Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



CALADE, n. The slope or declivity of a rising manege-ground.

CALAITE, n. A name given to the turquois; which see.

CALAMANCO, n. A woolen stuff, of a fine gloss, and checkered in the warp.

CALAMAR, n. An animal, having an oblong body and ten legs. On the belly are two bladders containing a black fluid, which the animal emits when pursued. It is called also sea-sleeve and cuttle-fish.

CALAMBAC, n. Aloes-wood, xyloe-aloes, a drug, which is the product of a tree growing in China and some of the Indian isles. It is of a light spungy texture, very porous, and the pores so filled with a soft fragrant resin, that it may be indented by the fingers and chewed like mastich. It is also called tambac. The two coarser kinds are called lignum aloes, and calambour.

CALAMBOUR, n. A species of the aloes-wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac. This wood is used by cabinet-makers and inlayers.

CALAMIFEROUS, a. Producing plants having a long, hollow, knotted stem.

CALAMINE, CALAMIN, n. Lapis calaminaris, or cadmia fossilis; an ore of zink, much used in the composition of brass. This term is applied both to the siliceous oxyd and the native carbonate of zink. They an scarcely be distinguished by their external characters. They are generally compact, often stalactitic, and sometimes crystalized. Most of the calamines of England and Scotland are said to be carbonates.

CALAMINT, n. A plant, a species of Melissa, or baum, an aromatic plant, and a weak corroborant.

Water-calamint is a species of Mentha, or mint.

CALAMISTRATE, v.t. To curl or frizzle the hair.

CALAMISTRATION, n. The act of curling the hair.

CALAMIT, n. A mineral, probably a variety of Tremolite. It occurs in imperfect or rounded prismatic crystals, longitudinally striated, and sometimes resembling a reed. Its structure is foliated; its luster vitreous, and more or less shining.


1. Very miserable; involved in deep distress; oppressed with infelicity; wretched from misfortune; applied to men.

2. Producing distress and misery; making wretched; applied to external circumstances; as a calamitous event.

3. Full of misery; distressful; wretched; applied to state or condition.

CALAMITOUSLY, adv. In a manner to bring great distress.

CALAMITOUSNESS, n. Deep distress; wretchedness; misery; the quality of producing misery.

CALAMITY, n. Any great misfortune, or cause of misery; generally applied to events or disasters which produce extensive evils, as loss of crops, earthquakes, conflagrations, defeat of armies, and the like. But it is applied also to the misfortunes which bring great distress upon individuals.

The deliberations of calamity are rarely wise.


1. The generic name of the Indian cane, called also rotang. It is without branches, has a crown at the top, and is beset with spines.

2. In antiquity, a pipe or fistula, a wind instrument, made of a reed or oaten stalk.

3. A rush or reed used anciently as a pen to write on parchment or papyrus.

4. A sort of reed, or sweet-scented cane, used by the Jews as a perfume. It is a knotty root, reddish without and white within, and filled with a spungy substance. It has an aromatic smell.

5. The sweet flag, called by Linne Acorus.

CALANDRA, n. A species of lark, with a thick bill, the upper part of the body of a reddish brown, spotted with black, with a body thicker than the sky-lark.

CALANDRE, CALANDER, n. The French name of a species of insect of the beetle kind, very destructive in granaries.

CALANGAY, n. A species of white parrot.


1. A light chariot or carriage with very low wheels, used for taking the air in parks and gardens. It is open, or covered with mantles of cloth, that are let down at pleasure.

2. A cover for the head sometimes used by ladies.

CALCAR, n. In glass works, a kind of oven, or reverberating furnace, used for the calcination of sand and salt of potash, and converting them into frit.

CALCARATE, a. Furnished with a spur; as a calcarate corol, in larksupr; a calcarate nectary, a nectary resembling a cocks spur.

CALCARIO-SULPHUROUS, a. [See Calx and Sulphur.] Having lime and sulphur in combination, or partaking of both.

CALCARIOUS, a. Partaking of the nature of lime; having the qualities of lime; as calcarious earth or stone.

CALCAVALLA, n. A kind of sweet wine from Portugal.

CALCEATED, n. Shod; fitted with or wearing shoes.

