Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
APPARITOR — APPORTIONMENT
APPARITOR, n. [L. apparo, to prepare, or appareo, to attend.]
Among the Romans, any officer who attended magistrates and judges to execute their orders. In England, a messenger or officer who serves the process of a spiritual court, or a beadle in the university who carries the mace.
APPEACHMENT, n. Accusation; charge exhibited. Obs.
APPEAL, v.i. [L. apello; ad and pello, to drive or send; Gr. We do not see the sense of call in pello, but to drive or press out, is the radical sense of calling, naming. This word coincides in elements with L. balo, Eng. bawl, and peal.]
1. To refer to a superior judge or court, for the decision of a cause depending, or the revision of a cause decided in a lower court.
I appeal to Cesar. Acts 25:11.
2. To refer to another for the decision of a question controverted, or the counteraction of testimony or facts; as, I appeal to all mankind for the truth of what is alleged.
APPEAL, v.t. To call or remove a cause from an inferior to a superior judge or court. This may be done after trial and judgment in the lower court; or by special statute or agreement, a party may appeal before trial, upon a fictitious issue and judgment. We say the cause was appealed before or after trial.
APPEAL, v.t. In crimianal law, to charge with a crime; to accuse; to institute a criminal prosecution, for some hainous offense; as, to appeal a person of felony. This process was anciently given to a private person to recover the weregild, or private pecuniary satisfaction for an injury he had received by the murder of a relation, or by some personal injury.
1. The removal of a cause or suit from an inferior to a superior tribunal, as from a common pleas court to a superior or supreme court. Also the right of appeal.
2. An accusation; a process instituted by a private person against a man for some hainous crime by which he has been injured, as for murder, larceny, mayhem.
3. A summons to answer to a charge.
4. A call upon a person; a reference to another for proof or decision.
In an oath, a person makes an appeal to the Deity for the truth of his declaration.
5. Resort; recourse.
Every milder method is to be tried, before a nation makes an appeal to arms.
1. That may be appealed; that may be removed to a higher tribunal for decision; as, the cause is appealable.
2. That may be accused or called to answer by appeal; applied to persons; as, a criminal is appealable for manslaughter.
APPEALANT, n. One who appeals. [Not used.]
APPEALED, pp. Removed to a higher court, as a cause; prosecuted for a crime by a private person, as a criminal.
APPEALER, n. One who appeals; an appellor.
APPEALING, ppr. Removing a cause to a higher tribunal; prosecuting as a private person for an offense; referring to another for a decision.
APPEAR, v.i. [L. appareo, of ad and pareo, to appear, or be manifest.]
1. To come or be in sight; to be in view; to be visible.
The leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh. Leviticus 13:43.
And God said, Let the dry land appear. Genesis 1:9.
2. To become visible to the eye, as a spirit, or to the apprehension of the mind; a sense frequent in scripture.
The Lord appeared to Abram, and said. Genesis 12:7.
The angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bush. Exodus 3:2.
3. To stand in presence of, as parties or advocates before a court, or as persons to be tried. The defendant, being called, did not appear.
We must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ. 2 Corinthians 5:10.
4. To be obvious; to be known, as a subject of observation or comprehension.
Let thy work appear to thy servant. Psalm 90:16.
It doth not yet appear what we shall be. 1 John 3:2.
5. To be clear or made clear by evidence; as, this fact appears by ancient records.
But sin that it might appear sin. Romans 7:13.
6. To seem, in opposition to reality.
They disfigure their faces, that they may appear to men to fast. Matthew 6:16.
7. To be discovered, or laid open.
That they shame may appear. Jeremiah 13:26.
APPEAR, n. Appearance. Obs.
1. The act of coming into sight; the act of becoming visible to the eye; as, his sudden appearance surprised me.
2. The thing seen; a phenomenon; as an appearance in the sky.
3. Semblance; apparent likeness.
There was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire. Numbers 9:15.
4. External show; semblance assumed, in opposition to reality or substance; as, we are often deceived by appearances; he has the appearance of virtue.
For man looketh on the outward appearance. 1 Samuel 16:7.
5. Personal presence; exhibition of the person; as, he made his first appearance at court or on the stage.
6. Exhibition of the character; introduction of a person to the public in a particular character, as a person makes his appearance in the world, as a historian, an artist, or an orator.
7. Probability; likelihood. This sense is rather an inference from the third or fourth; as probability is inferred from external semblance or show.
8. Presence; mien; figure; as presented by the person, dress or manners; as, the lady made a noble appearance.
9. A being present in court; a defendant’s filing common or special bail to a process.
10. An apparition.
APPEARER, n. The person that appears.
APPEARING, ppr. Coming in sight; becoming evident; making an external show; seeming; having the semblance.
APPEARING, n. The act of becoming visible; appearance.
