Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



ACCOMPANABLE, a. [See Accompany.] sociable. [Not used.]

ACCOMPANIED, pp. Attended; joined with in society.

ACCOMPANIMENT, n. Something that attends as a circumstance, or which is added by way of ornament to the principal thing, or for the sake of symmetry. Thus instruments of music attending the voice; small objects in painting; dogs, guns and game in a hunting piece; warlike instruments with the portrait of a military character, are accompaniments.

ACCOMPANIST, n. The performer in music who takes the accompanying part.

ACCOMPANY, v.t. [See Company.]

1. To go with or attend as a companion or associate on a journey, walk, etc.; as a man accompanies his friend to church, or on a tour.

2. To be with as connected; to attend; as pain accompanies disease.


1. To attend; to be an associate; as to accompany with others. Obs.

2. To cohabit.

3. In music, to perform the accompanying part in a composition.

ACCOMPANYING, ppr. Attending; going with as a companion.

ACCOMPLICE, n. [L. complicatus, folded together, of con, with, and plico, to fold. See Complex and Pledge.] An associate in a crime; a partner or partaker in guilt. It was formerly used in a good sense for a co-operator, but this sense is wholly obsolete. It is followed by with before a person; as A was an accomplice with B in the murder of C. Dryden uses it with to before a thing.

ACCOMPLISH, v.t. [L. compleo, to complete. See Complete.]

1. To complete; to finish entirely.

That He would accomplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem. Daniel 9:2.

2. To execute; as to accomplish a vow, wrath or fury. Ezekiel 13:15; Ezekiel 20:8, 21.

3. To gain; to obtain or effect by successful exertions; as to accomplish a purpose. Proverbs 13:19.

4. To fulfil or bring to pass; as, to accomplish a prophecy.

This that is written must yet be accomplished in me. Luke 22:37.

5. To furnish with qualities which serve to render the mind or body complete, as with valuable endowments and elegant manners.


1. Finished; completed; fulfilled; executed; effected.

2. a. Well endowed with good qualities and manners; complete in acquirements; having a finished education.

3. Fashionable.

ACCOMPLISHER, n. One who accomplishes.

ACCOMPLISHING, ppr. finishing; completing; fulfilling; executing; effecting; furnishing with valuable qualities.


1. Completion; fulfillment; entire performance; as the accomplishment of a prophecy.

2. The act of carrying into effect, or obtaining an object designed; attainment; as the accomplishment of our desires or ends.

3. Acquirement; that which constitutes excellence of mind, or elegance of manners, acquired by education.

ACCOMPT, Obs. [See Account.]

ACCOMPTANT, Obs. [See Accountant.]

ACCORD, n. The Lat. has concors, concordo.

1. Agreement; harmony of minds; consent or concurrence of opinions or wills.

They all continued with one accord in prayer. Acts 1:14.

2. Concert; harmony of sounds; the union of different sounds, which is agreeable to the ear; agreement in pitch and tone; as the accord of notes; but in this sense, it is more usual to employ concord or chord.

3. Agreement; just correspondence of things; as the accord of light and shade in painting.

4. Will; voluntary or spontaneous motion; used of the will of persons, or the natural motion of other bodies, and preceded by own.

Being more forward of his own accord. 2 Corinthians 8:17.

That which groweth of its own accord thou shall not reap. Leviticus 25:5.

5. Adjustment of a difference; reconciliation.

The mediator of an accord.

6. In law, an agreement between parties in controversy, by which satisfaction for an injury is stipulated, and which, when executed, bars a suit.

7. Permission, leave.

ACCORD, v.t.

1. To make to agree, or correspond; to adjust one thing to another.

Her hands accorded the lute’s music to the voice.

2. To being to an agreement; to settle, adjust or compose; as to accord suits or controversies.

ACCORD, v.i.

1. To agree; to be in correspondence.

My heart accordeth with my tongue.

2. To agree in pitch and tone.

ACCORDABLE, a. Agreeable, consonant.

