Smith's Topical Index


Ammonitess - Azzur


Ammonitess — a woman of Ammonite race. (1 Kings 14:21,31 2 Chronicles 12:13)


Ammonno — See No-Amon.


Amninadab — (Matthew 1:4 Luke 3:33) [Amminadab, 1]


Amnon — (faithful).

  1. Eldest son of David. (B.C. 1052.) He dishonored his half-sister Tamar, and was in consequence murdered by her brother. (2 Samuel 13:1-29)
  2. Son of Shimon. (1 Chronicles 4:20)


Amok — a priest who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:7,20) (B.C. 536.)


Amon — (builder).

  1. One of Ahab's governors. (1 Kings 22:26 2 Chronicles 18:25)
  2. King of Judah, son and successor of Manasseh, reigned two years, from B.C. 642 to 640. Amon devoted himself wholly to the service of false gods, but was killed in a conspiracy, and was succeeded by his son Josiah.

Amon, Or Amen

Amon, Or Amen — (the mysterious), an Egyptian divinity, whose name occurs in that of No-amon. (Nahum 3:8) Amen was one of the eight gods of the first order and chief of the triad of Thebes. He was worshipped at that city as Amen-Ra, or 'Amen the Sun.'

Amorite, The Amorites

Amorite, The Amorites — (dwellers on the summits, mountaineers), one of the chief nations who possessed the land of Canaan before its conquest by the Israelites. As dwelling on the elevated portions of the country, they are contrasted with the Canaanites, who were the dwellers in the lowlands; and the two thus formed the main broad divisions of the Holy Land, (Numbers 13:29) and see (14:7 1:7,20) 'Mountain of the Amorites;' (1:44 Joshua 5:1 10:6 11:3) They first occupied the barren heights west of the Dead Sea, at the place called afterwards Engedi. From this point they stretched west to Hebron. At the date of the invasion of the country, Sihon, their then king, had taken the rich pasture land south of the Jabbok. This rich tract, bounded by the Jabbok on the north, the Arnon on the south, the Jordan on the west and 'the wilderness' on the east, (Judges 11:21,22) was, perhaps in the most special sense the 'land of the Amorites,' (Numbers 21:31 Joshua 12:2,3 13:10 Judges 11:21,22) but their possessions are distinctly stated to have extended to the very foot of Hermon, (3:8 embracing 'Gilead and all Bashan,' (3:10) with the Jordan valley on the east of the river. After the conquest of Canaan nothing of importance is heard of the Amorites in the Bible.


Amos — (burden), native of Tekoa in Judah, about six miles south of Bethlehem, originally a shepherd and dresser of sycamore trees, who was called by God s Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in any of the regular prophetic schools. (Amos 1:1 7:14,15) He travelled from Judah into the northern kingdom of Israel or Ephraim, and there exercised his ministry, apparently not for any long time. (His date cannot be later than B.C. 808 for he lived in the reigns of Uzziah king of Judah and Jeroboam king of Israel; but his ministry probably took place at an earlier date, perhaps about the middle of Jeroboam's reign Nothing is known of the time or manner of his death.--ED.)

Amos, Book Of

Amos, Book Of — The book of the prophecies of Amos seems to be divided into four principal portions closely connected together. (1) From 1:1 to 2:3 he denounces the sins of the nations bordering on Israel and Judah. (2) From 2:4 to 6:14 he describes the state of those two kingdoms, especially, the former. (3) From 7:1 to 9:10 he relates his visit to Bethel, and sketches the impending punishment of Israel. At last he promises blessings. The chief peculiarity of the style consists in the number of allusions to natural objects and agricultural occupations, as might be expected from the early life of the author.


Amoz — (strong), father of the prophet Isaiah, and, according to rabbinical tradition, brother of Amaziah king of Judah. (2 Kings 19:2,20 20:1 Isaiah 1:1) (B.C. before 756.)


Amphipolis — (a city surrounded by the sea), a city of Macedonia, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1) It was distant 33 Roman miles from Philippi, to the southwest, and about three miles from the sea. Its site is now occupied by a village called Neokhorio ; in Turkish Jeni-Keni, or 'New Town.'


Amplias — (large), a Christian at Rome. (Romans 16:8) (A.D. 55.)


