Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
Y — YOUNG
Y, the twenty fifth letter of the English Alphabet, is taken from the Greed. At the beginning of words, it is called an articulation or consonant, and with some propriety perhaps, as it brings the root of the tongue in close contact with the lower part of the palate, and nearly in the position to which the close g brings it. Hence it has happened that in a great number of words, g has been changed into y, as the Sax. Gear, into year; geornian, into yearn; gyllan, into yell; gealew, into yellow.
In the middle and at the end of words, y is precisely the same as I. It is sounded as I long, when accented, as in defy, rely; and as I short, when unaccented, as in vanity, glory, synonymous. This latter sound is a vowel. At the beginning of words, y answers to the German and Dutch J.
Y, as a numeral, stands for 150, and with a dash over it, for 150,000.
YACHT, n. yot. [G., It is properly a boat drawn by horses.] A vessel of state used to convey princes, embassadors and other great personages from one place to another. The royal yachts are rigged as ketches, except the principal one, which is equipped as a ship. The smaller yachts are rigged as sloops.
YAGER, n. Yawger. [G., to chase.] A horseman.
YAHOO, n. A word used by Chesterfield, I suppose for a savage, or a person resembling a savage.
YAK, n. A species of ox, with cylindric horns curving outwards, long pendent hair, and villous horselike tail; the grunting ox of Pennant. This ox is found in Thibet.
YAM, n. A large esculent root growing in tropical climates.
YAMBOO, n. A kind of plant producing fruit like a plum.
YANKEE, n. A corrupt pronunciation of the word English by the native Indians of America.
YANOLITE, n. A mineral, called also axinite or thumerstone, whose crystals resemble an ax.
YAP, to bark, is not a legitimate word.
YAPON, n. The cassine or South Sea tea. The Ileex cassine or youpon, is a shrub growing in the S. States, used as a tea and a medicine.
1. A measure of three feet or thirty six inches. It is just seven niths of the Paris ell.
2. An inclosure; usually, a small inclosed place in front of or around a house or barn. The yard in front of a house is called a court, and sometimes a court-yard. In the United States, a small yard is fenced round a barn for confining cattle, and called barn-yard or cow-yard.
3. In ships, a long slender piece of timber, nearly cylindrical, suspended upon the mast, by which a sail is extended.
Yard of land, in old books, a certain quantity of land, but different in different countries. In some counties it was 15 acres, in others 20 or 24, and even 40.
Dock-yard, a place where ships are laid up.
Prison yard, primarily an inclosure about a prison, or attached to it. Hence liberty of the yard, is a liberty granted to persons imprisoned for debt, of walking in the yard, or within any other limits prescribed by the law, on his giving bond not to go beyond those limits.
YARD, v.t. To confine cattle to the yard; as, to yard cows. [A farmers word.]
YARD-ARM, n. [yard and arm.] Either half of a ships yard, from the center or mast to the end.
YARD-STICK, n. [yard and stick.] A stick three feet in length, used as a measure of cloth, etc.
YARD-WAND, n. [yard and wand.] A measure of a yard; now yard-stick.
YARE, a. [See Eager.] Ready; dextrous; eager.
YARELY, adv. Readily; dextrously; skillfully.
1. Spun wool; woolen thread; but it is applied also to other species of thread, as to cotton and linen.
2. In rope-making, one of the threads of which a rope is composed. It is spun from hemp.
YARR, v.i. To growl or snarl, as a dog. [Not in use.]
YARRISH, a. Having a rough dry taste. [Local.]
YARROW, n. A plant of the genus Achillea; the milfoil, or plant of a thousand leaves.
YATE, in the north of England, is used for gate.
YAW, n. The African name of a raspberry.
1. To rise in blisters, breaking in white froth, as cane juice in the sugar works. [See Yew.]
2. In navigation, to deviate from the line of her course, as a ship.
YAWL, n. A small ships boat, usually rowed by four or six oars.
YAWL, v.i. To cry out. [See Yell.]
YAWN, v.i. [G., Gr.]
1. To gape; to oscitate; to have the mouth open involuntarily through drowsiness or dullness.
The lazy, yawning drone.
And while above he spends his breath, the yawning audience nod beneath.