ACCORDANCE, n. Agreement with a person; conformity with a thing.

ACCORDANT, a. Corresponding; consonant; agreeable.

ACCORDED, pp. Make to agree; adjusted.

ACCORDER, n. One that aids, or favors. [Little used.]


1. Agreeing; harmonizing.

Th’ according music of a well mixt state.

2. Suitable; agreeable; in accordance with.

In these senses, the word agrees with or refers to a sentence.

Our zeal should be according to knowledge.

Noble is the fame that is built on candor and ingenuity, according to those beautiful lines of Sir John Denham.

Here the whole preceding parts of the sentence are to accord, i.e. agree with, correspond with, or be suitable to, what follows. According, here, has its true participial sense, agreeing, and is always followed by to. It is never a preposition.

ACCORDINGLY, adv. Agreeably; suitably; in a manner conformable to.

Those who live in faith and good works, will be rewarded accordingly.

ACCORPORATE, v.t. To unite; [Not in use.] [See Incorporate.]

ACCOST, v.t.

1. To approach; to draw near; to come side by side, or face to face. [Not in use.]

2. To speak first to; to address.

ACCOST, v.i. to adjoin. [Not in use.]

ACCOSTABLE, a. Ease of access; familiar.

ACCOSTED, pp. Address; first spoken to. In heraldry, being side by side.

ACCOSTING, ppr. Addressing by first speaking to.

ACCOUCHEUR, n. accoshare. A man who assists women in childbirth.


1. A sum stated on paper; a registry of a debt or credit; of debts and credits, or charges; an entry in a book or on paper of things bought or sold, of payments, services etc., including the names of the parties to the transaction, date, and price or value of the thing.

Account signifies a single entry or charge, or a statement of a number of particular debts and credits, in a book or on a separate paper; and in the plural, is used for the books containing such entries.

2. A computation of debts and credits, or a general statement of particular sums; as, the account stands thus; let him exhibit his account.

3. A computation or mode of reckoning; applied to other things, than money or trade; as the Julian account of time.

4. Narrative; relation; statement of facts; recital of particular transactions and events, verbal or written; as an account of the revolution in France. Hence,

5. An assignment of reasons; explanation by a recital of particular transactions, given by a person in an employment, or to a superior, often implying responsibility.

Give an account of thy stewardship. Luke 16:2.

Without responsibility or obligation.

He giveth not account of his matters. Job 33:13.

6. Reason or consideration, as a motive; as on all accounts, on every account.

7. Value; importance; estimation; that is, such a state of persons or things, as renders them worthy of more or less estimation; as men of account of him. Psalm 144:3.

8. Profit; advantage; that is, a result or production worthy of estimation. To find our account in a pursuit; to turn to account.

9. Regard; behalf; sake; a sense deduced from charges on book; as on account of public affairs.

Put that to mine account. Philemon 18.

To make account, that is, to have a pervious opinion or expectation, is a sense now obsolete.

A writ of account, in law, is a writ which the plaintiff brings demanding that the defendant should render his just account, or show good cause to the contrary; call also an action of account.


1. To deem, judge, consider, think, or hold in opinion.

I and my son Solomon shall be accounted offenders. 1 Kings 1:21.

2. To account of, to hold in esteem; to value.

Let a man so account of us as of ministers of Christ. 1 Corinthians 4:1.

3. To reckon, or compute; as, the motion of the sun whereby years are accounted - also to assign as a debt; as, a project accounted to his service; but these uses are antiquated.


1. To render an account or relation of particulars. An officer must account with or to the Treasurer for money received.

2. To give reasons; to assign the causes; to explain; with for; as, idleness accounts for poverty.

3. To render reasons; to answer for in a responsible character.

We must account for all the talents entrusted to us.


1. The state of being liable to answer for one’s conduct; liability to give account, and to receive reward or punishment for actions.

The awful idea of accountability.

