Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary




1. Informing; giving notice; publishing notice.

2. a. Furnishing advertisements; as, advertising customers.

3. In the sense of monitory, or active in giving intelligence, as used by Shakespeare. [Not now used.]

ADVICE, n. [L. viso, to see, to visit.]

1. Counsel; an opinion recommended, or offered, as worthy to be followed.

What advice give ye? 2 Chronicles 10:9.

With good advice make war. Proverbs 20:18.

We may give advice, but we cannot give conduct.

2. Prudence; deliberate consideration.

3. Information; notice; intelligence; as, we have late advices from France.

To take advice, is to consult with others.

ADVICE BOAT, n. A vessel employed to carry dispatches or information.

ADVISABLE, a. [See Advise.]

1. Proper to be advised; prudent; expedient; proper to be done or practiced.

It is not advisable to proceed, at this time, to a choice of officers.

2. Open to advice.

ADVISABLENESS, n. The quality of being advisable or expedient.

ADVISE, v.t. s as z. [See Advice.]

1. To give counsel to; to offer an opinion, as worthy or expedient to be followed; as, I advise you to be cautious of speculation.

2. To give information; to communicate notice; to make acquainted with; followed by of, before the thing communicated; as, the merchants were advised of the risk.

3. To deliberate, consider, or consult.

Advise thyself of what word I shall bring again to him that sent me. 1 Chronicles 21:12.

But in this sense, it is usually intransitive.

ADVISE, v.i. To deliberate, weigh well, or consider.

Advise and see what answer I shall return to him that sent me. 2 Samuel 24:13.

To advise with is to consult for the purpose of taking the opinions of others.


1. Informed; counseled; also cautious; prudent; acting with deliberation.

Let him be advised in his answers.

With the well advised is wisdom. Proverbs 13:10.

2. Done, formed, or taken with advice or deliberation; intended; as, an advised act or scheme.

ADVISEDLY, adv. With deliberation or advice; heedfully; purposely; by design; as, an enterprize advisedly undertaken.

ADVISEDNESS, n. Deliberate consideration; prudent procedure.


1. Counsel; information; circumspection.

2. Consultation.

The action standing continued nisi for advisement.

ADVISER, n. One who gives advice or admonition; also, in a bad sense, one who instigates or persuades.

ADVISING, ppr. Giving counsel.

ADVISING, n. Advice; counsel.


1. Having power to advise.

The general association has a general advisory superintendence over all the ministers and churches.

2. Containing advice; as, their opinion is merely advisory.


1. The act of pleading for; intercession.

2. Judicial pleading; law-suit.

ADVOCATE, n. [L. advocatus, from advoco, to call for, to plead for; of ad and voco, to call. See Vocal.]

1. Advocate, in its primary sense, signifies, one who pleads the cause of another in a court of civil law. Hence,

2. One who pleads the cause of another before any tribunal or judicial court, as a barrister in the English courts. We say, a man is a learned lawyer and an able advocate.

In Europe, advocates have different titles, according to their particular duties.

Consistorial advocates, in Rome, appear before the Consistory, in opposition to the disposal of benefices.

Elective advocates are chosen by a bishop, abbot, or chapter, with license from the prince.

Feudal advocates were of a military kind, and to attach them to the church, had grants of land, with power to lead the vassals of the church war.

Fiscal advocates, in ancient Rome, defended causes in which the public revenue was concerned.

Juridical advocates became judges, in consequence of their attending causes in the earl’s court.

Matricular advocates defended the cathedral churches.

Military advocates were employed by the church to defend it by arms, when force gave law to Europe.

Some advocates were called nominative, from their being nominated by the pope or king; some regular, from their being qualified by a proper course of study. Some were supreme; others, subordinate.

Advocate, in the German polity, is a magistrate, appointed in the emperor’s name, to administer justice.