CALCEDON, n. [See Chalcedony.] With jewelers, a foul vein, like chalcedony, in some precious stones.

CALCEDONIC, CALCEDONIAN, a. [See Chalcedony.] Pertaining to or resembling chalcedony.

CALCEDONY. See Chalcedony, the more correct orthography.

CALCIFEROUS, a. [of calx, lime, and muria, salt water.] A species of earth, of the muriatic genus, of a blue or olive green color, of the consistence of clay. It consists of calcarious earth and magnesia tinged with iron.

CALCINABLE, a. [See Calcine.] That may be calcined; capable of being reduced to a friable state by the action of fire.

CALCINATE, v.t. To calcine. [See Calcine.]

CALCINATION, n. [from calcine.]

1. The operation of expelling from a substance by heat, some volatile matter with which it is combined, or which is the cementing principle, and thus reducing it to a friable state. Thus chalk and carbonate of lime are reduced to lime by calcination, or the expulsion of carbonic acid.

2. The operation of reducing a metal to an oxyd, or metallic calx. This is modern chemistry is called oxidation.

CALCINATORY, n. A vessel used in calcination.


1. To reduce a substance to a powder or to a friable state, by the action of heat; or to expel from a substance some volatile matter, combined with it, or forming its cementing principle, as the carbonic acid from limestone, or the water of crystalization from salts.

2. To oxydize, as a metal; to reduce to a metallic calx.

3. To dissolve; to destroy the principles which unite.

CALCINE, v.i. To be converted into a powder or friable substance, or into a calx, by the action of heat.

CALCIUM, n. The metallic basis of lime.

CALCOGRAPHICAL, a. [See Calcography.] Pertaining to calcography.

CALCOGRAPHY, n. An engraving in the likeness of chalk.

CALC-SINTER, n. Stalactitic carbonate of lime.

CALC-TUFF, n. An alluvial formation of carbonate of lime.

CALCULARY, n. A congeries of little stony knots dispersed through the parenchyma of the pear and other fruits, formed by concretions of the sap.


1. To compute; to reckon; to add, subtract, multiply or divide any sums, for the purpose of finding the amount, difference, or other result. This, to calculate the expenses of erecting a house, is to estimate and add together the several sums which each part of the materials and the work will cost.

2. To ascertain by the use of tables or numbers; as, to calculate an eclipse.

3. To form tables upon mathematical principles, as logarithms, ephemerides, etc.

4. To compute the situation of the planets at a certain time, for astrological purposes; as, to calculate the birth of a person.

5. To adjust by computation; to fit or prepare by the adaptation of the means to the end; as, to calculate a system of laws for a free people. Religion is calculated for our benefit.

CALCULATE, v.i. To make a computation; as, we calculate better for ourselves than for others.

In popular use, this word is often equivalent to intend or purpose, that is, to make arrangements, and form a plan; as, a man calculated to go a journey. This use of the word springs from the practice of computing or estimating the various circumstances which concur to influence the mind in forming its determinations.

CALCULATED, pp. Computed; reckoned; suited; adapted by design.

CALCULATING, ppr. Computing; reckoining; adapting by design; adjusting.


1. The art, practice or manner of computing by numbers. The use of numbers, by addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, for the purpose of arriving at a certain result. Thus computations in astronomy and geometry for making tables of numbers are called calculations.

2. The result of an arithmetical operation; computation; reckoning.

3. Estimate formed in the mind by comparing the various circumstances and facts which influence its determination.

CALCULATIVE, a. Pertaining to calculation; tending to calculate.

CALCULATOR, n. One who computes or reckons; one who estimates or considers the force and effect of causes, with a view to form a correct estimate of the effects.

CALCULATORY, a. Belonging to calculation.

CALCULE, n. Reckoning; computation.

CALCULOUS, a. [Supra.]

1. Stony; gritty; hard like stone; as a calculous concretion.

2. In mathematics; Differential calculus, is the arithmetic of the infinitely small differences of variable quantities; the method of differencing quantities, or of finding an infinitely small quantity, which, being taken infinite times, shall be equal to a given quantity. This coincides with the doctrine of fluxions.

3. Exponential calculus, is a method of differencing exponential quantities; or of finding and summing up the differentials or moments of exponential quantities; or at least of bringing them to geometrical constructions.

