Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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Z

Z — ZYGOMATIC

Z, the last letter of the English Alphabet, is a sibilant articulation, and is merely a vocal S. It bears the same relation to s, as v does to f. With us it has not a compound sound, nor is it a double consonant, as in the Italian and German. It is as simple in its sound as S.

As a numeral, Z stands for 2000, and with a dash over it, Z, for 2,000,000. It is pronounced zee.

ZABAISM. [See Sabianism.]

ZACCHO, n. The lowest part of the pedestal of a column.

ZAFFER, n. The residuum of cobalt, after the sulphur, arsenic and other volatile matters have been expelled by calcination; so that it is a gray or dark gray oxyd of cobalt, mixed with a portion of silex.

ZANY, n. A merry andrew; a buffoon.

ZANY, v.t. To mimic.

ZAPOTE, n. In Mexico, the generic name of fruits which are roundish and contain a hard stone; the species are various.

ZARNICH, n. [See Arsenic.] The name of a genus of fossils, which are inflammable, of a plain uniform structure, not flexible or elastic, soluble in oil, and burning with a whitish flame and noxious smell like garlic. This substance is supposed to be sulphureted aresenic. Of this genus there are four species; one the real sandarach; another is sold under the name of orpiment.

ZEA, n. The generic name of maiz.

ZEAL, n. [Gr., L.] Passionate ardor in the pursuit of any thing. In general, zeal is an eagerness of desire to accomplish or obtain some object, and it may be manifested either in favor of any person or thing, or in opposition to it, and in a good or bad cause.

Zeal, the blind conductor of the will.

They have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge. Romans 10:2.

A zeal for liberty is sometimes an eagerness to subvert, with little care what shall be established.

ZEALOT, n. Zelot. One who engages warmly in any cause, and pursues his object with earnestness and ardor. It is generally used in dispraise, or applied to one whose ardor in intemperate and censurable. The fury of zealots was one cause of the destruction of Jerusalem.

ZEALOTICAL, a. Ardently zealous. [Little used.]

ZEALOUS, a. Zelus. Warmly engaged or ardent in the pursuit of an object.

Being thus saved himself, he may be zealous in the salvation of souls.

ZEALOUSLY, adv. Zelusly. With passionate ardor; with eagerness.

It is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing. Galatians 4:18.

ZEALOUSNESS, n. Zelusness. The quality of being zealous; zeal.

ZEBRA, n. An animal of the genus Equus, beautifully marked with stripes; a native of Africa.

ZEBU, n. A variety of the common ox, with a hump on the shoulders. It is found in the East Indies and resembles the bos Indicus, or Indian ox, but is very small, being sometimes little larger than a dog.

ZECHIN, n. A Venetian gold coin; usually written sequin, which see. If named from Zecha, the place where minted, this is the correct orthography.

ZEDOARY, n. A medicinal root, belonging to a plant growing in the East Indies, whose leaves resemble those of ginger, only they are longer and broader. It comes in oblong pieces, about the thickness of the little finger, and two or three inches in length. It is a warm stomachic.

ZEINE, n. A substance of a yellowish color, soft, insipid, and elastic, procured from the seeds of the Zea Mays or Indian corn.

ZEMINDAR, n. [from zem, zemin, land.] In India, a feudatory or landholder who governs a district of country and collects taxes.

ZEMINDARY, n. The jurisdiction of a zemindar.

ZEND, n. A language that formerly prevailed in Persia.

ZENDAVESTA, n. Among the Persees, a sacred book ascribed to Zoroaster, and reverenced as a bible, or sole rule of faith and practice. It is often called Zend, by contraction.

ZENITH, n. That point in the visible celestial hemisphere, which is vertical to the spectator, and from a which a direct perpendicular line passing through the spectator, and extended, would proceed to the center of the earth. It is opposed to nadir.

ZEOLITE, n. [Gr., to boil, to foam; stone.] A mineral, so named by Cronstedt from its intumescence before the blowpipe. Many substances have been confounded under this name, particularly such as are fusible by the blowpipe without addition, and exhibit a phosphoric brilliancy at the moment of fusion. Hauy makes two species of zeolite, which he calls mesotype and stilbite. Werner makes four subspecies, which he calls maly zeolite, fibrous zeolite, radiated zeolite, and foliated zeolite. He makes zeolite a generic name, and Jameson, who adopts this theory, arranges in this family prehnite, zeolite, apophyllite, cubicite, called by Hauy analcime, chabasite, cross-stone, laumonite, dipyre, natrolite, and wavellite. Zeolite commonly occurs in a four sided prism, terminated by a four sided pyramid; often in small fibrous masses.

ZEOLITIC, a. Pertaining to zeolite; consisting of zeolite, or resembling it.