Ampliatus — (Revised Version,) (Romans 16:8) (the full name of which Amplias, above, is the contraction. The name in this form is 'common in the sepulchral inscriptions of persons connected with Caesar's household.' (A.D. 55.)--ED.)


Amram — (an exalted people).

  1. A Levite of the family of the Kohathites, and father of Moses. (Exodus 6:18,20) (B.C. 1571.)
  2. A son of Dishon and descendant of Seir, (1 Chronicles 1:41) properly 'Hamram' = Hemdan in (Genesis 36:26)
  3. One of the sons of Bani in the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:34) (B.C. 459).


Amramites — A branch of the great Kohathite family of the tribe of Levi, (Numbers 3:27 1 Chronicles 26:23) descended from Amram, the father of Moses.


Amraphel — (keeper of the gods) perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia, who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain. Gen. 14. (B.C. 1898.)


Amulets — were ornaments, gems, scrolls. etc.. worn as preservatives against the power of enchantments, and generally inscribed with mystic forms or characters. The 'earrings' in (Genesis 35:4) were obviously connected with idolatrous worship and were probably amulets taken from the bodies of the slain Shechemites. They are subsequently mentioned among the spoils of Midian. (Judges 8:24) In (Hosea 2:13) is another like reference. The 'earrings' in (Isaiah 3:20) were also amulets.


Amzi — (strong).

  1. A Levite of the family of Merari. (1 Chronicles 6:46)
  2. A priest. (Nehemiah 11:12)


Anab — (grape-town), a town in the mountains of Judah, (Joshua 15:50) named with Debir and Hebron as once belonging to the Anakim. (Joshua 11:21)


Anah — (one who answers), the son of Zibeon and father of Aholibamah, one of Esau's wives. (Genesis 36:2,14,25) He is supposed to have discovered the 'hot springs' (not 'mules,' as in the Authorized Version) in the desert as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. (B.C. 1797.)


Anaharath — (gorge or pass), a place within the border of Issachar, named with Shihon and Rabbith. (Joshua 19:19)


Anaiah — (whom Jehovah answers).

  1. Probably a priest. (Nehemiah 8:4)
  2. One of the 'heads of the people' who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:22)


Anakim — (long-necked), a race of giants, descendants of Arba, (Joshua 15:13 21:11) dwelling in the southern part of Canaan, and particularly at Hebron, which from their progenitor received the name of 'city of Arba.' Anak was the name of the race rather than that of an individual. (Joshua 14:15) The race appears to have been divided into three tribes or families, bearing the names Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. Though the war-like appearance of the Anakim had struck the Israelites with terror in the time of Moses, (Numbers 13:28 9:2) they were nevertheless dispossessed by Joshua, (Joshua 11:21,22) and their chief city, Hebron, became the possession of Caleb. (Joshua 15:14 Judges 1:20) After this time they vanish from history.


Anamim — a Mizraite people or tribe. (Genesis 10:13 1 Chronicles 1:11)


Anammelech — (image of the king), one of the idols worshipped by the colonists introduced into Samaria from Sepharvaim. (2 Kings 17:31) He was worshipped with rites resembling those of Molech, and is the companion-god to Adrammelech.


Anan — (a cloud), one of the 'heads of the people' who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:26) (B.C. 410.)


Anani — (Protected by Jehovah), the seventh son of Elioenai, descended from the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:24)


Ananiah — a place, named between Nob and Hazor, in which the Benjamites lived after their return from captivity. (Nehemiah 11:32) (protected by Jehovah) probably a priest, and ancestor of Azariah, who assisted in rebuilding the city wall in the days of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:23) (B.C. before 446.)


Ananias — (whom Jehovah has graciously given)

  1. A high priest in (Acts 23:2-5 24:1) He was the son of Nebedaeus. He was nominated to the office by Herod king of Chalcis in A.D. 48; was deposed shortly before Felix left the province and assassinated by the Sicarii at the beginning of the last Jewish war.
  2. A disciple at Jerusalem, husband of Sapphira. (Acts 5:1-11) having sold his goods for the benefit of the church he kept back a part of the price, bringing to the apostles the remainder as if it was the whole, his wife being privy to the scheme. St. Peter denounced the fraud, and Ananias fell down and expired.
  3. A Jewish disciple at Damascus, (Acts 9:10-17) of high repute, (Acts 22:12) who sought out Saul during the period of blindness which followed his conversion, and announced to him his future commission as a preacher of the gospel. Tradition makes him to have been afterwarded bishop of Damascus, and to have died by martyrdom.