2. To open wide; as, wide yawns the gulf below.
3. To express desire by yawning; as, to yawn for fat livings.
1. A gaping; an involuntary opening of the mouth from drowsiness; oscitation.
One person yawning in company will produce a spontaneous yawn in all present.
2. An opening wide.
1. Gaping; opening wide.
2. a. Sleepy; drowsy; dull.
YAWNING, n. The act of gaping or opening wide.
YAWS, n. A severe cutaneous disease, which is indigenous in Africa, and from Africa it has been introduced into the West Indies. It is said to be so named form yaw, a raspberry. It is propagated solely by the infection of the matter of the pustules, applied to a part of the body where the skin is broken. It affects a person but once.
YCLAD, pp. Clad. [This word and the following retain the y, which is the remains of the Saxon ge, prefixed to verbs. But it is obsolete, except in poetry, and perhaps in burlesque only.]
YCLEPED, pp. [See Yclad.] Called; named; it is obsolete, except in burlesque.
YDRAD, pp. Dreaded.
YE, pron. The nominative plural of the second person, of which thou is the singular. But the two words have no radical connection. Ye is now used only in the sacred and solemn style. In common discourse and writing, you is exclusively used.
But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified. 1 Corinthians 6:11.
YEA, adv. Ya.
1. Yes; a word that expresses affirmation or assent. Will you go? Yea. It sometimes introduces a subject, with the sense of indeed, verily, truly, it is so.
Yea, hath God said, ye shall not eat of every tree in the garden? Genesis 3:1.
Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay. Matthew 5:37.
2. It sometimes enforces the sense of something preceding; not only so, but more.
Therein I do rejoice; yea, and will rejoice. Philippians 1:18.
3. In Scripture, it is used to denote certainty, consistency, harmony, and stability.
All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him are amen. 2 Corinthians 1:20.
[In this use, the word may be considered a noun.]
Yea is used only in the sacred and solemn style. [See Yes.]
YEAD, GEAD, v.i. To go.
YEAN, v.i. To bring forth young, as a goat or sheep; to lamb. [Obsolete or local.]
YEANED, pp. Brought forth.
YEANLING, n. The young of sheep; a lamb. [Obsolete or local.]
YEAR, n. [G.]
1. The space or period of time in which the sun moves through the twelve signs of the ecliptic, or whole circle, and returns to the same point. This is the solar year, and the year, in the strict and proper sense of the word. It is called also the tropical year. This period comprehends what are called the twelve calendar months, or 365 days, 5 hours, and 49 minutes, within a small fraction. But in popular usage, the year consists of 365 days, and every fourth year of 366; a day being added to February, on account of the 5 hours and 49 minutes.
2. The time in which any planet completes a revolution; as the year of Jupiter or of Saturn.
3. The time in which the fixed states make a revolution, is called the great year.
4. Years, in the plural, is sometimes equivalent to age or old age; as a man in years.
In popular language, year is often used for years. The horse is ten year old.
Sidereal year, the time in which the sun, departing from any fixed star, returns to the same. This is 365 day, 6 hours, 6 minutes, and 11, 5 seconds.
Anomalistical year, the time that elapses from the suns leaving its apogee, till it returns to it, which is 365 days, 6 hours, 14 minutes.
Civil year, the year which nay nation has contrived for the computation of time.
Bissextile or leap year, the year consisting of 366 days.
Lunar year, consists of 12 lunar months.
Lunar astronomical year, consists of 12 lunar synodical months, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, 36 seconds.
Common lunar year, consists of 12 lunar civil months, or 354 days.
Embolismic or intercalary year, consists of 13 lunar civil months, and contains 384 days.
Julian year, established by Julius Caesar, consists of 365 days, 6 hours.
Gregorian year, is the Julian year corrected and is the year now generally used in Europe. From the difference between this and the Julian year, arises the distinction of Old and New Style.
Sabbatic year, among the Israelites, was every seventh year, when their land was suffered to lid untilled.
The civil or legal year, in England, formerly commenced on the 25th day of March. This practice continued till after the settlement of America, and the first settlers of New England observed it for many years.
YEAR-BOOK, n. [year and book.] A book containing annual reports of cases adjudged in the courts of England.
