Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



AFTER-COURSE, n. Future course.

AFTER-CROP, n. The second crop in the same year.

AFTER-DAYS, n. Future days.

AFTER-EATAGE, n. Part of the increase of the same year. [Local.]

AFTER-ENDEAVOR, n. An endeavor after the first or former effort.

AFTER-GAME, n. A subsequent scheme, or expedient.

AFTER-GUARD, n. The seaman stationed on the poop or after part of the ship, to attend the after sails.

AFTER-HOPE, n. Future hope.

AFTER-HOURS, n. Hours that follow; time following.

AFTER-IGNORANCE, n. Subsequent ignorance.

AFTER-KING, n. A succeeding king.


1. Future life or the life after this.

2. A later period of life; subsequent life.

AFTER-LIVER, n. One who lives in succeeding times.

AFTER-LOVE, n. The second or later love.

AFTER-MALICE, n. Succeeding malice.

AFTER-MATH, n. [after and math. See Mow.]

A second crop of grass, in the same season; rowen.

AFTER-MOST, a. Superl. In marine language, nearest the stern, opposed to foremost; also hindmost.

AFTER-NOON, n. The part of the day which follows noon, between noon and evening.

AFTER-PAINS, n. The pains which succeed child birth.

AFTER-PART, n. The latter part. In marine language, the part of a ship towards the stern.

AFTER-PIECE, n. A piece performed after a play; a farce or other entertainment.

AFTER-PROOF, n. Subsequent proof or evidence; qualities known by subsequent experience.

AFTER-REPENTANCE, n. Subsequent repentance.

AFTER-REPORT, n. Subsequent report, or information.

AFTER-SAILS, n. The sails on the mizzenmast and stays, between the main and mizzen-masts.

AFTER-STATE, n. The future state.

AFTER-STING, n. Subsequent sting.

AFTER-STORM, n. A succeeding or future storm.

AFTER-SUPPER, n. The time between supper and going to bed.

AFTER-SWARM, n. A swarm of bees which leaves the hive after the first.

AFTER-TASTE, n. A taste which succeeds eating and drinking.

AFTER-THOUGHT, n. [See Thought.] Reflections after an act; later thought, or expedient occurring too late.

AFTER-TIMES, n. Succeeding times. It may be used in the singular.

AFTER-TOSSING, n. The swell or agitation of the sea after a storm.

AFTERWARD, AFTERWARDS, adv. [See Ward.] In later or subsequent time.

AFTER-WISE, a. Wise afterwards or too late.

AFTER-WIT, n. Subsequent wit; wisdom that comes too late.

AFTER-WRATH, n. Later wrath; anger after the provocation has ceased.

AFTER-WRITER, n. A succeeding writer.

AGA, n. In the Turkish dominions, a commander or chief officer. The title is given to various chief officers, whether civil or military. It is also given to great land holders, and to the eunuchs of the Sultan’s seraglio.

AGAIN, adv. agen’. [L. con, whence contra;]

1. A second time; once more.

I will not again curse the ground. Genesis 8:21.

2. It notes something further, or additional to one or more particulars.

For to which of the angels said he at any time, thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee? and again, I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son? and again, let all the angels of God worship him. Hebrews 1:5, 6.

All the uses of this word carry in them the ideas of return or repetition; as in these phrases; give it back again; give him as much again, that is, the same quantity once more or repeated.

There is not, in the world again, such a commerce as in London.

Who art thou that answerest again?

Bring us word again.

Again and again, often; with frequent repetition.

AGAINST, prep. agenst’.

1. In opposition; noting enmity or disapprobation.

His hand will be against every man. Genesis 16:12.

I am against your pillows. Ezekiel 13:20.

2. In opposition, noting contrariety, contradiction, or repugnance; as, a decree against law, reason or public opinion.

3. In opposition, noting competition, or different sides or parties; as, there are twenty votes in the affirmative against ten in the negative.

4. In an opposite direction; as, to ride against the wind.

5. Opposite in place; abreast; as, a ship is against the mouth of a river. In this sense it is often preceded by over.

Aaron lighted the lamps over against the candlesticks. Numbers 8:2, 3.

