Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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ANTECEDENCE — ANTICONSTITUTIONALIST

ANTECEDENCE, n. The act or state of going before in time; precedence. In astronomy, an apparent motion of a planet towards the west, or contrary to the order of the signs.

ANTECEDENT, a. Going before in time; prior; anterior; preceding; as, an event antecedent to the deluge.

ANTECEDENT, n. That which goes before in time; hence in writings, that which precedes in place. In grammar, the noun to which a relative or other substitute refers; as, Solomon was the prince, who built the Temple. In logic, the first of two propositions in an enthymeme, or argument of two propositions; as, if the sun is fixed, the earth must move. Here the first and conditional proposition is the antecedent; the second, the consequent.

In mathematics, the first of two terms of a ratio, or that which is compared with the other.

ANTECEDENTLY, adv. Previously; at a time preceding.

ANTECESSOR, n. [L. whence ancestor. See Antecede.]

1. One who goes before; a leader; a principal. It was formerly a title given to those who excelled in any science; to professors of civil law; and in the Universities of France, the teachers of law take the title in their theses.

2. One that possessed land before the present possessor.

ANTECHAMBER, n. [Ante, before, and chamber.]

A chamber or apartment before the chief apartment to which it leads, and in which persons wait for audience.

ANTECHAPEL, n. The part of the chapel through which is the passage to the choir or body of it.

ANTECIAN, n. [Gr. opposite, and to dwell; L. antaci.]

In geography, the antecians are those inhabitants of the earth, under the same meridian, and at the same distance from the equator, but, on opposite sides, one party north, the other south. They have the same hours of day and night, but different seasons; it being winter with one, when it is summer with the other.

ANTECURSOR, n. [L. ante, before, and cursor, a runner, from curro, to run. See Course.]

One who runs before; a forerunner. In the Roman armies, the antecursors were a body of horse detached to obtain intelligence, get provisions, etc., for the main body.

ANTEDATE, n. [Infra.] Prior date; a date antecedent to another.

ANTEDATE, v.t. [L. ante, and datum, given. See Date.]

1. To date before the true time; thus, to antedate a deed or a bond is to express a date anterior to the true time of its execution.

2. To anticipate; to take before the true time.

And antedate the bliss above.

ANTEDILUVIAL, ANTEDILUVIAN, a. [L. ante and diluvium, a flood. See Lave.]

Before the flood, or deluge, in Noah’s time; existing, happening, or relating to what happened before the deluge.

ANTEDILUVIAN, n. One who live before the deluge.

ANTELOPE, n. [Gr. resembling a deer.]

In zoology, the gazelle; a genus of ruminant quadrupeds, intermediate between the deer and goat. Their horns are solid and permanent straight or curved; in some species annulated; in others, surrounded by a spiral; and in others, smooth. They resemble the deer in the lightness and elegance of their forms, and in their agility. They inhabit open plains or mountains and some species in herds of two or three thousand. Their eyes are large, black, and of exquisite beauty and vivacity; and are therefore a favorite image with the eastern poets.

ANTELUCAN, a. [L. antelucanus, of ante, before, and lux, light.]

Being before light; a word applied to assemblies of christians, in ancient times of persecution, held before light in the morning.

ANTEMERIDIAN, a. [ante, before, and meridian.]

Being before noon; pertaining to the forenoon.

ANTEMETIC, a. [against, and emetic, from to vomit.] Restraining or allaying vomiting.

ANTEMETIC, n. A medicine which checks vomiting.

ANTEMUNDANE, a. [ante, before, and mundus, the world.] Being before the creation of the world.

ANTENICENE, a. [ante, before, and Nicene, from Nice.]

Anterior to the first council of Nice; as antenicene faith.

ANTENNAE, n. plu. [L. antenna, a sail yard.]

In zoology, the horns or feelers of insects, projecting from the head.

ANTENUMBER, n. A number that precedes another.

ANTENUPTIAL, a. [ante and nuptial.]

Being before marriage; as, an antenuptial agreement; antenuptial children.