YEARED, a. Containing years. [Not in use.]
YEARLING, n. A young beast one year old, or in the second year of his age.
YEARLING, a. Being a year old; as a yearling heifer.
1. Annual; happening; accruing or coming every year; as a yearly rent or income.
2. Lasting a year; as a yearly plant.
3. Comprehending a year; as the yearly circuit or revolution of the earth.
YEARLY, adv. Annually; once a year; as blessings yearly bestowed.
YEARN, YERN, v.i. [G. The sense is to strain, or stretch forward. We have earnest from the same root.]
1. To be strained; to be pained or distressed; to suffer.
Falstaff, he is dead, and we must yearn therefore.
2. Usually, to long; to feel an earnest desire; that is literally, to have a desire or inclination stretching towards the object or end. 1 Kings 3:26.
Joseph made haste, for his bowels did yearn upon his brother. Genesis 43:30.
Your mothers heart yearns toward you.
--Anticlus, unable to control, spoke loud the language of his yearning soul.
YEARN, YERN, v.t. To pain; to grieve; to vex.
She laments for it, that it would yearn your heart to see it.
It yearns me not if men my garments wear.
YEARNFUL, YERNFUL, a. Mournful; distressing.
YEARNING, YERNING, pp. Longing; having longing desire.
YEARNING, YERNING, n. Strong emotions of desire, tenderness or pity.
1. Barm; the foam, froth or flower of beer or other liquor in fermentation; used for raising dough for bread or cakes, and making it light and puffy.
2. Spume or foam of water. [Not in use.]
YEASTY, a. Frothy; foamy; spumy; like yeast.
YELK, n. [See Gold and Yellow.] The yellow part of an egg; the vitellus. It is sometimes written and pronounced yolk, but yelk is the proper word. Yolk is a corruption.
YELL, v.i. [It agrees in elements with call.] To cry out with a hideous noise; to cry or scream as with agony or horror. Savages yell most frightfully when they are rushing to the first onset of battle.
Nor the night raven, that still deadly yells.
YELL, n. A sharp, loud, hideous outcry.
Their hideous yells rend the dark welkin.
YELLING, pp. Uttering hideous outcries; shrieking; as yelling monsters.
YELLING, n. The act of screaming hideously.
YELLOW, a. [G. See Gold.] Being of a bright color; the color of gold.
YELLOW, n. A bright color, reflecting the most light of any, after white. It is one of the simple or primitive colors.
YELLOW-BLOSSOMED, a. Furnished or adorned with yellow flowers.
YELLOW-BOY, n. A gold coin. [Vulgar.]
YELLOW-EARTH, n. A soft yellow mineral found at Webraw, in Upper Lusatia. United with clay and argillaceous ironstone.
YELLOW-FEVER, n. A malignant disease of warm climates, which often suffuses the skin with a yellowish color.
YELLOW-GOLDS, n. A flower.
YELLOW-HAMMER, n. A bird of the genus Emberiza. Its throat and the crown of the head, are yellow.
YELLOWISH, a. Somewhat yellow; as, amber is of a yellowish color.
YELLOWISHNESS, n. The quality of being somewhat yellow.
1. The quality of being yellow; as the yellowness of an orange.
2. Jealousy. [Not in use.]
YELLOWS, n. A disease of horses, cattle and sheep, in which the eyes are tinged with a yellow color, proceeding often from obstructions in the gall-ducts. It is relieved by purges.
YELP, v.i. To bark, as a beagle-hound after his prey, or as other dog.
YELPING, ppr. Barking in a particular manner.
YENITE, n. A mineral found in the isle of Elba, and in other places, of a brown or brownish black color. It is arranged with the chrysolite family, but differs much from other species of it. It resembles hornblend, or rather black epidote. It occurs both crystalized and massive; the form of the crystals being that of a rhomboidal prism. It consists chiefly of silex, lime, and oxyd of manganese. This mineral is called yenite or jenite in commemoration of the battle of Jena, and lievrite, from its discoverer.
YEOMAN, n. [See Common.]
1. A common man, or one of the plebeians, of the first or most respectable class; a freeholder; a man free born. A yeoman in England is considered as next in order to the gentry. The word is little used in the United States, unless as a title in law proceedings and instruments, designating occupation, and this only in particular states. But yeomanry is much used.