Anath — (answer), father of Shamgar. (Judges 3:31 5:6)


Anathema — which literally means a thing suspended, is the equivalent of the Hebrew word signifying a thing or person voted. Any object so devoted to Jehovah was irredeemable. If an inanimate object, it was to be given to the priests, (Numbers 18:14) if a living creature or even a man, it was to be slain. (Leviticus 27:28,29) The word anathema frequently occurs in St. Paul's writings, and is generally translated accused. An examination of the passages in which it occurs shows that it had acquired a more general sense as expressive either of strong feeling, (Romans 9:3) or of dislike and condemnation. (1 Corinthians 12:3 16:22 Galatians 1:9)


Anathoth — a priests' city belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, with 'suburbs.' (Joshua 21:18 1 Chronicles 6:60) Anathoth lay about three miles from Jerusalem. (Isaiah 10:30) The cultivation of the priests survives in tilled fields of grain, with figs and olives. There are the remains of walls and strong foundations, and the quarries still supply Jerusalem with building stones. (answers to prayer).

  1. Son of Becher, a son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)
  2. One of the 'heads of the people' who signed the covenant in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:19) (B.C. 410.)


Anchor — (Acts 27:29)


Andrew — (manly), one of the apostles of our Lord, (John 1:40 Matthew 4:18) brother of Simon Peter. He was of Bethsaida, and had been a disciple of John the Baptist, leaving him to follow our Lord. By his means his brother Simon was brought to Jesus. (John 1:41) His place among the apostles seems to have been fourth, next after the three Peter, James and John, and in company with Philip. (Mark 3:18 Acts 1:13) The traditions about him are various. He is said to have preached in Scythia, in Greece, in Asia Minor and Thrace, and to have been crucified at Patrae in Achaia.


Andronicus — (man-conqueror).

  1. An officer left as viceroy, 2 Macc. 4:31, in Antioch by Antiochus Epiphanes during his absence. 2 Macc. 4:31-38. (B.C. 171.)
  2. Another officer of Antiochus Epiphanes who was left by him on Garizem. 2 Macc. 5:23.
  3. A Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul, (Romans 16:7) together with Junia.


Anem — (two springs), a city of Issachar, with 'suburbs,' belonging to the (Gershonites). (1 Chronicles 6:70)


Aner — one of the three Amorite chiefs of Hebron who aided Abraham in the pursuit after the four invading kings. (Genesis 14:13,24) (boy), a city of Manasseh, west of Jordan, with 'suburbs,' given to the Kohathites. (1 Chronicles 6:70)


Anethothite — (2 Samuel 23:27) Anet'othite, (1 Chronicles 27:12) and An'tothite, (1 Chronicles 11:28 12:3) an inhabitant of Anathoth, of the tribe of Benjamin.

Angel Of The Lord

Angel Of The Lord — (Genesis 16:7) etc. (The special form in which God manifested himself to man, and hence Christ's visible form before the incarnation. Compare (Acts 7:30-38) with the corresponding Old-Testament history; and (Genesis 18:1,13,14,33) and Genesis 19:1)