APPEASABLE, a. That may be appeased, quieted, calmed, or pacified.
APPEASABLENESS, n. The quality of being appeasable.
To make quiet; to calm; to reduce to a state of peace; to still; to pacify; as, to appease the tumult of the ocean or of the passions; to appease hunger or thirst.
[This word is of a general application to every thing in a disturbed, ruffled or agitated state.]
APPEASED, pp. Quieted; calmed; stilled; pacified.
APPEASEMENT, n. The act of appeasing; the state of being in peace.
APPEASER, n. One who appeases, or pacifies.
APPEASIVE, a. Having the power to appease; mitigating; quieting.
1. One who appeals, or removes a cause from a lower to a higher tribunal.
2. One who prosecutes another for a crime.
3. One who challenges, or summons another to single combat.
4. In church history, one who appeals from the Constitution Unigenitus to a general council.
APPELLATE, a. Pertaining to appeals; having cognizance of appeals; as “appellate jurisdiction.”
APPELLATION, n. [L. appellatio. See Appeal.]
Name; the word by which a thing is called and known. Spenser uses it for appeal.
APPELLATIVE, a. Pertaining to a common name; noting the common name of a species.
APPELLATIVE, n. A common name in distinction from a proper name. A common name or appelative stands for a whole class, genus or species of beings, or for universal ideas. Thus man is the name of the whole human race, and fowl of all winged animals. Tree is the name of all plants of a particular class; plant and vegetable are names of things that grow out of the earth. A proper name, on the other hand, stands for a single thing, as, London, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston.
APPELLATIVELY, adv. According to the manner of nouns appellative; in a manner to express whole classes or species; as, Hercules is sometimes used appellatively, that is, as a common name to signify a strong man.
APPELLATORY, a. Containing an appeal.
1. The defendant in an appeal.
2. The person who is appealed, or prosecuted by a private man for a crime.
APPELLOR, n. The person who institutes an appeal, or prosecutes another for a crime.
This word is rarely or never used for the plaintiff in appeal from a lower court, who is called the appellant. Appellee is opposed both to appellant and appellor.
APPEND, v.t. [L. appendo, of ad and pendeo, to hand.]
1. To hang or attach to, as by a string, so that the thing is suspended; as, a seal appended to a record.
2. To add, as an accessory to the principal thing.
APPENDAGE, n. Something added to a principal or greater thing, though not necessary to it, as a portico to a house.
Modesty is the appendage of sobriety.
APPENDANCE, APPENDENCE, n. Something annexed. [Not used.]
1. hanging to; annexed; belonging to something; attached; as, a seal appendant to a paper.
2. In law, common appendant, is a right belonging to the owners or occupiers of land, to put commonably beasts upon the lord’s waste, and upon the lands of other persons within the same manor. An advowson appendant, is the right of patronage or presentation, annexed to the possession of a manor. So also a common of fishing may be appendant to a freehold.
APPENDANT, n. That which belongs to another thing, as incidental or subordinate to it.
APPENDED, pp. Annexed; attached.
APPENDICATE, v.t. To append; to add to. Obs.
APPENDICATION, n. An appendage or adjunct. Obs.
APPENDICLE, n. A small appendage.
APPENDING, n. That which is by right annexed.
1. something appended or added.
Normandy became an appendix to England.
2. An adjunct, concomitant, or appendage.
3. More generally, a supplement or short treatise added to a book.
APPERCETIVE, v.t. To comprehend. Obs.
APPERCEPTION, n. [ad and perception.]
Perception that reflects upon itself; consciousness.
APPERIL, n. Peril; danger, [Not in use.]
APPERTAIN, v.i. [L. ad and pertineo, to pertain, of per and teneo, to hold. Pertineo is to reach to, to extend to, hence to belong. See Tenant.]
To belong, whether by right, nature or appointment.
Give it to him to whom it appertaineth. Leviticus 6:5.
APPERTAINING, pp. Belonging.
APPERTAINMENT, n. That which belongs.
APPERTENENCE, n. [See Appurtenance.]
APPERTINENT, a. Belonging; now written appurtenant.
APPERTINENT, n. That which belongs to something else. Obs. [See Appurtenance.]
APPETENCE, APPETENCY, n. [L. appetentia, appetens, from appeto, to desire; of ad and peto, to ask, supplicate or seek, compound. Eng. bid. The primary sense is to strain, to urge or press, or to advance. See Bid.]
1. In a general sense, desire; but especially, carnal desire; sensual appetite.
2. The disposition of organized bodies to select and imbibe such portions of matter as serve to support and nourish them, or such particles as are designed, through their agency, to carry on the animal or vegetable economy.
These lacteals have mouths, and by animal selection or appetency, they absorb such part of the fluid as is agreeable to their palate.