4. Integral calculus, is a method of integrating or summing u moments or differential quantities; the inverse of the differential calculus.

5. Literal calculus, is specious arithmetic or algebra.

CALDRON, n. A large kettle or boiler, of copper, or other metal, furnished with a movable handle or bail, with which to hang it on a chimney hook.

CALECHE, [See Calash.]

CALEDONIAN, a. Pertaining to Caledonia, an ancient name of Scotland. The termination ia, signifies a country, and was added by the Romans. Caledon signifies probably, the hill or town of the Gaels, or Caels, the primitive inhabitants.

CALEDONIAN, n. A native of Caledonia, now Scotland.

CALEFACIENT, a. [See Calefaction, Calefy.] Warming; heating.

CALEFACIENT, n. That which warms or heats.


1. The act or operation of warming or heating; the production of heat in a body by the action of fire, or by the communication of heat from other bodies.

2. The state of being heated.

CALEFACTIVE, CALEFACTOR, a. [See Calefaction.] That makes warm or hot; that communicates heat.

CALEFY, v.i. To grow hot or warm; to be heated.

CALEFY, v.t. To make worm or hot.


1. A register of the year, in which the months, weeks, and days are set down in order, with the feasts observed by the church, etc.; an almanack. It was so named from the Roman Calendoe, the name given to the first day of the month, and written, in large letters, at the head of each month. [See Calends.]

2. A list of prisoners in the custody of the sheriff.

3. An orderly table or enumeration of persons of things. Calendar-month, a solar month as it stands in Almanacks.

CALENDAR, v.t. To enter or write in a calendar.

CALENDER, v.t. To press between rollers, for the purpose of making smooth, glossy and wavy; as woolen and silk stuffs and linens.

CALENDER, n. A machine or hot press, used in manufactories to press cloths, for the purpose of making them smooth, even and glossy, laying the nap, watering them and giving them a wavy appearance. It consists of two thick rollers or cylinders, placed between boards or planks, the lower one being fixed, the upper one movable, and loaded with a great weight.

CALENDRER, n. The person who calenders cloth.

CALENDS, n. plu. Among the Romans, the fist day of each month. The origin of this name is differently related. Varro supposes it to have originated in the practice of notifying the time of the new moon, by a priest who called out or proclaimed the fact, to the people, and the number of the calends, or the day of the nones. Others alledge that the people be convened, the pontifex proclaimed the several feasts or holidays in the month; a custom which was discontinued in the year of Rom 450, when the fasti or calendar was set up in public places, to give notice of the festivals.

CALENTURE, n. A violent ardent fever, incident to persons in hot climates, especially natives of cooler climates. It is attended with delirium, and one of the symptoms is, that the person affected imagines the sea to be a green field, and sometimes attempting to walk in it, is lost.

CALF, n.

1. The young of the cow, or of the bovine genus of quadrupeds.

2. In contempt, a dolt; an ignorant, stupid person; a weak or cowardly man.

3. The thick fleshy part of the leg behind; so called from its protuberance.

4. The calves of the lips, in Hosea, signify the pure offerings of prayer, praise and thanks-giving.

CALF-LIKE, a. Resembling a calf.

CALF-SKIN, n. The hide or skin of a calf; or leather made of the skin.


1. The diameter of a body; as the caliber of a column, or of a bullet.

2. The bore of a gun, or the extent of its bore.

Caliber-compasses, calibers, or callipers, a sort of compasses made with arched legs to take the diameter of round bodies, as masts, shot, etc. The legs move on an arch of brass, on which are marked the inches and half inches, to show how far the points of the compasses are opened asunder.

Caliber-rule, Gunners Callipers, an instrument in which a right line is so divided as that the first part being equal to the diameter of an iron or leaden ball of one pound weight, the other parts are to the first as the diameters of balls of two, three, four, etc. Pounds, are to the diameter of a ball of one pound. It is used by engineers, to determine, from a balls weight, its diameter or caliber and vice versa.

CALICE, n. A cup appropriately, a communion cup, or vessel used to administer the wine in the sacrament of the Lords supper. It is used by the Roman Catholics in the mass.