Faculty of advocates, in Scotland, is a society of eminent lawyers, who practice in the highest courts, and who are admitted members only upon the severest examination, at three different times. It consists of about two hundred members, and from this body are vacancies on the bench usually supplied.

Lord advocate, in Scotland, the principal crown lawyer, or prosecutor of crimes.

Judge advocate, in courts martial, a person who manages the prosecution.

In English and American courts, advocates are the same as counsel, or counselors. In England, they are of two degrees, barristers and serjeants; the former, being apprentices or learners, cannot, by ancient custom, be admitted serjeants, till of sixteen years standing.

3. One who defends, vindicates, or espouses a cause, by argument; one who is friendly to; as, an advocate for peace, or for the oppressed.

In scripture, Christ is called an advocate for his people.

We have an advocate with the father. 1 John 2:1.

ADVOCATE, v.t. To plead in favor of; to defend by argument, before a tribunal; to support or vindicate.

Those who advocate a discrimination.

The Duke of York advocated the amendment.

The Earl of Buckingham advocated the original resolution.

The idea of a legislature, consisting of a single branch, though advocated by some, was generally reprobated.

How little claim persons, who advocate this sentiment, really posses to be considered calvinists, will appear from the following quotation.

The most eminent orators were engaged to advocate his cause.

A part only of the body, whose cause be advocates, coincide with him in judgment.

ADVOCATED, pp. Defended by argument; vindicated.

ADVOCATESS, n. A female advocate.

ADVOCATING, ppr. Supporting by reasons; defending; maintaining.

ADVOCATION, n. A pleading for: plea; apology.

A bill of advocation, in Scotland, is a written application to a superior court, to call an action before them from an inferior court. The order of the superior court for this purpose is called a letter of advocation.

ADVOUTRESS, n. An adulteress.

ADVOUTRY, n. Adultery. [Little used.]


1. He that has the right of advowson.

2. The advocate of a church or religious house.

ADVOWSON, n. s as z. [The word was latinized, advocatio, from advoco, and avow is from advoco.]

In English law, a right of presentation to a vacant benefice; or in other words, a right of nominating a person to officiate in a vacant church. The name is derived from advocatio, because the right was first obtained by such as were founders, benefactors or strenuous defenders, advocates, or the church. those who have this right are styled patrons. Advowsons are of three kinds, presentative, collative, and donative; presentative, when the patron presents his clerk to the bishop of the diocese to be instituted; collative, when the bishop is the patron, and institutes, or collates his clerk, by a single act; donative, when a church is founded by the king, and assigned to the patron, without being subject to the ordinary, so that the patron confers the benefice on his clerk, without presentation, institution, or induction.

Advowsons are also appendant, that is, annexed to a manor; or, in gross, that is annexed to the person of the patron.

ADVOYER, AVOYER, A chief magistrate of a town or canton in Switzerland.

ADY, n. The abanga, or Thernel’s restorative; a species of Palm tree, in the West Indies, tall, upright, without branches, with a thick branching head, which furnishes a juice of which the natives make a drink by fermentation.

ADZ, n. An iron instrument with an arching edge, across the line of the handle, and ground from a base on its inside to the outer edge; used for chipping a horizontal surface of timber.

AE, a diphthong in the Latin language; used also by the Saxon writers. In derivatives from the learned languages, it is mostly superseded by e, and convenience seems to require it to be wholly rejected in anglicized words. For such words as may be found with this initial combination, the reader will therefore search under the letter E.

AED, ed, ead, syllables found in names from the Saxon, signify happy; as, Eadric, happy kingdom; Eadrig, happy victory; Edward prosperous watch; Edgar, successful weapon.

AEDILE, n. [Lat.] In ancient Rome, an officer or magistrate, who had the care of the public buildings, [ades,] streets, highways, public spectacles, etc.

AEGILOPS, n. [Gr. a goat and the eye.]

A tumor in the corner of the eye, and a plant so called.

AEGIS, n. [Gr. a goat skin, and shield; from a goat.]