ANTEPASCHAL, a. Pertaining to the time before Easter.

ANTEPAST, n. [ante, before, and pastum, fed.]

A foretaste; something taken before the proper time.

ANTEPENULT, n. [L. ante, before, pene, almost, and ultimus, last.]

The last syllable of a word, except two; as syl in syllable.

ANTEPENULTIMATE, a. Pertaining to the last syllable but two.

ANTEPHEPTIC, a. [against, and epileptic, from to seize.]

Resisting or curing epilepsy.

ANTEPILEPTIC, n. A remedy for the epilepsy.

ANTEPOSITION, n. s as z. [L. ante, before, and position, from pono, to place.]

In grammar, the placing of a word before another which by ordinary rules, ought to follow it.

ANTEPREDICAMENT, n. [ante and predicament.]

A preliminary question in logic to illustrate the doctrine of predicaments and categories; a question which is to be first known.

ANTERIOR, a. [L.]

1. Before in time or place; prior; antecedent; preceding in time.

2. Before or in front in place.

ANTERIORITY, n. The state of being anterior, preceding or in front; a state of being before in time, or situation.

ANTEROOM, n. [ante and room.] A room before or in front of another.

ANTES, n. plu. [L.] Pillars of large dimensions that support the front of a building.

ANTESTATURE, n. [ante and stature.]

In fortification, a small retrenchment or work formed of palisades, or sacks of earth.

ANTESTOMACH, n. [ante and stomach.]

A cavity which leads into the stomach, as the crop in birds. [Not in use.]

ANTEVERT, v.t. [L. anteverto.] To prevent. [Not in use.]

ANTEVIRGILIAN, a. A term given to Tull’s new husbandry, or method of horse hoeing.

ANTHELMINTIC, a. [against, and a worm.] Good against worms.

ANTHELMINTIC, n. A remedy for worms in the intestines.

ANTHEM, n. [Gr. against, and a hymn, from to sing. See Hymn.]

A hymn sung in alternate parts; but in modern usage, a sacred tune or piece of music set to words, taken from the psalms or other parts of the scriptures, first introduced into church service in Elizabeth’s reign.

ANTHEM-WISE, adv. In the manner of an anthem; alternately.

ANTHEMIS, n. Camomile.

ANTHER, n. [L. anthera, a flowery plant, from the Greek, flowery, from a flower.]

In botany, the summit or top of the stamen, connected with the flower, and elevated by means of the filament or thread, within the corol. It contains the pollen, or fertilizing dust, which, when mature, is emitted for the impregnation of the stigma. It is called by Ray, the apex, and by Malpighi, the capsula staminis.

ANTHERAL, a. Pertaining to anthers.

ANTHERIFEROUS, a. [anther and fero, to bear.] Producing anthers.

ANTHESTERION, n. The sixth month of the Athenian year, consisting of 29 days, and answering to a part of November and a part of December. It is supposed to be so called from the Anthesteria, feasts in honor of Bacchus, celebrated in that month, and so called, a flower; garlands of flowers being offered to Bacchus at those feasts.

ANTHOLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to anthology.

ANTHOLOGY, n. [Gr. a flower, and a discourse, a collection.]

1. A discourse on flowers.

2. A collection of beautiful passages from authors; a collection of poems or epigrams. In the Greek church, a collection of devotional pieces.

ANTHONY’S FIRE, A popular name of the crysipelas, supposed to have been so named from the saint in Italy, to whom those, who were affected, applied for a cure.

ANTHOPHYLLITE, n. [Gr. a flower, and a leaf.]

A mineral in masses composed of interlaced plates, or crystallized in reed-shaped crystals, which appear to be four sided prisms longitudinally streaked. The color is between dark yellowish gray and olive brown; the luster shining and pearly.

ANTHORISM, n. [Gr. opposite, and definition.]

In rhetoric, a description or definition contrary to that which is given by the adverse party.

ANTHRACITE, n. [Gr. a burning coal; infra.]