6. In opposition, noting adversity, injury, or contrariety to wishes; as, this change of measures is against us.

7. Bearing upon; as, one leans against a wall.

8. In provision for; in preparation for.

Urijah made it against king Ahaz came from Damascus. 2 Kings 16:11.

In this sense against is a preposition, with the following part of the sentence for an object. See After, prep. def. 2.

In short, the sense of this word is opposition, variously modified according to its application to different objects.

AGALLOCH, AGALLOCHUM, n. [Of oriental origin.]

Aloes-wood, the product of a tree growing in China, and some of the Indian isles. There are three varieties, the calambac, the common lignum aloes, and the calambour. The first variety is light and porous, and so filled with a fragrant resin, that it may be molded by the fingers; the second is denser and less resinous; and the third is the aloes-wood used by cabinet makers and inlayers.

AGALMATOLITE, n. [Gr. image, and stone.]

A name given by Klaproth to two varieties of the pierre de lard, lard stone, of China. It contains no magnesia, but otherwise has the characters of talck. It is called in German, bildstein, figure-stone, and by Brongniart, steatite pagodite.

AGAPE, adv. or a. [a and gape. See Gape.]

Gaping, as with wonder, expectation, or eager attention; having the mouth wide open.

AGAPE, n. ag’apy. [Gr. Love.]

Among the primitive christians, a love feast or feast of charity, held before or after the communion, when contributions were made for the poor. This feast was held at first without scandal, but afterwards being abused, it was condemned at the council of Carthage, A.D. 397.

AGARIC, n. [Gr.]

In botany, mushroom, a genus of funguses, containing numerous species. Mushrooms grow on trees, or spring from the earth; of the latter species some are valued as articles of food; others are poisonous. The name was originally given to a fungus growing on the larch. This species is now frequent in the shops, and distinguished by the name of female agaric. From this fungus is extracted a turpentine, of which three fourths of its weight is a resinous substance; the rest, a slimy, mucilaginous, earthy matter, tenacious and almost insoluble in water. It is used in dyeing, but is little esteemed in medicine.

The Agaric of the oak is called touch-wood, from its readiness to take fire.

Agaric mineral, a calcarious earth, or carbonate of lime, resembling a fungus in color and texture; found in fissures of rocks, and on the roofs of caverns. It is sometimes used as an astringent in fluxes, and a styptic in hemorrhages. It occurs in a loose semi-indurated form, white or whitish red, or yellow, light and friable. Kirwan mentions three varieties.


Struck with terror, or astonishment; amazed; struck silent with horror.

With shuddering horror pale and eyes agast.

AGATE, adv. [a and gate.] On the way; going. Obs.

AGATE, n. [Gr. so called, says Pliny, 34, 10, because found near a river of that name in Sicily. So also Solinus and Isidore. But Bochart, with more probability, deduces it from the Punic and Hebrew, and with a different prefix, spotted. The word is used, Genesis 30 and Genesis 31, to describe the speckled and spotted cattle of Laban and Jacob.]

A class of siliceous, semi-pellucid gems of many varieties, consisting of quartz-crystal, flint, horn-stone, chalcedony, amethyst, jasper, cornealian, heliotrope, and jade, in various combinations, variegated with dots, zones, filaments, ramifications, arborizations, and various figures. Agates seem to have been formed by successive layers of siliceous earth, on the sides of cavities which they now fill entirely or in part.

They are esteemed the least valuable of the precious stones. Even in Pliny’s time, they were in little estimation. They are found in rocks, in the form of fragments, in nodules, in small rounded lumps, rarely in stalactites. Their colors are various. They are used for rings, seals, cups, beads, boxes and handles of small utensils.

AGATE, n. An instrument used by goldwire drawers, so called from the agate in the middle of it.

AGATINE, a. Pretaining to agate.

AGATINE, n. A genus of shells, oval or oblong.

AGATIZED, a. Having the colored lines and figures of agate.

Agatized wood, a substance apparently produced by the petrifaction of wood; a species of hornstone.

AGATY, a. Of the nature of agate.

AGAVE, n. [Gr. admirable.]

1. The American aloe. The great aloe rises twenty feet, and its branches form a sort of pyramid at the top.

2. A genus of univalvular shells.

AGAZE, v.t. [from gaze.] To strike with amazement. Obs.

AGAZED, pp. Struck with amazement. [Not in use.]