A shield, or defensive armor.

AEL, Eng. all, are seen in many names; as, in AElfred, Alfred, all peace; AElwin, all conqueror.

AELF, seems to be one form of help, but more generally written elph or ulph; as, in AElfwin, victorious aid; AEthelwulph, illustrious help.

AEOLIST, n. [L. AEolus.]

A pretender to inspiration.

AERATE, v.t. [See Air.] To combine with carbonic acid, formerly called fixed air. [The word has been discarded from modern chimistry.]

AERATED, pp. Combined with carbonic acid.

AERATING, ppr. Combining with carbonic acid.

AERATION, n. The act or operation of combining with carbonic acid.

AERIAL, a. [L. aerius. See Air.]

1. Belonging to the air, or atmosphere; as, aerial regions.

2. Consisting of air; partaking of the nature of air; as, aerial particles.

3. Produced by air; as, aerial honey.

4. Inhabiting or frequenting the air; as, aerial songsters.

5. Placed in the air; high; lofty; elevated; as, aerial spires; aerial flight.

AERIANS, n. In church history, a branch of Arians, so called from Aerius, who maintained, that there is no difference between bishops and priests.

AERIE, n. The nest of a fowl, as of an eagle or hawk; a covey of birds.


1. The act of combining air with; the state of being filled with air.

2. The act of becoming air or of changing into an aeriform state, as substances which are converted from a liquid or solid form into gas or an elastic vapor; the state of being aeriform.

AERIFIED, pp. Having air infused, or combined with.

AERIFORM, a. [L. aer, air, and forma, form.]

Having the form or nature of air, or of an elastic, invisible fluid. The gases are aeriform fluids.

AERIFY, v.t. To infuse air into; to fill with air, or to combine air with.

AERNE, [See Erne.]

AEROGRAPHY, n. [Gr. air, and to describe.]

A description of the air or atmosphere; but aerology is chiefly used.

AEROLITE, n. [Gr. air, and a stone.]

A stone falling from the air, or atmospheric regions; a meteoric stone.

AEROLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to aerology.

AEROLOGIST, n. One who is versed in aerology.

AEROLOGY, n. [Gr. air, and description.]

A description of the air; that branch of philosophy which treats of the air, its constituent parts, properties, and phenomena.

AEROMANCY, n. [Gr. divination.]

Divination by means of the air and winds. [Little used.]

AEROMETER, n. [Gr. air, and measure.]

An instrument for weighing air, or for ascertaining the mean bulk of gases.

AEROMETRY, n. [as above.] The science of measuring the air, including the doctrine of its pressure, elasticity, rarefaction, and condensation.

Rather, aerometry is the art or science of ascertaining the mean bulk of the gases.

AERONAUT, n. [Gr. a sailor, from a ship.]

One who sails or floats in the air; an aerial navigator; applied to persons who ascent in air balloons.

AERONAUTIC, a. Sailing or floating in the air; pertaining to aerial sailing.

AERONAUTICS, n. The doctrine, science, or art of sailing in the air, by means of a balloon.

AERONAUTISM, n. The practice of ascending and floating in the atmosphere, in balloons.

AEROSCOPY, n. [Gr to see.] The observation of the air. [Little used.]

AEROSTAT, n. [Gr. sustaining, from to stand.]

A machine or vessel sustaining weights in the air; a name given to air balloons.

AEROSTATIC, a. Suspending in air; pertaining to the art of aerial navigation.


1. Aerial navigation; the science of raising, suspending, and guiding machines in the air, or of ascending in air balloons.

2. The science of weighing air.

AERY-LIGHT, in Milton, light as air; used for airy light.

AFAR, adv. [a and far. See Far.]

1. At a distance in place; to or from a distance; used with from preceding, or off following; as, he was seen from afar; I saw him afar off.

2. In scripture, figuratively, estranged in affection; alienated.

My kinsmen stand afar off. Psalm 38:11.