Slaty glance-coal, or columnar glance coal; that species of coal which has a shining luster, approaching to metallic, and which burns without smoke, and with intense heat. It consists essentially of carbon.

ANTHRACOLITE. [See Anthracite.]

ANTHRAX, n. [Gr.; supra.]

A carbuncle; a malignant ulcer, with intense burning. The ancients gave this name to a gem, and it is sometimes used for lithanthrax or pit-coal.

ANTHROPOGLOT, [Gr. man, and the tongue.]

An animal which has a tongue resembling that of a man, of which kind are parrots.

ANTHROPOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. man, and description.]

A description of man or the human race, or of the parts of the human body.

ANTHROPOLITE, n. [Gr. man, and a stone.]

A petrifaction of the human body, or skeleton. Some naturalists have asserted that skeletons of the animal frame have been found petrified in old mines; but the fact is not credited, and the existence of such petrifactions is denied.

Capt. Wilford informs us, that in digging a well near the Ganga, some persons found, at the depth of 90 feet, on an old bed of that river, the bones of men and quadrupeds, supposed to be petrifactions.

The skeleton of a man has been found in limestone rock, of recent formation, in Guadaloupe.

Human bones have also been found, by Prof. Buckland, in the open cave of Paviland, Glamorganshire. He considers them postdiluvian.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to anthropology; according to human manner of speaking.

ANTHROPOLOGIST, n. One who describes, or is versed in the physical history of the human body.

ANTHROPOLOGY, n. [Gr. man, and discourse.]

1. A discourse upon human nature.

2. The doctrine of the structure of the human body; the natural history or physiology of the human species.

3. The word denotes that manner of expression by which the inspired writers attribute human parts and passions to God.

ANTHROPOMANCY, n. [Gr. man, and divination.]

Divination by inspecting the entrails of a human being.

ANTHROPOMORPHISM, n. The heresy of the anthropomorphites.

ANTHROPOMORPHITE, n. [Gr. man, and form.]

One who believes a human form in the Supreme Being. A sect of ancient heretics are called anthropomorphites.

ANTHROPOMORPHOUS, a. Belonging to that which has the form of man; having the figure of resemblance to a man.

ANTHROPOPATHY, n. [man, and passion.]

The affections of man, or the application of human passions to the Supreme Being.

ANTHROPOPHAGI, n. plu. [Gr. man, and to eat.]

Maneaters; cannibals; men that eat human flesh.

ANTHROPOPHAGOUS, a. Feeding on human flesh.

ANTHROPOPHAGY, n. The eating of human flesh, or the practice of eat it.

ANTHROPOSCOPY, n. [Gr. man, and to view.]

The art of discovering or judging of a man’s character, passions and inclinations from the lineaments of his body.

ANTHROPOSOPHY, n. [Gr. man, and wisdom.]

Knowledge of the nature of man; acquaintance with man’s structure and functions, comprehending anatomy and physiology.

ANTHYPNOTIC, a. Corrupt orthography. [See Antihypnotic.]

ANTHYPOCHONDRIAC. [See Antihypochondriac.]

ANTHYPOPHORA. [See Antihypophora.]

ANTHYSTERIC. [See Antihysteric.]

ANTI, n. [Gr. See Ante.] A preposition signifying against, opposite, contrary, or in place of; used in many English words.

ANTIACID, a. Opposing or removing acidity. Often written antacid.

ANTIACID, n. An alkali; a medicine proper to correct sourness, or acidity; an absorbent, as chalk, magnesia, coral, sea shells, hematite, steel fillings; or an obtundent, as oil or fat; or an immutant, as lixivious salts, and soaps.

ANTIAMERICAN, a. Opposed to America, or to the true interests or government of the United States; opposed to the revolution in America.

ANTIARTHRITIC, a. [See Antarthritic.] Good against the gout.

ANTIARTHRITIC, n. A remedy for the gout.

ANTIASTHMATIC, a. [See Antasthmatic.] Good against asthma.

ANTIASTHMATIC, n. A remedy for the asthma.

ANTIBACCHIUS, n. [Gr. a foot of one short and two long syllables.]