Angels — By the word 'angels' (i.e. 'messengers' of God) we ordinarily understand a race of spiritual beings of a nature exalted far above that of man, although infinitely removed from that of God--whose office is 'to do him service in heaven, and by his appointment to succor and defend men on earth. I. Scriptural use of the word .--There are many passages in which the expression 'angel of God' is certainly used for a manifestation of God himself (Genesis 22:11) with Genesis 22:12 and Exodus 3:2 with Exodus 3:6 and Exodus 3:14 It is to be observed, also, that side by side with these expressions we read of God's being manifested in the form of man--as to Abraham at Mamre, (Genesis 18:2,22) comp. Genesis 19:1 To Jacob at Penuel, (Genesis 32:24,30) to Joshua at Gilgal, (Joshua 5:13,15) etc. Besides this, which is the highest application of the word angel, we find the phrase used of any messengers of God, such as the prophets, (Isaiah 42:19 Haggai 1:13 Malachi 3:1) the priests, (Malachi 2:7) and the rulers of the Christian churches. (Revelation 1:20) II. Nature of angels--Angels are termed 'spirits,' as in (Hebrews 1:14)--but it is not asserted that the angelic nature is incorporeal. The contrary seems expressly implied in (Luke 20:36 Philemon The angels are revealed to us as beings such as man might be, and will be when the power of sin and death is removed, because always beholding his face, (Matthew 18:10) and therefore being 'made like him.' (1 John 3:2) Their number must be very large, (1 Kings 22:19 Matthew 26:53 Hebrews 12:22) their strength is great, (Psalms 103:20 Revelation 5:2 18:21) their activity marvelous (Isaiah 6:2-6 Matthew 26:53 Revelation 8:13) their appearance varied according to circumstances, but was often brilliant and dazzling. (Matthew 28:2-7 Revelation 10:1,2) Of the nature of 'fallen angels,' the circumstances and nature of the temptation by which they fell, we know absolutely nothing. All that is certain is that they 'left their first estate' and that they are now 'angels of the devil.' (Matthew 25:41 Revelation 12:7,9) On the other hand the title especially assigned to the angels of God--that of the 'holy ones,' see (Daniel 4:13,23 8:13 Matthew 25:31)--is precisely the one which is given to those men who are renewed in Christ's image. Comp. (Hebrews 2:10 5:9 12:23) III. Office of the angels . Of their office in heaven we have only vague prophetic glimpses as in (1 Kings 22:19 Isaiah 6:1-3 Daniel 7:9,10 Revelation 6:11), etc., which show us nothing but a never-ceasing adoration. They are represented as being, in the widest sense, agents of God's providence, natural and supernatural, to the body and to the soul. In one word, they are Christ's ministers of grace now, and they shall be of judgment hereafter. (Matthew 13:39,41,49 16:27 24:31) etc. That there are degrees of the angelic nature, both fallen and unfallen, and special titles and agencies belonging to each, is clearly declared by St. Paul, (Ephesians 1:21 Romans 8:38) but what their general nature is it is useless to speculate.


Aniam — (sighing of the people), a Manassite, son of Shemidah (1 Chronicles 7:19)


Anim — (fountains), a city in the mountains of Judah, named with Eshtemoh and Goshen. (Joshua 15:50)


Anise — This word occurs only in (Matthew 23:23) It is by no means a matter of certainty whether the anise (Pimpinella anisum, Lin.) or the dill (Anethum graveolens) is here intended though the probability is more in favor of the latter plant. 'Anise is an annual plant growing to the height of one foot, carries a white flower, and blooms from June till August. The seeds are imported and used in large quantities on account of their aromatic and carminative properties. It grows wild in Egypt, in Syria, Palestine and all parts of the Levant. Among the ancients anise seems to have been a common pot-herb in every garden. Although it is less used in medicine by the moderns than by the ancients, it still retains its former reputation as an excellent stomachic, particularly for delicate women and young children. The Romans chewed it in order to keep up an agreeable moisture in the mouth and to sweeten the breath, while some Orientals still do the same.' Dill, a somewhat similar plant, is an annual, bearing small aromatic seeds, used also for cookery and medicine.


Anklet — This word does not occur in the Authorized Version; but anklets are referred to in (Isaiah 3:16,18,20) They were fastened to the ankle band of each leg; were as common as bracelets and armlets and made of much the same material. The pleasant jingling and tinkling which they made as they knocked against each other was no doubt one of the reasons why they were admired, They are still worn in the East.


Anna — (grace), a 'prophetess' in Jerusalem at the time of our Lord's Presentation in the temple. (Luke 2:36) She was of the tribe of Asher.


Annas — (humble), the son of one Seth was appointed high priest A.D. 7 by Quirinus, the imperial governor of Syria, but was obliged by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judea, to give way to Ismael, son of Phabi, at the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, A.D. 14. About A.D. 25 Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of An-nas, became high priest, (John 18:13) but in Luke 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas are both called high priests. Our Lord's first hearing, (John 18:13) was before Annas, who then sent him bound to Caiaphas. Some maintain that the two, Annas and Caiaphas, were together at the head of the Jewish people,--Caiaphas as actual high priest, Annas as resident of the Sanhedrin- (Acts 4:6) Others again suppose that Annas held the office of sagin, or substitute of the high priest; others still that Annas held the title and was really the ruling power. He lived to old age, having had five sons high priests.