CALICO, n. [said to be from Calicut, in India.] Cotton cloth. In England, white or unprinted cotton cloth is called calico. In the United States, calico is printed cotton cloth, having not more than two colors. I have never heard this name given to the unprinted cloth. Calico was originally imported from India, but is now manufactured in Europe and the United States.

CALICO-PRINTER, n. One whose occupation is to print calicoes.

CALID, a. Hot; burning; ardent.

CALIDITY, n. Heat.

CALIDUCT, n. Among the Ancients, a pipe or canal used to convey heat from a furnace to the apartments of a house.

CALIF, n. Written also caliph and kalif. A successor or vicar; a representative of Mohammed, bearing the same relation to him as the Pope pretends to bear to St. Peter. Among the Saracens, or Mohammedans, a calif is one who is vested with supreme dignity and power in all matters relating to religion and civil policy. This title is borne by the Grand Signior in Turkcy, and by the Sophi of Persia.

CALIFATE, CALIPHATE, KALIFATE, n. The office or dignity of a calif; or the government of a calif.

CALIGATION, n. Darkness; dimness; cloudiness.

In medical authors, caligation or caligo, is an opakeness or cloudiness of the anterior surface of the crystaline lens, causing dimness of sight; impaired sight from obstruction to the passage of light, or cataract.

CALIGINOUS, a. Dim; obscure; dark.

CALIGINOUSNESS, n. Dimness; obscurity.

CALIGRAPHYIC, n. [Infra.] Pertaining to elegant penmanship.

CALIGRAPHY, CALLIGRAPHY, n. Fair or elegant writing, or penmanship.

CALIN, n. A compound metal, of which the Chinese make tea canisters and the like. The ingredients seem to be lead and tin.

CALIVER, n. [from caliber.] A kind of handgun, musket or arquebuse.


1. A cup

2. The membrane which covers the papillae in the pelvis of the human kidney. But it seem to be erroneously used for calyx, which see.

CALK, v.t. cauk.

1. To drive oakum or old ropes untwised, into the seams of a ship or other vessel, to prevent their leaking, or admitting water. After the seams are filled, they are covered with hot melted pitch or rosin, to keep the oakum from rotting.

2. In some parts of America, to set upon a horse or ox shoes armed with sharp points of iron, to prevent their slipping on ice; that is, to stop from slipping.

CALK, n. Cauk. In New-England, a sharp pointed piece of iron on a shoe for a horse or an ox, called in Great Britain calking; used to prevent the animal from slipping.

CALKER, n. Cauker. A man who calks; sometimes perhaps a calk or pointed iron on a house-shoe.

CALKED, pp. Cauked. Having the seams stopped; furnished with shoes with iron points.

CALKIN, n. A calk.

CALKING, n. Cauking. In painting, the covering of the back side of a design with black lead, or red chalk, and tracing lines through on a waxed plate or wall or other matter, by passing lightly over each stroke of the design with a point, which leaves an impression of the color on the plate or wall.

CALKING-IRON, n. Cauking-iron. An instrument like a chisel, used in calking ships.

CALL, v.t. [Heb. To hold or restrain.] In a general sense, to drive; to strain or force out sound. Hence,

1. To name; to denominate or give a name. And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night. Genesis 1:5.

2. To convoke; to summon; to direct or order to meet; to assemble by order or public notice; often with together; as, the king called his council together; the president called together the congress.

3. To request to meet or come.

He sent his servants to call them that were bidden. Matthew 22:3.

4. To invite.

Because I have called and ye refused. Proverbs 1:24.

5. To invite or summon to come or be present; to invite, or collect.

Call all your senses to you.

6. To give notice to come by authority; to command to come; as, call a servant.

7. To proclaim; to name, or publish the name.

Nor parish clerk, who calls the psalm so clear.

8. To appoint or designate, as for an office, duty or employment.

See, I have called by name Bezaleel. Exodus 31:2.

Paul called to be an apostle. Romans 1:1.

9. To invite; to warn; to exhort. Isaiah 22:12.

10. To invite or draw into union with Christ; to bring to know, believe and obey the gospel. Revelation 8:2-8.

11. To own and acknowledge. Hebrews 2:11.

12. To invoke or appeal to.

I call God for a record. 2 Corinthians 1:23.