2. Liability to the payment of money or of damages; responsibility for a trust.


1. Liable to be called to account; answerable to a superior.

Every man is accountable to God for his conduct.

2. Subject to pay, or make good, in case of loss. A sheriff is accountable, as bailiff and receiver of goods.

Accountable for, that may be explained. [Not elegant.]

ACCOUNTABLENESS, n. Liableness to answer or to give account; the state of being answerable, or liable to the payment of money or damages.

ACCOUNTANT, n. One skilled in mercantile accounts; more generally, a person who keeps accounts; an officer in a public office who has charge of the accounts. In Great Britain, an officer in the court of chancery, who receives money and pays it to the bank, is call accountant-general.

ACCOUNTBOOK, n. A book in which accounts are kept.

ACCOUNTED, pp. Esteemed; deemed; considered; regarded; valued.

Accounted for, explained.

ACCOUNTING, ppr. Deeming; esteeming; reckoning; rendering an account.

Accounting for, rendering an account; assigning the reasons; unfolding the causes.

ACCOUNTING, n. The act of reckoning or adjusting accounts.

ACCOUPLE, v.t. accup’ple. To couple; to join or link together. [See Couple.]

ACCOUPLEMENT, n. accup’plement. A coupling, a connecting in pairs; junction. [Little used.]

ACCOURAGE, v.t. accur’age. [See Courage.] To encourage. [Not used.]

ACCOURT, v.t. [See Court.] To entertain with courtesy. [Not used.]

ACCOUTER, v.t. acoot’er

In a general sense, to dress; to equip, but appropriately, to array in a military dress; to put on, or to furnish with a military dress and arms; to equip the body for military service.

ACCOUTERED, pp. Dressed in arms; equipped.

ACCOUTERING, ppr. Equipping with military habiliments.


1. Dress; equipage; furniture for the body; appropriately, military dress and arms; equipage for military service.

2. In common usage, an old or unusual dress.

ACCOY, v.t. To render quiet or diffident; to soothe; to caress. [Obs.]

ACCREDIT, v.t. [L. ad and credo, to believe, or give faith to. See Credit.]

To give credit, authority, or reputation; to accredit an envoy, is to receive him in his public character, and give him credit and rank accordingly.

ACCREDITATION, n. That which gives title to credit. [Little used.]

ACCREDITED, pp. Allowed; received with reputation; authorized in a public character.

ACCREDITING, ppr. Giving authority or reputation.

ACCRESCENT, a. [See Accretion.] Increasing.

ACCRETION, n. [Lat. accretio, increase; accres’co, to increase, literally, to grow to; ad and cresco; Eng. accrue; See Increase, Accrue, Grow.]

1. A growing to; an increase by natural growth; applied to the increase of organic bodies by the accession of parts.

Plants have an accretion, but no alimentation.

2. In the civil law, the adhering of property to something else, by which the owner of one thing becomes possessed of a right to another; as, when a legacy is left to two persons, and one of them dies before the testator, the legacy devolves to the survivor by right of accretion.

ACCRETIVE, a. Increasing by growth; growing; adding to be growth; as the accretive motion of plants.


1. To hook, or draw to, as with a hook; but in this sense not used.

2. To encroach; to draw away from another. Hence in old laws to assume the exercise of royal prerogatives.

The noun accroachment, an encroachment, or attempt to exercise royal power, is rarely or never used. [See Encroach.]

ACCRUE, v.i. accru’. [L. accresco, cresco.]

Literally, to grow to; hence to arise, proceed or come; to be added, as increase, profit or damage; as, a profit accrues to government from the coinage of copper; a loss accrues from the coinage of gold and silver.

ACCRUE, n. accru’. Something that accedes to, or follows the property of another. Obs.

ACCRUING, ppr. Growing to; arising; coming; being added.

ACCRUMENT, n. Addition; increase. [Little used.]

ACCUBATION, n. [L. accubatio, a reclingin, from ad and cubo, to lie down. See Cube.]