In poetry, a foot of three syllables, the two first long and the last short, as ambire; opposed to the bacchius, in which the first syllable is short and the two last long. This foot is supposed to be so named from its use in hymns to Bacchus.

ANTIBASILICAN, a. s as z. [Gr. a palace; L. royal, a hall of justice.] Opposed to royal state and magnificence.

ANTIC, a. [L. antiquus.] Odd’ fanciful; as, antic tricks.

ANTIC, n.

1. A buffoon or merry Andrew; one that practices odd gesticulations.

2. Odd appearance; fanciful figures.

3. In architecture, sculpture and painting, such pieces as were made by the ancients; usually written antique, and pronounced anteek, but without any good reason.

ANTIC, v.t. To make antic.

ANTICACHECTIC, a. [Gr. of an ill habit of body.]

Curing or tending to cure an ill habit of the constitution.

ANTICHACHECTIC, n. A medicine that tends to correct an ill habit of body.

ANTICATARRHAL, a. [against, and a catarrh.] Good against catarrh.

ANTICATARRHAL, a. Remedy for catarrh.

ANTICAUSOTIC, a. [against, and a burning fever.] Good against a burning fever.

ANTICAUSOTIC, n. A remedy for a burning fever.

ANTI-CHAMBER, n. Dr. Johnson prefers ante-chamber, which see. But ante and anti are the same word in different dialects; and have the same radical signification. [See Ante.]

ANTI-CHRIST, n. [Gr. against, and Christ.]

A great adversary of Christ; the man of sin; described 1 John 2:18; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12; Revelation 9:11. Protestants generally suppose this adversary to be the Papal power; and some divines believe that, in a more general sense, the word extends to any persons who deny Christ or oppose the fundamental doctrines of christianity.

ANTICHRISTIAN, a. Pertaining to antichrist; opposite to or opposing the christian religion.

ANTICHRISTIAN, n. A follower of antichrist; one opposed to the christian religion.

ANTICHRISTIANISM, n. Opposition or contrariety to the christian religion.

ANTICHRISTIANITY, n. Opposition or contrariety to christianity.

ANTICHRONISM, n. [Gr. time.] Deviation from the true order of time.

ANTICIPATE, v.t. [L. anticipo, of ante, before, and capio, to take.]

1. To take or act, before another, so as to prevent him; to take first possession.

2. To take before the proper time; as, the advocate has anticipated that part of his argument.

3. To foretaste or foresee; to have a previous view or impression of something future; as, to anticipate the pleasures of an entertainment; to anticipate the evils of life.

4. To prevent by crowding in before; to preclude.

[This sense is essentially included in the first.]

ANTICIPATED, pp. Taken before; foretasted; foreseen; precluded; prevented.

ANTICIPATING, ppr. Taking before; foretasting; precluding; preventing.

ANTICIPATION, n.

1. The act of taking up, placing, or considering something before the proper time, in natural order; prevention.

2. Foretaste; previous view or impression of what is to happen afterward; as, the anticipation of the joys of heaven.

The happy anticipation of a renewed existence in company with the spirits of the just.

3. Previous notion; preconceived opinion, produced in the mind, before the truth is known; slight previous impression.

4. The attack of a fever before the usual time.

5. In music, the obtrusion of a chord upon a syncopated note, to which it forms a discord.

ANTICIPATOR, n. One who anticipates.

ANTICIPATORY, a. Taking before the time.

ANTICLIMAX, n. [Gr. opposite, and climax. See Climate.]

A sentence in which the ideas fall or become less important and striking at the close; opposed to climax. For example,

Next comes Dalhousie, the great God of war,

Lieutenant Col’nel to the Earl of Mar.

ANTICLY, adv. In an antic manner; with odd postures and gesticulations; with fanciful appearance.

ANTICMASK, ANTIMASK, n. A mask of antics.

ANTICONSTITUTIONAL, a. Opposed to or against the constitution.

ANTICONSTITUTIONALIST, n. One opposed to the constitution.