13. To esteem or account. Isaiah 47:5; Matthew 3:15.

To call down, to invite, or to bring down.

To call back, to revoke, or retract; to recall; to summon or bring back.

To call for, to demand, require or claim, as a crime calls for punishment; or to cause to grow. Ezekiel 36:29. Also, to speak for; to ask; to request; as, to call for a dinner.

To call in, to collect, as to call in debts or money; or to draw from circulation, as to call in clipped coin; or to summon together; to invite to come together; as, to call in neighbors or friends.

To call forth, to bring or summon to action; as, to call forth all the faculties of the mind.

To call off, to summon away; to divert; as, to call off the attention; to call off workmen from their employment.

To call up, to bring into view or recollection; as, to call u the image of a deceased friend; also, to bring into action, or discussion; as, to call up a bill before a legislative body.

To call over, to read a list, name by name; to recite separate particulars in order, as a roll of names.

To call out, to summon to fight; to challenge; also, to summon into service; as, to call out the militia.

To call to mind, to recollect; to revive in memory.

CALL, v.i.

1. To utter a loud sound, or to address by name; to utter the name; sometimes with to.

The angel of God called to Hagar. Genesis 21:17.

2. To stop, without intention of staying; to make a short stop; as, to call at the inn. This use Johnson supposes to have originated in the custom of denoting ones presence at the door by a call. It is common, in this phrase, to use at, as to call at the inn; or on, as to call on a friend. This application seems to be equivalent to speak, D. Kallen. Let us speak at this place.

To call on, to make a short visit to; also, to solicit payment, or make a demand of a debt. In a theological sense, to pray to or worship; as, to call on the name of the Lord. Genesis 4:26. To repeat solemnly.

To call out, to utter a loud voice; to bawl; a popular use of the phrase.

CALL, n.

1. A vocal address, of summons or invitation; as, he will not come at a call.

2. Demand; requisition; public claim; as, listen to the calls of justice or humanity.

3. Divine vocation, or summons; as the call of Abraham.

4. Invitation; request of a public body or society; as, a clergyman has a call to settle in the ministry.

5. A summons from heaven; impulse.

St. Paul believed he had a call, when he persecuted the Christians.

6. Authority; command.

7. A short visit; as, to make a call; to give one a call that is, a speaking to; D. Kallen. To give one a call, is to stop a moment and speak or say a word; or to have a short conversation with.

8. Vocation; employment. In this sense calling is generally used.

9. A naming; a nomination.

10. Among hunters, a lesson blown on the horn, to comfort the hounds.

11. Among seamen, a whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to their duty.

12. The English name of the mineral called by the Germans tungsten or wolfram.

13. Among fowlers, the noise or cry of a fowl, or a pipe to call birds by imitating their voice.

14. In legislative bodies, the call of the house, is a calling over the names of the members, to discover who is absent or for other purpose; a calling of names with a view to obtain answers from the person named.

CALLED, pp. Invited; summoned; addressed; named; appointed; invoked; assembled by order; recited.

CALLER, n. One who calls.

CALLET, CALLAT, n. A trull, or a scold.

CALLET, v.i. To rail; to scold.


1. A naming, or inviting; a reading over or reciting in order, or a call of names with a view to obtain an answer, as in legislative bodies.

2. Vocation; profession; trade; usual occupation, or employment.

Pope. Swift. 1 Corinthians 7:20

3. Class of persons engaged in any profession or employment.

4. Divine summons, vocation, or invitation.

Give all diligence to make your calling and election sure. 2 Peter 1:10.

CALLIOPE, n. Calliopy. In Pagan mythology, the muse that presides over eloquence and heroic poetry.

CALLIPERS. [See Caliber.]

CALLOSITY, a. Hardness, or bony hardness; the hardness of the cicatrix of ulcers.


1. Hard; hardened; indurated; as an ulcer or some part of the body.

2. Hardened in mind; insensible; unfeeling.

CALLOUSLY, adv. In a hardened or unfeeling manner.

CALLOUSNESS, n. Hardness, induration, applied to the body; insensibility, applied to the mind or heart.

CALLOW, a. Destitute of feathers, naked; unfledged; as a young bird.