3. An inclination or propensity in animals to perform certain actions, as in the young to suck, in aquatic fowls to enter into water and to swim.
4. According to Darwin, animal appetency is synonymous with irritability or sensibility; as the appetency of the eye for light, of the pops to secrete milk, etc.
5. Attraction, or the tendency in bodies to move toward each other and unite.
APPETENT, a. Desiring; very desirous.
APPETIBILITY, n. The quality of being desirable for gratification.
APPETIBLE, a. [Low L. appetibilis, from appeto.] Desirable; that may be the object of sensual desire.
1. The natural desire of pleasure or good; the desire of gratification, either of the body or of the mind. Appetites are passions directed to general objects, as the appetite for fame, glory or riches; in distinction from passions directed to some particular objects, which retain their proper name, as the passion of love, envy or gratitude. Passion does not exist without an object; natural appetites exist first, and are then directed to objects.
2. A desire of food or drink; a painful sensation occasioned by hunger or thirst.
3. Strong desire; eagerness or longing.
4. The thing desired.
Power being the natural appetite of princes.
Appetites are natural or artificial. Hunger and thirst are natural appetites; the appetites for olives, tobacco, snuff, etc. are artificial.
In old authors, appetite is followed by to, but regularly it should be followed by for before the object, as an appetite for pleasure.
To be given to appetite, is to be voracious or gluttonous. Proverbs 23:2.
APPETITION, n. [L. appetitio.] Desire. [Rarely used.]
APPETITIVE, a. That desires; that has the quality of desiring gratification; as appetitive power or faculty.
APPIAN, a. Designating something that belongs to Appius, particularly a way from Rome through Capua to Brundusium, now Brindisi, constructed by Appius Claudius A.R. 441. It is more than 330 miles in length, formed of hard stone squared, and so wide as to admit two carriages abreast.
APPLAUD, v.t. [L. applaudo; ad and plaudo, to make a noise by clapping the hands; Eng. loud.]
1. To praise by clapping the hands, acclamation, or other significant sign.
2. To praise by words, actions or other means; to express approbation of; to commend; used in a general sense.
APPLAUDED, pp. Praised by acclamation, or other means; commended.
APPLAUDER, n. One who praises or commends.
APPLAUDING, ppr. praising by acclamation; commending.
APPLAUSE, n. s as z. [L. applausus.]
A shout of approbation; approbation and praise, expressed by clapping the hands, acclamation or huzzas; approbation expressed. in antiquity, applause differed from acclamation; applause was expressed by the hands, and acclamation by the voice. There were three species of applause, the bombus, a confused din made by the hands or mouth; the imbrices and testae, made by beating a sort of sounding vessels in the theaters. Persons were appointed for the purpose of applauding, and masters were employed to teach the art. The applauds were divided into choruses, and placed opposite to each other, like the choristers in a cathedral.
APPLAUSIVE, a. Applauding; containing applause.
1. The fruit of the apple tree, [pyrus malus,] from which cider is made.
2. The apple of the eye is the pupil.
Apple of love, or love apple, the tomato, or lycopersicum, a species of Solanum. The stalk is herbaceous, with oval, pinnated leaves, and small yellow flowers. The berry is smooth, soft, of a yellow or reddish color, of the size of a plum. It is used in soups and broths.
APPLE, v.t. To form like an apple.
APPLE-GRAFT, n. A scion of the appletree engrafted.
APPLE-HARVEST, n. The gathering of apples, or the time of gathering.
APPLE-PIE, n. a pie made of apples stewed or baked, inclosed in paste, or covered with paste, as in England.
APPLE-SAUCE, n. A sauce made of stewed apples.
APPLE-TART, n. A tart made of apples baked on paste.
APPLE-TREE, n. A tree arranged by Linne under the genus pyrus. The fruit of this tree is indefinitely various. The crab apple is supposed to be the original kind, from which all others have sprung. New varieties are springing annually from the seeds.
APPLE-WOMAN, n. A woman who sells apples and other fruit.
APPLE-YARD, n. An orchard; an inclosure for apples.
APPLIANCE, n. The act of applying, or thing applied. Obs.
APPLICABILITY, n. [See Apply.] The quality of being applicable, or fit to be applied.
APPLICABLE, a. That may be applied; fit to be applied, as related to a thing; that may have relation to something else; as, this observation is applicable to the case under consideration.
APPLICABLENESS, n. Fitness to be applied; the quality of being applicable.
APPLICABLY, adv. In such a manner that it may be applied.
APPLICANT, n. One who applies; one who makes request; a petitioner.
The applicant for a cup of water declares himself to be the Messias.
The court require the applicant to appear in person.
APPLICATE, n. A right line drawn across a curve, so as to be bisected by the diameter; an ordinate.
APPLICATE-ORDINATE. A right line at right angles applied to the axis of any conic section, and bounded by the curve.