AGE, n. [L. aetas, or aevum. But these are undoubtedly contracted words.]

1. The whole duration of a being, whether animal, vegetable, or other kind; as, the usual age of man is seventy years; the age of a horse may be twenty or thirty years; the age of a tree may be four hundred years.

2. That part of the duration of a being, which is between its beginning and any given time; as, what is the present age of a man, or of the earth?

Jesus began to be about thirty years of age. Luke 3:23.

3. The latter part of life, or long continued duration; oldness.

The eyes of Israel were dim for age. Genesis 48:10.

4. A certain period of human life, marked by a difference of state; as, life is divided into four stages or ages, infancy, youth, manhood, and old age; the age of youth; the age of manhood.

5. The period when a person is enabled by law to do certain acts for himself, or when he ceases to be controlled by parents or guardians; as, in our country, both males and females are of age in twenty-one years old.

6. Mature years; ripeness of strength or discretion.

He is of age, ask him. John 9:21.

7. The time of life for conceiving children, or perhaps the usual time of such an event.

Sarah was delivered of a son when she was past age. Hebrews 11:11.

8. A particular period of time, as distinguished from others; as, the golden age, the age of iron, the age of heroes or of chivalry.

9. The people who live at a particular period; hence, a generation and a succession of generations; as, ages yet unborn.

The mystery hid from ages. Colossians 1:26.

10. A century; the period of one hundred years.

AGED, a.

1. Old; having lived long; having lived almost the usual time allotted to that species of being; applied to animals or plants; as, an aged man, or an aged oak.

2. Having a certain age; having lived; as, a man aged forty years.

AGED, n. Old persons.

And the aged arose and stood up. Job 29:8.

AGEN, for again. Obs.

AGENCY, n. [L. agens. See Act.]

1. The quality of moving or of exerting power; the state of being in action; action; operation; instrumentality; as, the agency of providence in the natural world.

2. The office of an agent, or factor; business of an agent entrusted with the concerns of another; as, the principal pays the charges of agency.

AGENDA, n. [L. things to be done.]

A memorandum-book; the service or office of a church; a ritual or liturgy.

AGENT, a. Acting; opposed to patient, or sustaining action; as, the body agent. [Little used.]


1. An actor; one that exerts power, or has the power to act; as, a moral agent.

2. An active power or cause; that which has the power to produce an effect; as, heat is a powerful agent.

3. A substitute, deputy, or factor; one entrusted with the business of another; and attorney; a minister.

AGENTSHIP, n. The office of an agent. [Not used.] We now use agency.

AGGELATION, n. [L. gelu.] Concretion of a fluid. [Not used.]

AGGENERATION, n. [L. ad and generatio.] The state of growing to another. [Not used.]

AGGER, n. [L.] A fortress, or mound. [Not used.]

AGGERATE, v.t. [L. aggero.] To heap. [Not used.]

AGGERATION, n. A heaping; accumulation; as, “aggerations of sand.”

AGGLOMERATE, v.t. [L. agglomero, ad and glomero, to wind into a ball, from glomus a ball of yarn; from the Heb. to involve.]

To wind, or collect into a ball; to gather into a mass.

AGGLOMERATE, v.i. To gather, grow or collect into a ball or mass.

AGGLOMERATED, pp. Wound or collected into a ball.

AGGLOMERATING, ppr. Winding into a ball; gathering into a lump.

AGGLOMERATION, n. The act of winding into a ball; the state of being gathered into a ball or mass.

AGGLUTINANT, n. Any viscous substance which unites other substances, by causing an adhesion; any application which tends to unite parts which have too little adhesion.

AGGLUTINANT, a. Uniting as glue; tending to cause adhesion.

AGGLUTINATE, v.t. [Lat. agglutino, ad and glutino, from gluten. Eng. glue. See Glue.]

To unite, or cause to adhere, as with glue or other viscous substance; to unite by causing an adhesion of substances.

AGGLUTINATED, pp. Glued together; united by a viscous substance.

AGGLUTINATING, ppr. Gluing together; united by causing adhesion.

AGGLUTINATION, n. The act of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance; the state of being thus united.

AGGLUTINATIVE, a. That tends to unite, or has power to cause adhesion.