Anointing — in Holy Scripture, is either, I. Material--with oil--or II. Spiritual--with the Holy Ghost. I. MATERIAL.--

  1. Ordinary . Anointing the body or head with oil was a common practice with the Jews, as with other Oriental nations. Ruth 3:3 Micah 6:15) Anointing the head with oil or ointment seems also to have been a mark of respect sometimes paid by a host to his guests. (Luke 7:46) and Psalms 23:5
  2. Official . It was a rite of inauguration into each of the three typical offices of the Jewish commonwealth. a. Prophets were occasionally anointed to their office, (1 Kings 19:16) and were called messiahs, or anointed. (1 Chronicles 16:22 Psalms 105:15) b. Priests, at the first institution of the Levitical priesthood, were all anointed to their offices, (Exodus 40:15 Numbers 3:3) but afterwards anointing seems to have been specially reserved for the high priest, (Exodus 29:29 Leviticus 16:32) so that 'the priest that is anointed,' (Leviticus 4:3) is generally thought to mean the high priest. c. Kings. Anointing was the principal and divinely-appointed ceremony in the inauguration of the Jewish Kings. (1 Samuel 9:16 10:1 1 Kings 1:34,39) The rite was sometimes performed more than once. David was thrice anointed. d. Inanimate objects also were anointed with oil, in token of their being set apart for religious service. Thus Jacob anointed a pillar at Bethel. ((Genesis 31:13 Exodus 30:26-28)
  3. Ecclesiastical . Anointing with oil is prescribed by St. James to be used for the recovery of the sick. (James 5:14) Analogous to this is the anointing with oil practiced by the twelve. (Mark 6:13) II. SPIRITUAL.--
  4. In the Old Testament a Deliverer is promised under the title of Messiah, or Anointed, (Psalms 2:2 Daniel 9:25,26) and the nature of his anointing is described to be spiritual, with the Holy Ghost. (Isaiah 61:1) see Luke 4:18 In the New Testament Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the Messiah, or Christ or Anointed, of the Old Testament, (John 1:41 Acts 9:22 17:2,3 18:4,28) and the historical fact of his being anointed with the Holy Ghost is asserted and recorded. (John 1:32,33 Acts 4:27 10:38) Christ was anointed as prophet priest and king.
  5. Spiritual anointing with the Holy Ghost is conferred also upon Christians by God. (2 Corinthians 1:21) ' Anointing 'expresses the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit upon Christians who are priests and kings unto God.


Ant — (Heb. nemalah). This insect is mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in (Proverbs 6:6 30:25) In the former of these passages the diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy of imitation; in the second passage the ant's wisdom is especially alluded to; for these insects 'though they be little on the earth, are exceeding wise.' (For a long time European commentators and naturalists denied that ants stored up grain for future use, as was asserted in Proverbs but while this is true of most of the 104 European species, two of those species do lay up food, and are called harvesting ants . Like species have been found in Texas and South America, and are known to exist in Palestine. They show many other proofs of their skill. Some of them build wonderful houses; these are often several stories high, sometimes five hundred times the height of the builders, with rooms, corridors, and vaulted roofs supported by pillars. Some species keep a kind of cows; others have a regular army of soldiers; some keep slaves--'No closer imitation of the ways of man could be found in the entire animal economy.' (See Encyc. Brit.) McCook's 'The Honey Ants' gives many curious facts about the habits of this peculiar kind of ant, and of the harvesting ants of the American plains.--ED.)


Antichrist — This term is employed by the apostle John alone, and is defined by him in a manner which leaves no doubt as to its intrinsic meaning. With regard to its application there is less certainty. In the first passage-- (1 John 2:18)--in which it occurs, the apostle makes direct reference to the false Christs whose coming, it had been fore-told, should mark the last days. In v. 22 we find, 'he is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son;' and still more positively, 'every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of antichrist.' Comp. (2 John 1:7) From these emphatic and repeated definitions it has been supposed that the object of the apostle in his first epistle was to combat the errors of Cerinthus, the Docetae and the Gnostics on the subject of the Incarnation. (They denied the union of the divine and human in Christ.) The coming of Antichrist was (believed to be foretold in the 'vile person' of Daniel's prophecy, (Daniel 11:21) which received its first accomplishment in Antiochus Epiphanes but of which the complete fulfillment was reserved for the last times. He is identified with 'the man of sin, the son of perdition.' (2 Thessalonians 2:3) This interpretation brings Antichrist into close connection with the gigantic power of evil, symbolized by the 'beast,' (Revelation 13:1) ... who received his power from the dragon (i.e. the devil, the serpent of Genesis), continued for forty and two months, and was invested with the kingdom of the ten kings who destroyed the harlot Babylon, (Revelation 17:12,17) the city of seven hills. The destruction of Babylon is to be followed by the rule of Antichrist for a short period, (Revelation 17:10) to be in his turn overthrown in 'the battle of that great day of God Almighty,' (Revelation 16:14) with the false prophet and all his followers. Rev. 19. The personality of Antichrist is to be inferred as well from the personality of his historical precursor as from that of him to whom he stands opposed. Such an interpretation is to be preferred to that which regards Antichrist as the embodiment and personification of all powers and agencies inimical to Christ, or of the Antichristian might of the world.