2. An officer in the kings household, of a middle rank between a gentleman and a groom.
3. In ships, an inferior officer under the boatswain, gunner or carpenters, charged with the stowage, account and distribution of the stores.
4. A name or title of certain soldiers; as yeomen of the guard.
YEOMANLY, a. Pertaining to a yeoman.
YEOMANRY, n. The collective body of yeomen or freeholders. Thus the common people in America, are called yeomanry.
YERK, v.t. To throw or thrust with a sudden smart spring; as, horses yerk their heels.
YERK, n. A sudden or quick thrust or motion.
YERKING, ppr. Thrusting with a quick spring.
YERN. [See Yearn.]
YES, adv. A word which expresses affirmation or consent; opposed to no; as, are you married, madam? Yes. It is used like yea, to enforce by repetition or addition, something which precedes. You have done all this; yes, you have done more.
Yes, you despise the man to books confind.
YEST, [See Yeast.]
YESTER, a. [G., L.] Last; last past; next before the present; as yester sun.
[Note. This is seldom used except in the compounds which follow.]
YESTERDAY, n. [See Yester.]
1. The day last past; the day next before the present.
All our yesterdays have lighted fools the way to dusty death.
We are but of yesterday, and know nothing. Job 8:9.
2. Yesterday is used generally without a preposition; as, I went to town yesterday. Yesterday we received letters from our friends. In this ease, a preposition is understood; as on yesterday, or during yesterday. The word may be considered as adverbially used.
YESTERNIGHT, n. [yester and night.]
1. The last night.
2. It is used without preposition. My brother arrived yesternight; where on or during is understood, but it may be considered as adverbially used.
YESTY. [See Yeasty.]
YET, conj. [Gr.] Nevertheless; notwithstanding; however. I come to you in the spirit of peace; yet you will not receive me.
Yet I say unto you, the Solomon in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these. Matthew 6:29.
1. Beside; over and above. There is one reason yet further to be alledged.
2. Still; the state remaining the same.
They attest facts they had heard while they were yet heathens.
3. At this time; so soon. Is it time to go? Not yet.
4. At least; at all.
A man that would form a comparison between Quintilians declamations, if yet they are Quintilians--
5. It is prefixed to words denoting extension of time or continuance.
A little longer; yet a little longer.
6. Still; in a new degree. The crime becomes yet blacker by the pretense of piety.
7. Even; after all; a kind of emphatical addition to a negative.
Men may not too rashly believe the confessions of witches, nor yet the evidence against them.
8. Hitherto. You have yet done nothing; you have as yet done less than was expected.
Yeven, for given, is not in use.
YEW, n. An evergreen tree of the genus Taxus, valued for its wood or timber.
YEW, v.i. To rise, as scum on the brine in boiling at the salt works. [See Yaw.]
YEWEN, a. Made of yew.
YEX, n. A hiccough. [Little used.]
YEX, v.i. To hiccough.
YFERE, adv. Together. [Not in use.]
1. To produce, as land, stock or funds; to give in return for labor, or as profit. Lands yield not more than three per cent annually; houses yield four or five percent. Maiz on good land, yields two or three hundred fold.
2. To produce, in general. Most vegetable juices yield a salt.
3. To afford; to exhibit. The flowers in spring yield a beautiful sight.
4. To allow; to concede; to admit to be true; as, to yield the point in debate. We yield that there is a God.
5. To give, as claimed of right; as, to yield due honors; to yield due praise.
6. To permit; to grant.
Life is but air, that yields a passage to the whistling sword.
7. To emit; to give up. To yield the breath, is to expire.
8. To resign; to give up; sometimes with up or over; as, to yield up their own opinions. We yield the place to our superiors.
9. To surrender; sometimes with up; as, to yield a fortress to the enemy; or to yield up a fortress.
1. To give up the contest; to submit.
He saw the fainting Grecians yield.
2. To comply with; as, I yielded to his request.
3. To give way; not to oppose. We readily yield to the current of opinion; we yield to customs and fashions.
4. To give place, as inferior in rank or excellence. They will yield to us in nothing.
Tell me in what more happy fields the thistle springs, to which the lily yields?