3. Absent; not assisting.

Why standest thou afar off, O Lord? Psalm 10:1.

4. Not of the visible church. Ephesians 2:17.

AFEARD, a. Afeard is the participle passive. [See Fear.]

Afraid; affected with fear or apprehension, in a more moderate degree than is expressed by terrified. It is followed by of, but no longer used in books, and even in popular use, is deemed vulgar.

AFFA, n. A weight used on the Guinea coast, equal to an ounce. The half of it is call eggeba.

AFFABILITY, n. [See Affable.] The quality of being affable; readiness to converse; civility and courteousness, in receiving others, and in conversation; condescension in manners. Affability of countenance is that mildness of aspect, which invites to free social intercourse.

AFFABLE, a. [L. affabilis, of ad and fabulor. See Fable.]

1. Easy of conversation; admitting others to free conversation without reserve; courteous; complaisant; of easy manners; condescending; usually applied to superiors; as an affable prince.

2. Applied to external appearance, affable denotes that combination of features, which invites to conversation, and renders a person accessible, opposed to a forbidding aspect; mild; benign; as, an affable countenance.

AFFABLENESS, n. Affability.

AFFABLY, adv. In an affable manner; courteously; invitingly.

AFFAIR, n. [L. facere. The primary sense of facio is to urge, drive, impel.]

1. Business of any kind; that which is done, or is to be done; a word of very indefinite and undefinable signification. In the plural, it denotes transactions in general; as human affairs; political or ecclesiastical affairs: also the business or concerns of an individual; as, his affairs are embarrassed.

2. Matters; state; condition of business or concerns.

I have sent that ye may know our affairs. Ephesians 6:21, 22.

3. In the singular, it is used for a private dispute, or duel; as, an affair of honor; and sometimes a partial engagement of troops.

In the phrase, at the head of affairs, the word means, the public concerns of executing the laws and administering the government.

AFFECT, v.t. [L. afficio, affectum, of ad and facio, to make; affecto, to desire, from the same room. Affect is to make to, or upon to press upon.]

1. To act upon; to produce an effect or change upon; as, cold affects the body; loss affects our interests.

2. To act upon, or move the passions; as, affected with grief.

3. To aim at; aspire to; desire or entertain pretension to; as, to affect imperial sway. [See the etymology of Affair.]

4. To tend to by natural affinity or disposition; as, the drops of a fluid affect a spherical form.

5. To love, or regard with fondness.

Think not that wars we love and strife affect.

[This sense is closely allied to the third.]

6. To make a show of; to attempt to imitate, in a manner not natural; to study the appearance of what is not natural, or real; as, to affect to be grave; affected friendship.

It seems to have been used formerly for convict or attaint, as in Ayliffe’s Parergon; but this sense is not now in use.

AFFECTATION, n. [L. affectatio.]

1. An attempt to assume or exhibit what is not natural or real; false pretense; artificial appearance, or show; as, an affectation of wit, or of virtue.

2. Fondness; affection. [Not used.]


1. Impressed; moved, or touched, either in person or in interest; having suffered some change by external force, loss, danger, and the like; as, we are more or less affected by the failure of the bank.

2. Touched in the feelings; having the feelings excited; as, affected with cold or heat.

3. Having the passions moved; as, affected with sorrow or joy.

4. a. Inclined, or disposed; followed by to; as, well affected to government.

5. a. Given to false show; assuming, or pretending to possess what is not natural or real; as, an affected lady.

6. a. Assumed artificially; not natural; as, affected airs.

AFFECTEDLY, adv. In an affected manner; hypocritically; with more show than reality; formally; studiously; unnaturally; as, to walk affectedly; affectedly civil.

AFFECTEDNESS, n. The quality of being affected; affectation.


1. Impressing; having an effect on; touching the feelings; moving the passions; attempting a false show; greatly desiring; aspiring to possess.

2. a. Having power to excite, or move the passions; tending to move the affections; pathetic; as, an affecting address.