ZEOLITIFORM, a. Having the form of zeolite.

ZEPHYR, n. [L., Gr.] The west wind; and peotically, any soft, mild, gentle breeze. The poets personify Zephyrus, and make him the most mild and gentle of all the sylvan deities.

Mild as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes.

ZERDA, n. An animal of the canine genus, found in the desert of Zaara, beyond mount Atlas. It is about ten inches in length, with a pointed nose, long whiskers, large black vivid eyes, and remarkably swift of foot. Its color is a yellowish pale brown.

ZERO, n. Cipher; nothing. The point of a thermometer from which it is graduated. Zero, in the thermometers of Celsius and Reaumur, is at the point at which water congeals. The zero of Fahrenheits thermometer is fixed at the point at which the mercury stands when immersed in a mixture of snow and common salt. In Wedgewoods pyrometer, the zero corresponds with 1077 degrees on Fahrenheits scale.

ZEST, n.

1. A piece of orange or lemon peel, used to give flavor to liquor; or the fine thin oil that spurts out of it when squeezed; also, the woody thick skin quartering the kernel of a walnut.

2. Relish; something that gives a pleasant taste; or the taste itself.

ZEST, v.t.

1. To give a relish or flavor to; to highten taste or relish.

2. To cut the peel of an orange or lemon from top to bottom into thin slips; or to squeeze the peel over the surface of any thing.

ZETA, n.

1. A Greek letter.

2. A little closet or chamber, with pipes running along the walls, to convey into it fresh air, or warm vapor from below.

ZETETIC, a. [Gr., to seek.] That seeks; that proceeds by inquiry. The zetetic method in mathematics, is that used in investigation, or the solution of problems.

ZEUGMA, n. [Gr., to join. See Yoke.] A figure in grammar by which an adjective or verb which agrees with a nearer word, is by way of supplement, referred to another more remote. Thus in Virgil, Hicillius arma, hic currus fuit; where fuit, which agrees directly with currus, is referred also to arma.

ZIBET, n. [See Civet.] An animal of the genus Viverra; the ash-gray weasel, striated with black undulations, and an annulated tail. It may be called the Indian civet, as it resembles the African civet.

ZIGZAG, a. Having short turns.

ZIGZAG, n. Something that has short turns or angles.
ZIGZAG, v.t. To form with short turns.

ZIMENT water, or copper water, is a name given to water found in copper mines; water impregnated with copper.

ZIMOME, ZYMOME, n. [Gr.] One of the constituents of gluten.

ZINK, n. [G. The common orthography, zine, is erroneous.] A metal of a brilliant white color, with a shade of blue, and appearing as if composed of plates adhering together. It is not brittle, but less malleable than copper, lead or tin. When heated however, it is malleable, and may be drawn into plates.

ZINKIFEROUS, a. [zink and L. Fero.] Producing zink; as zinkiferous ore.

ZINKY, a. Pertaining to zink, or having its appearance.

Some effervesce with acids, some not, though soluble therein, as to the zinky part.

The zinky ores are said to be grayer than other ores.

ZIRCON, n. Called also jargon of Ceylon, a mineral originally found in Ceylon, in the sands of rivers, along with spinel, sapphire, tourmalin, and iron sand. Zircon, hyacinth, and zirconite, are regarded as varieties of the same species. They are essentially composed of the earth zirconia, with silex, and a minute portion of iron. The primitive form of the crystals is an octahedron, composed of two four sided prisms. The common form is a rectangular four sided prism.

ZIRCONIA, n. A peculiar earth obtained from the gem zircon; a fine white powder.

ZIRCONITE, n. A variety of the zircon.

ZIRCONIUM, n. The metallic basis of zirconia.

ZIVOLO, n. A bird resembling the yellow hammer, and by some considered as the same species.

ZIZEL, n. The suslik or earless marmot, a small quadruped found in Poland and the south of Russia.

ZOCCO, ZOCLE, ZOCCOLO, n. [L., a sock.] A square body under the base of a pedestal, etc. Serving for the support of a bust, statue or column.

ZODIAC, n. [L, Gr., an animal.]

1. A broad circle in the heavens, containing the twelve signs through which the sun passes in its annual course. The center of this belt is the ecliptic, which is the path of the sun. It intersects the equator at an angle or 23 degrees and a half or rather 29 minutes. This is called its obliquity.

2. A girdle.

ZODIACAL, a. Pertaining to the zodiac.

Zodiacal light, a luminous track or space in the heavens, resembling that of the milky way, sometimes appearing after sunset and before sunrising.

ZOISITE, n. [from Van Zois, its discoverer.] A mineral regarded as a variety of epidote. It occurs in deeply striated rhomboidal prisms, much compressed and rounded; its colors gray, yellowish or bluish gray, brown, grayish yellow, or reddish white. This is called also a subspecies of prismatoidal augite.