AGGRACE, v.t. To favor. [Not used.]

AGGRACE, n. Kindness; favor. [Not used.]

AGGRANDIZATION, n. The act of aggrandizing. [Not used.]

AGGRANDIZE, v.t. [L. ad and grandis. See Grand.]

1. To make great or greater in power, rank or honor; to exalt, as, to aggrandize a family.

2. To enlarge, applied to things; as, to aggrandize our conceptions. It seems to be never applied to the bulk or dimensions of material bodies.

AGGRANDIZED, pp. Made great or greater; exalted; enlarged.

AGGRANDIZEMENT, n. The act of aggrandizing; the state of being exalted in power, rank or honor; exaltation; enlargement.

The Emperor seeks only the aggrandizement of his own family.

AGGRANDIZER, n. One that aggrandizes or exalts in power, rank or honor.

AGGRANDIZING, ppr. Making great; exalting; enlarging.

AGGRATE, v.t. To please. [Not used.]

AGGRAVATE, v.t. [L. aggravo, of ad and gravis, heavy. See Grave, Gravity.]

1. To make heavy, but not used in this literal sense. Figuratively, to make worse, more severe, or less tolerable; as, to aggravate the evils of life; to aggravate pain or punishment.

2. To make more enormous, or less excusable; as, to aggravate a crime.

3. To exaggerate.

4. To give coloring in description; to give an exaggerated representation; as, to aggravate a charge against an offender; to aggravate circumstances.

The propriety of the word in the latter passage is questionable. Aggravate is generally used in reference to evils, or something improper or unnatural.

AGGRAVATED, pp. Increased, in severity or enormity; made worse; exaggerated.

AGGRAVATING, ppr. Increasing in severity, enormity, or degree, as evils, misfortunes, pain, punishment, crimes, guilt, etc.; exaggerating.


1. The act of making worse, used of evils, natural or moral; the act of increasing severity or hainousness; addition to that which is evil or improper; as, an aggravation of pain or grief.

2. Exaggerated representation, or heightened description of any thing wrong, improper, or unnatural; as, an aggravation of features in a caricature.

AGGREGATE, v.t. [L. aggrego, to collect in troops, of ad and grex, a herd or band. See Gregarious.]

To bring together; to collect particulars into a sum, mass or body.

AGGREGATE, a. Formed by a collection of particulars into a whole mass or sum; as, the aggregate amount of charges.

Aggregate flowers, in botany, are such as are composed of florets united by means of the receptacle or calyx.

Aggregate corporation, in law, is one which consists of two or more persons united, whose existence is preserved by a succession of new members.

AGGREGATE, n. A sum, mass or assemblage of particulars; as, a house is an aggregate of stones, bricks, timber, etc. It differs from a compound in this, that the particulars of an aggregate are less intimately mixed than in a compound.

AGGREGATED, pp. Collected into a sum, mass or system.

AGGREGATELY, adv. Collectively; taken in a sum or mass.

AGGREGATING, ppr. Collecting into a sum or mass.


1. The act of aggregating; the state of being collected into a sum or mass; a collection of particulars; an aggregate.

2. In chimistry, the affinity of aggregation, is the power which causes homogeneous bodies to tend towards each other, and to cohere; and from a mixture, which consists of parts dissimilar in their nature. The word is used of solid, fluid, or aeriform bodies.

3. The union and coherence of bodies of the same nature.

AGGREGATIVE, a. Taken together; collective.

AGGREGATOR, n. He that collects into a whole or mass.

AGGRESS, v.i. [L. aggredior, aggressus, of ad and gradior, to go. See Grade.]

To make a first attack; to commit the first act of hostility or offense; to begin a quarrel or controversy; to assault first or invade.

AGGRESSING, ppr. Commencing hostility first; making the first attack.

AGGRESSION, n. The first attack, or act of hostility; the first act of injury, or first act leading to war or controversy.

AGGRESSIVE, a. Tending to aggress; making the first attack.

AGGRESSOR, n. The person who first attacks; he who first commences hostility or a quarrel; an assaulter; an invader.

The insolence of the aggressor is usually proportioned to the tameness of the sufferer.

AGGRIEVANCE, n. [See Aggrieve.] Oppression; hardship; injury. But grievance is more generally used.