseous smell. It feeds upon the leaves of trees and shrubs, preferring the ash. These flies, when bruised, are universally used as a vesicatory, or blistering plaster. The largest come from Italy, but the best from Spain.

CANTHUS, n. An angle of the eye; a cavity at the extremities of the eyelids; the greater is next to the nose; the lesser, near the temple.


1. A song. In the plural, canticles, the Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the Old Testament.

2. A canto; a division of a song.

CANTILLATE, v.t. To chant; to recite with musical tones.