ZONE, n. [L., Gr.]

1. A girdle.

An embroiderd zone surrounds her waist.

2. In geography, a division of the earth, with respect to the temperature of different latitudes. The zones are five; the torrid zone, extending from tropic to tropic 46 degrees, 56 degrees, or 23 degrees 28’ on each side of the equator; two temperate or variable zones, situated between the tropics and polar circles; and two frigid zones, situated between the polar circles and the poles.

3. Circuit; circumference.

Ciliary zone, in anatomy, the black impression of the ciliary processes on the vitreous humor of the eye.

ZONED, a. Wearing a zone.

ZONNAR, n. A belt or girdle, which the Christians and Jews in the Levat are obliged to wear, to distinguish them from the Mohammedans.

ZOOGRAPHER, n. [See Zoography.] One who describes animals, their forms and habits.

ZOOGRAPHICAL, a. Pertaining to the description of animals.

ZOOGRAPHY, n. [Gr., an animal; to describe.] A description of animals, their forms and habits. [But zoology is generally used.]

ZOOLITE, n. [Gr., an animal; stone.] An animal substance petrified or fossil.

ZOOLOGICAL, a. [from zoology.] Pertaining to zoology, or the science of animals.

ZOOLOGICALLY, adv. According to the principles of zoology.

ZOOLOGIST, n. [from zoology.] One who is well versed in the natural history of animals, or who describes animals.

ZOOLOGY, n. [Gr., an animal; discourse.] A treatise on animals, or the science of animals; that branch of natural history which respects the forms, classification, history and habits of animals, particularly of brutes or irrational animals.

ZOONIC, a. [Gr., an animal.] Pertaining to animals; as the zoonic acid, obtained from animal substances.

ZOONOMY, n. [Gr., an animal; law.] The laws of animal life, or the science which treats of the phenomena of animal life, their causes and relations.

ZOOPHITE. [See Zoophyte.]

ZOOPHORIC, a. [Gr., an animal; to bear.] The zoophoric column is one which supports the figure of an animal.

ZOOPHORUS, n. [supra.] In ancient architecture, the same with the frieze in modern architecture; a part between the architrave and cornice; so called from the figures of animals carved upon it.

ZOOPHYTE, n. [Gr., an animal; a plant.] In natural history, a body supposed to partake of the nature both of an animal and a vegetable, such as madrepores, millepores, corallines, etc.

ZOOPHYTOLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to zoophytology.

ZOOPHYTOLOGY, n. [zoophyte, Gr., discourse.] The natural history of zoophytes.

ZOOTOMIST, n. [See Zootomy.] One who dissects the bodies of brute animals; a comparative anatomist.

ZOOTOMY, n. [Gr., an animal; to cut.] Anatomy; particularly, the dissecting of bodies of beasts or brute animals; comparative anatomy, or the anatomy of brute animals.

ZORIL, n. A fetid animal of the weasel kind, found in South America.

ZUFFOLO, n. [L.] A little flute or flageolet, especially that which is used to teach birds.

ZUMATE, n. [See Zumic.] A combination of the zumic acid and a salifiable base.

ZUMIC, a. [Gr., ferment.] The zumic acid is procured from many accescent vegetable substances.

ZUMOLOGICAL, a. [See Zumology.] Pertaining to zumology.

ZUMOLOGIST, n. One who is skilled in the fermentation of liquors.

ZUMOLOGY, n. [Gr., ferment; to ferment; discourse.] A treatise on the fermentation of liquors, or the doctrine of fermentation.

ZUMOSIMETER, n. [Gr., fermentation; to measure.] An instrument proposed by Swammerdam for ascertaining the degree of fermentation occasioned by the mixture of different liquids, and the degree of heat which they acquire in fermentation.

ZURLITE, n. A newly discovered Vesuvian mineral, whose primitive form is a cube, or according to some authors, a rectangular prism.

ZYGODACTYLOUS, a. [Gr., to join; a finger.] Having the toes disposed in pairs; distinguishing an order of fowls which have the feet furnished with two toes before and two behind, as the parrot, woodpecker, etc.

ZYGOMATIC, a. [Gr., a joining.] Pertaining to a bone of the head, called also os jugale, or cheek bone, or to the bony arch under which the temporal muscle passes. The term zygoma is applied both to the bone and the arch.

Zygomatic arch. [See Zygomatic.]

Zygomatic bone, the cheek bone.

Zygomatic muscles, two muscles of the face, which rise from the zygomatic bone, and are inserted into the corner of the mouth.

Zygomatic processes, the processes of the temporal and cheek bones, which unite to form the zygomatic arch.

Zygomatic suture, the suture which joins the zygomatic processes of the temporal and cheek bones.