YIELDABLENESS, n. Disposition to comply. [A bad word and not used.]
YIELDANCE, n. Act of producing; concession. [Not used.]
YIELDED, pp. Produced; afforded; conceded; allowed; resigned; surrendered.
YIELDER, n. One who yields.
1. Producing; affording; conceding; resigning; surrendering; allowing.
2. a. Inclined to give way or comply; flexible; accommodating; as a yielding temper.
YIELDING, n. Act of producing; act of surrendering; submission.
YIELDINGLY, adv. With compliance.
YIELDINGNESS, n. Disposition to comply; quality of yielding.
YOJAN, n. In the East Indies, a measure or distance of five miles.
YOKE, n. [G., L., Gr.]
1. A piece of timber, hollowed or made curving near each end, and fitted with bows for receiving the necks of oxen; by which means two are connected for drawing. From a ring or hook in the bow, a chain extends to the thing to be drawn, or to the yoke of another pair of oxen behind.
2. A mark of servitude; slavery; bondage.
Our country sinks beneath the yoke.
3. A chain; a link; a bond of connection; as the yoke of marriage.
4. A couple; a pair; as a yoke of oxen.
My yoke is easy. Matthew 11:30.
1. To put a yoke on; to join in a yoke; as, to yoke oxen, or a pair of oxen.
2. To couple; to join with another.
Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb.
3. To enslave; to bring into bondage.
4. To restrain; to confine. Libertines like not to be yoked in marriage.
The words and promises that yoke the conqueror, are quickly broke.
YOKED, pp. Confined in a yoke; joined; coupled.
YOKE-ELM, n. A tree.
YOKE-FELLOW, YOKE-MATE, n. [yoke and fellow or mate.]
1. An associate or companion.
2. A mate; a fellow.
YOKING, ppr. Putting a yoke on; joining; coupling.
YOLD, for yielded. [Not in use.]
1. The yelk of an egg. [See Yelk.]
2. The unctuous secretion from the skin of sheep, which renders the pile soft and pliable.
3. The vitellus, a part of the seed of plants, so named by Gaertner, from its supposed analogy with the yelk of an egg. It is characterized as very firmly and inseparably connected with the embryo, yet never rising out of the integuments of the seed in germination, but absorbed, like the albumen, [see White and Perisperm,] for the nourishment of the embryo. When the albumen is present, it is always situated between it and the embryo. In the grasses it forms a scale between the embryo and albumen. It is considered by Smith as a subterraneous cotyledon.
YON, YOND, YONDER, a. [G.] Being at a distance within view.
Yonder men are too many for an embassy.
Read thy lot in yon celestial sign.
Yon flowery arbors, yonder alleys green.
YON, YOND, YONDER, adv. At a distance within view. When we use this word, we often point the hand or direct the eye to the place or object.
First and chiefest, with thee bring him that yon soars on golden wing.
Yonder are two apple women scolding.
YOND, a. Mad; furious, or alienated in mind; that is, gone, wandering, and allied to the preceding.
YORE, adv. [It probably signifies past, gone, from the root of year.] Long.
Of yore, of old time; long ago; as in times or days of yore.
But Satan now is wiser than of yore.
YOU, pron. Yu. [You has been considered as in the plural only, and is so treated in the Saxon grammar. But from the Belgic dialect, it appears to be in the singular as well as the plural, and our universal popular usage, in applying it to a single person with a verb in the singular number, is correct. Yourself is in the singular number.]
1. The pronoun of the second person, in the nominative or objective case. In familiar language, it is applied to an individual, as thou is in the solemn style. In the plural, it is used in the solemn style in the objective case.
In vain you tell your parting lover, you wish fair winds may waft him over.
He that despiseth you, despiseth me. Luke 10:16.
2. You is used, like on in French, for any one. This at a distance looks like a rock; but as you approach it, you see a little cabin.
YOUNG, a. Yung. [G., L.]
1. Not having been long born; being in the first part of life; not old; used of animals; as a young child; a young man; a young fawn.
2. Being in the first part of growth; as a young plant; a young tree.
3. Ignorant; weak; or rather, having little experience.
Come, elder brother, thourt too young in this.