A lying or reclining on a couch, as the ancients at their meals. The manner was to recline on low beds or couches with the head resting on a pillow or on the elbow. Two or three men lay on one bed, the feet of one extended behind the back of another. This practice was not permitted among soldiers, children and servants; nor was it known, until luxury had corrupted manners.

ACCUMB, v.i. [L. accumbo; ad and cubo.] To recline as at table. [Not used.]

ACCUMBENCY, n. State of being accumbent or reclining.

ACCUMBENT, a. [L. accumbens, accumbo, from cubo. See Accubation.] Leaning or reclining, as the ancients at their meals.

ACCUMULATE, v.t. [L. accumulo, ad and cumulo, to heap; cumulus a heap.]

1. To heap up; to pile; to amass; as, to accumulate earth or stones.

2. To collect or bring together; as to accumulate causes of misery; to accumulate wealth.

ACCUMULATE, v.i. To grow to a great size, number or quantity; to increase greatly; as public evils accumulate.
ACCUMULATE, a. Collected into a mass, or quantity.

ACCUMULATED, pp. Collected into a heap or great quantity.

ACCUMULATING, ppr. Heaping up; amassing; increasing greatly.


1. The act of accumulating; the state of being accumulated; an amassing; a collecting together; as an accumulation of earth or of evils.

2. In law, the concurrence of several titles to the same thing, or of several circumstances to the same proof.

3. In Universities, an accumulation of degrees, is the taking of several together, or at smaller intervals than usual, or than is allowed by the rules.

ACCUMULATIVE, a. That accumulates; heaping up; accumulating.

ACCUMULATOR, n. One that accumulates, gathers, or amasses.

ACCURACY, n. [L. accuratio, from accurare, to take care of; ad and curare, to take care; cura, care. See Care.]

1. Exactness; exact conformity to truth; or to a rule or model; freedom from mistake; nicety; correctness; precision which results from care. The accuracy of ideas or opinions is conformity to truth. The value of testimony depends on its accuracy; copies of legal instruments should be taken with accuracy.

2. Closeness; tightness; as a tube sealed with accuracy.

ACCURATE, a. [L. accuratus.]

1. In exact conformity to truth, or to a standard or rule, or to a model; free from failure, error, or defect; as an accurate account; accurate measure; an accurate expression.

2. Determinate; precisely fixed; as, one body may not have a very accurate influence on another.

3. Close; perfectly tight; as an accurate sealing or luting.


1. Exactly; in an accurate manner; with precision; without error or defect; as a writing accurately copied.

2. Closely; so as to be perfectly tight; as a vial accurately stopped.

ACCURATENESS, n. Accuracy; exactness; nicety; precision.

ACCURSE, v.t. accurs’, [Ac for ad and curse.] To devote to destruction; to imprecate misery or evil upon. [This verb is rarely used. See Curse.]

ACCURSED, pp. or a.

1. Doomed to destruction or misery:

The city shall be accursed. Joshua 6:17.

2. Separated from the faithful; cast out of the church; excommunicated.

I could wish myself accursed from Christ.

3. Worthy of the curse; detestable; execrable.

Keep from the accursed thing. Joshua 6:18.


4. Wicked; malignant in the extreme.

ACCUSABLE, a. That may be accused; chargeable with a crime; blamable; liable to censure; followed by of.

ACCUSANT, n. One who accuses.


1. The act of charging with a crime or offense; the act of accusing of any wrong or injustice.

2. The charge of an offense or crime; or the declaration containing the charge.

They set over his head his accusation. Matthew 27:37.

ACCUSATIVE, a. A term given to a case of nouns, in Grammars, on which the action of a verb terminates or falls; called in English Grammar the objective case.


1. In an accusative manner.

2. In relation to the accusative case in Grammar.

ACCUSATORY, a. Accusing; containing an accusation; as an accusatory libel.

ACCUSE, v.t. [L. accuso, to blame or accuse; ad and causor, to blame, or accuse; causa, blame, suit, or process, cause. See Cause.]