The most affecting music is generally the most simple.

AFFECTINGLY, adv. In an affecting manner; in a manner to excite emotions.


1. The state of being affected. [Little used.]

2. Passion; but more generally,

3. A bent of mind towards a particular object, holding a middle place between disposition, which is natural, and passion, which is excited by the presence of its exciting object. Affection is a permanent bent of the mind, formed by the presence of an object, or by some act of another person, and existing without the presence of its object.

4. In a more particular sense, a settle good will, love or zealous attachment; as, the affection of a parent for his child. It was formerly followed by to or towards, but is now more generally followed by far.

5. Desire; inclination; propensity, good or evil; as, virtuous or vile affections. Romans 1:26, 31; Galatians 5:24.

6. In a general sense, an attribute, quality or property, which is inseparable from its object; as, love, fear and hope are affections of the mind; figure, weight, etc., are affections of bodies.

7. Among physicians, a disease, or any particular morbid state of the body; as, a gouty affection; hysteric affection.

8. In painting, a lively representation of passion.

Shakespeare uses the word for affectation; but this use is not legitimate.


1. Having great love, or affection; fond; as, an affectionate brother.

2. Warm in affection; zealous.

Man, in his love to God, and desire to please him, can never be too affectionate.

3. Proceeding from affection; indicating love; benevolent; tender; as, the affectionate care of a parent; an affectionate countenance.

4. Inclined to; warmly attached. [Little used.]

AFFECTIONATELY, adv. With affection; fondly; tenderly; kindly. 1 Thessalonians 2:8.

AFFECTIONATENESS, n. Fondness; goodwill; affection.


1. Disposed; having an affection of heart.

Be ye kindly affectioned one to another. Romans 12:10.

2. Affected; conceited. Obs.

AFFECTIVE, a. That affects, or excites emotion; suited to affect. [Little used.]

AFFECTIVELY, adv. In an affective or impressive manner.

AFFECTOR, AFFECTER, n. One that affects; one that practices affectation.

AFFECTUOUS, a. Full of passion. [Not used.]

AFFEER, v.t. To confirm. [Not used.]

AFFEER, v.t.

In law, to assess or reduce an arbitrary penalty or amercement to a precise sum; to reduce a general amercement to a sum certain, according to the circumstances of the case.

AFFEERED, pp. Moderated in sum; assessed; reduced to a certainty.

AFFEERMENT, n. The act of affeering, or assessing an amercement, according to the circumstances of the case.

AFFEEROR, n. One who affeers; a person sworn to assess a penalty, or reduce an uncertain penalty to a certainty.


In music, a direction to render notes soft and affecting.

AFFIANCE, n. [L. fido, fides.]

1. The marriage contract or promise; faith pledged.

2. Trust in general; confidence; reliance.

The Christian looks to God with implicit affiance.


1. To betroth; to pledge one’s faith or fidelity in marriage, or to promise marriage.

To me, sad maid, he was affianced.

2. To give confidence

Affianced in my faith.

AFFIANCED, pp. Pledged in marriage; betrothed; bound in faith.

AFFIANCER, n. One who makes a contract of marriage between parties.

AFFIANCING, ppr. Pledging in marriage; promising fidelity.

AFFIDAVIT, n. [An old law verb in the perfect tense; he made oath; from ad and fides, faith.]

A declaration upon oath. In the United States, more generally, a declaration in writing, signed by the party, and sworn to, before an authorized magistrate.

AFFIED, a. or part. Joined by contract; affianced. [Not used.]

AFFILE, v.t. To polish. [Not used.]

AFFILIATE, v.t. [L. ad and filius, a son.]

1. To adopt; to receive into a family as a son.

2. To receive into a society as a member, and initiate in its mysteries, plans, or intrigues - a sense in which the word was much used by the Jacobins in France, during the revolution.

AFFILIATION, n. Adoption; association in the same family or society.