Antioch — (from Antiochus)-

  1. IN Syria. The capital of the Greek kings of Syria, and afterwards the residence of the Roman governors of the province which bore the same name. Situation .--This metropolis was situated where the chain of Lebanon, running northward, and the chain of Taurus, running eastward. are brought to an abrupt meeting. Here the Orontes breaks through the mountains; and Antioch was placed at a bend of the river, 16 1/2 miles from the Mediterranean, partly on an island, partly on the levee which forms the left bank, and partly on the steep and craggy ascent of Mount Silpius, which, rose abruptly on the south. It is about 300 miles north of Jerusalem. In the immediate neighborhood was Daphne the celebrated sanctuary of Apollo 2 Macc. whence the city was sometimes called Antioch by Daphne, to distinguish it from other cities of the same name. Destruction .--The city was founded in the year 300 B.C., by Seleucus Nicator. It grew under the successive Seleucid kings till it became a city of great extent and of remarkable beauty. One feature, which seems to have been characteristic of the great Syrian cities,--a vast street with colonnades, intersecting the whole from end to end,--was added by Antiochus Epiphanes. By Pompey it was made a free city, and such it continued till the time of Antoninus Pius. The early emperors raised there some large and important structures, such as aqueducts, amphitheatres and baths. (Antioch, in Paul's time, was the third city of the Roman empire, and contained over 200,000 inhabitants. Now it is a small, mean place of about 6000.--ED.) Bible History .--No city, after Jerusalem, is so intimately connected with the history of the apostolic church. Jews were settled there from the first in large numbers, were governed by their own ethnarch, and allowed to have the same political privileges with the Greeks. The chief interest of Antioch, however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen, Here the first Gentile church was founded, (Acts 11:20,21) here the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26) It was from Antioch that St. Paul started on his three missionary journeys.
  2. IN Pisidia, (Acts 13:14 14:19,21 2 Timothy 3:11) on the borders of Phrygia, corresponds to Yalobatch, which is distant from Aksher six hours over the mountains. This city, like the Syrian Antioch, was founded by Seleucus Nicator. Under the Romans it became a colonia, and was also called Caesarea.


Antiochus — (an opponent), the name of a number of kings of Syria who lived during the interval between the Old and New Testaments, and had frequent connection with the Jews during that period. They are referred to in the Apocrypha especially in the books of the Maccabees.


Antipas — [Herod] (like the father), martyr at Pergamos, (Revelation 2:13) and according to tradition the bishop of that place. (A.D. before 100.)

Antipatris, Or Antipatris

Antipatris, Or Antipatris — (for his father), a town to which the soldiers conveyed St. Paul by night on their march. (Acts 23:31) Its ancient name was Capharsaba; and Herod, when he rebuilt the city, changed it to Antipatris, in honor of his father, Antipater. The village Kefr-Sabba still retains the ancient name of Antipatris.


Antonia — (from Marc Antony) (a square stone fortress or castle adjoining the northwest corner of the temple area at Jerusalem. There was a tower at each corner. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and named by him from Marc Antony. From the stairs of this castle Paul addressed the multitude who had assaulted him (Acts 21:31-40)--ED.)


Antothijah — (answers of Jehovah), a Benjamite, one of the sons of Jeroham. (1 Chronicles 8:24)


Antothite — a dweller at Anathoth. (1 Chronicles 11:28 12:3) [Anathoth]


Anub — (confederate), son of Coz and descendant of Judah, through Ashur the father of Tekoa (1 Chronicles 4:8)


Apelles — (called), a Christian saluted by St. Paul in (Romans 16:10) Tradition makes him bishop of Smyrna or Heraclea. (A.D. 55.)