1. To charge with, or declare to have committed a crime, either by plaint, or complaint, information, indictment, or impeachment; to charge with an offense against the laws, judicially or by a public process; as, to accuse one of a high crime or misdemeanor.

2. To charge with a fault; to blame.

Their thoughts, in the meanwhile, accusing or excusing one another. Romans 2:15.

It is followed by of before the subject of accusation; the use of for after this verb is illegitimate.

ACCUSED, pp. Charged with a crime, by a legal process; charged with an offense; blamed.

ACCUSER, n. One who accuses or blames; an officer who prefers an accusation against another for some offense, in the name of the government, before a tribunal that has cognizance of the offense.

ACCUSING, ppr. Charging with a crime; blaming.


To make familiar by use; to form a habit by practice; to habituate or inure; as to accustom one’s self to a spare diet.


1. To be wont, or habituated to do anything. [Little used.]

2. To cohabit. [Not used.]

ACCUSTOM, n. Custom. [Not used.]

ACCUSTOMABLE, a. Of long custom; habitual; customary. [Little used.]

ACCUSTOMABLY, adv. According to custom or habit. [Little used.]

ACCUSTOMANCE, n. Custom; habitual use or practice. [Not used.]

ACCUSTOMARILY, adv. According to custom or common practice. [See Customarily.] [Little used.]

ACCUSTOMARY, a. Usual; customary [See Customary.] [Little used.]


1. Being familiar by use; habituated; inured.

2. a. Usual; often practiced; as in their accustomed manner.

ACCUSTOMING, ppr. Making familiar by practice; inuring.

ACE, n. [L. as, a unit or pound; G. ass.]

1. A unit; a single point on a card or die; or the card or die so marked.

2. A very small quantity; a particle; an atom; a trifle; as a creditor will not abate an ace of his demand.


A field said to have laid south of Jerusalem, the same as the potters field, purchased with the bribe which Judas took for betraying his master, and therefore called the field of blood. It was appropriated to the interment of strangers.

ACEPHALOUS, a. [Gr. a priv., a head.]

Without a head, headless. In history, the term Acephali, or Acephalites was given to several sects who refused to follow some noted leader, and to such bishops as were exempt from the jurisdiction and discipline of their patriarch. It was also given to certain levelers who acknowledged no head in the reign of Henry 1st. It was also applied to the Blemmyes, a pretended nation of Africa, and to other tribes in the East, whom ancient naturalists represented as having no head; their eyes and mouth being placed in other parts. Modern discoveries have dissipated these fictions. In English Laws, men who held lands of no particular lord, and clergymen who were under no bishop.

ACEPHALUS, n. An obsolete name of the taenia or tape worm, which was formerly supposed to have no head; an error now exploded. the term is also used to express a verse defective in the beginning.

ACERB, a. [L. acerbus; G. herbe, harsh, sour, tart, bitter, rough, whence herbst autumn, herbstzeit, harvest time. See Harvest.]

Sour, bitter, and harsh to the taste; sour, with astringency or roughness; a quality of unripe fruits.


1. A sourness, with roughness, or astringency.

2. Figuratively, harshness or severity of temper in man.

ACERIC, a. [L. acer, a maple tree.]

Pertaining to the maple; obtained from the maple, as aceric acid.

ACEROUS, a. [L. acerosus, chaffy, from acus, chaff or a point.]

1. In botany, chaffy; resembling chaff.

2. An acerous or acerose leaf is one which is linear and permanent, in form of a needle, as in pine.

ACESCENCY, n. [L. acescens, turning sour, from acesco. See Acid.]

A turning sour by spontaneous decomposition; a state of becoming sour, tart, or acid, and hence a being moderately sour.

ACESCENT, a. Turning sour; becoming tart or acid by spontaneous decomposition. Hence slightly sour; but the latter sense is usually expressed by acidulous or subacid.

ACESTE, n. In entomology, a species of papilio or butterfly, with subdentated wings, found in India.