APPLICATION, n. [L. applicatio. See Apply.]
1. The act of laying on; as the application of emollients to a diseased limb.
2. The thing applied; as, the pain was abated by the application.
3. The act of making request or soliciting; as, he made application to a court of chancery.
4. The act of applying as means; the employment of means; as, children may be governed by a suitable application of rewards and punishments. This is the first signification directed to moral objects.
5. The act of fixing the mind; intenseness of thought; close study; attention; as, to injure the health by application to study.
Had his application been equal to his talents, his progress might have been greater.
6. The act of directing or referring something to a particular case, to discover or illustrate the agreement or disagreement; as, I make the remark and leave you to make the application.
7. In theology, the act by which the merits of Christ are transferred to man, for his justification.
8. In geometry, a division for applying one quantity to another, whose areas, but not figures, shall be the same; or the transferring a given line into a circle or other figure, so that its ends shall be in the perimeter of the figure.
9. In sermons, that part of the discourse, in which the principles before laid down and illustrated, are applied to practical uses.
APPLICATIVE, a. That applies.
APPLICATORY, a. That includes the act of applying.
APPLICATORY, n. That which applies.
APPLIED, pp. Put on; put to: directed; employed.
APPLIEDLY, adv. In a manner which may be applied. [Not in use.]
APPLIER, n. One that applies.
APPLIMENT, n. Application. [Not in use.]
APPLY, v.t. [L. applico, of ad and plico, to fold or knit together; Gr. to knit, or twist; Eng. ply, display, and employ.]
1. To lay on; to put one thing to another; as, to apply the hand to the breast; to apply medicaments to a diseased part of the body.
2. To use or employ for a particular purpose, or in a particular case; as, to apply a sum of money to the payment of a debt.
3. To put, refer or use, as suitable or relative to something; as, to apply the testimony to the case.
4. To fix the mind; to engage and employ with attention; as, apply thy heart to instruction.
5. To address or direct; as, “Sacred vows applied to Pluto.”
6. To betake; to give the chief part of time and attention; as, to apply one’s self to the study of botany. This is essentially the fourth sense.
7. To make application; to have recourse by request; as, to apply one’s self to a counsellor for advice. This is generally used intransitively; as, to apply to a counsellor.
8. To busy; to keep at work; to ply. Obs.
[Superseded by ply, which see.]
1. To suit; to agree; to have some connection, agreement or analogy; as, this argument applies well to the case.
2. To make request; to solicit; to have recourse, with a view to gain something; as, to apply to the president for an office; I applied to a friend for information.
APPLYING, ppr. Laying on; making application.
1. To fix; to settle; to establish; to make fast.
When he appointed the foundations of the earth. Proverbs 8:29.
2. To constitute, ordain, or fix by decree, order or decision.
Let Pharoah appoint officers over the land. Genesis 41:34.
He hath appointed a day in which he will judge the world. Acts 17:31.
3. To allot, assign or designate.
Aaron and his sons shall appoint every one to his service. Numbers 4:19.
These cities were appointed for all the children of Israel. Joshua 20:9.
4. To purpose or resolve; to fix the intention.
For so he had appointed. Acts 20:13.
5. To ordain, command or order.
Thy servants are ready to do whatever my Lord the King shall appoint. 2 Samuel 15:15.
6. To settle; to fix, name or determine by agreement; as, they appointed a time and place for the meeting.
APPOINTABLE, a. That may be appointed or constituted; as, officers are appointable by the Executive.
1. Fixed; set; established; decreed; ordained; constituted; allotted.
2. Furnished; equipped with things necessary; as, a ship or an army is well appointed.
1. A person appointed. “The commission authorizes them to make appointments, and pay the appointee.”
2. A foot soldier in the French army, who, for long service and bravery, received more pay than other privates.
APPOINTER, n. One who appoints.
APPOINTING, ppr. Setting; fixing; ordaining; constituting; assigning.
1. The act of appointing; designation to office; as, he erred by the appointment of suitable men.
2. Stipulation; assignation; the act of fixing by mutual agreement; as, they made an appointment to meet at six o’clock.
3. Decree; established order or constitution; as, it is our duty to submit to the divine appointments.
4. Direction; order; command.
Wheat, salt, wine and oil, let it be given according to the appointment of the priests. Ezra 6:9.
5. Equipment, furniture, as for a ship, or an army; whatever is appointed for use and management.
6. An allowance to a person; a salary or pension, as to a public officer.
An appointment differs from wages, in being a special grant, or gratification, not fixed, whereas wages are fixed and ordinary.
7. A devise or grant to a charitable use.
APPORTER, n. [L. porto.] A bringer in; one that brings into the country. [Not in use.]
To divide and assign in just proportion; to distribute among two or more, a just part or share to each; as, to apportion undivided rights; to apportion time among various employments.