Apes — (Heb. kophim) are mentioned in (1 Kings 10:22) and 2 Chronicles 9:21 There can be little doubt that the apes were brought from the same country which supplied ivory and peacocks, both of which are common in Ceylon; and Sir E. Tennent has drawn attention to the fact that the Tamil names for apes, ivory and peacocks are identical with the Hebrew.

Apharsathchites, Apharsites, Apharsacites

Apharsathchites, Apharsites, Apharsacites — the names of certain tribes, colonies from which had been planted in Samaria by the Assyrian leader Asnapper. (Ezra 4:9 5:6) The first and last are regarded as the same. Whence these tribes came is entirely a matter of conjecture.


Aphek — (strength), the name of several places in Palestine.

  1. A royal city of the Canaanites, the king of which was killed by Joshua, (Joshua 12:18) probably the same as Aphekah in (Joshua 15:53)
  2. A city, apparently in the extreme north of Asher, (Joshua 19:30) from which the Canaanites were not ejected, (Judges 1:31) though here it is Aphik. This is probably the same place as APHEK, (Joshua 13:4) on the extreme north 'border of the Amorites,'; identified with the Aphaca of classical times, the modern Afka .
  3. A place at which the Philistines encamped while the Israelites pitched in Eben-ezer, before the fatal battle in which the sons of Eli were killed and the ark was taken. (1 Samuel 4:1) This would be somewhere to the northwest of and at no great distance from Jerusalem.
  4. The scene of another encampment of the Philistines, before an encounter not less disastrous than that just named,--the defeat and death of Saul. (1 Samuel 29:1) It is possible that it may be the same place as the preceding.
  5. A city on the military road from Syria to Israel. (1 Kings 20:26) It is now found in Fik, at the head of the Wady Fik, six miles east of the Sea of Galilee.


Aphekah — (strong place), a city of Judah, in the mountains (Joshua 15:53) probably the same as Aphek, 1.


Aphiah — (refreshed), one of the fore-fathers of King Saul. (1 Samuel 9:1)


Aphik — (strong), a city of Asher from which the Canaanites were not driven out. (Judges 1:31) Probably the same place as Aphek, 2.


Aphrah — (dust), The house of, a place mentioned in (Micah 1:10) Its site is uncertain.


Aphses — (the dispersion), chief of the 15th of the 24 courses in the service of the temple. (1 Chronicles 24:15)


Apocalypse — A Greek word meaning revelation, applied chiefly to the book of Revelation by John. [Revelation Of St. John]


Apocrypha — (concealed, hidden).

  1. Old Testament Apocrypha ._The collection of books to which this term is popularly applied includes the following (the order given is that in which they stand in the English version); I. 1 Esdras; II. 2 Esdras; III. Tobit; IV. Judith; V. The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI. The Wisdom of Solomon; VII. The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; VII. Baruch; IX. The Song of the Three Holy Children, X. The History of Susanna; XI. The History of the destruction of Bel and the Dragon; XII. The Prayer of Manasses king of Judah; XIII. 1 Maccabee; XIV. 2 Maccabees. The primary meaning of apocrypha, 'hidden, secret,' seems, toward the close of the second century to have been associated with the signification 'spurious,' and ultimately to have settled down into the latter. The separate books of this collection are treated of in distinct articles. Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under Canon Of Scripture, The.
  2. New Testament Apocrypha-- (A collection of legendary and spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles. They are go entirely inferior to the genuine books, so full of nonsensical and unworthy stories of Christ and the apostles, that they have never been regarded as divine, or bound up in our Bibles. It is said that Mohammed obtained his ideas of Christ entirely from these spurious gospels.--ED.)


Apollonia — (belonging to Apollo), a city of Macedonia, through which Paul and Silas passed in their way from Philippi and Amphipolis to Thessalonica. (Acts 17:1) According to the Antonine Itinerary it was distant 30 Roman miles from Amphipolis and 37 Roman miles from Thessalonica.


Apollos — (given by Apollo) a Jew from Alexandria, eloquent (which may also mean learned) and mighty in the Scriptures; one instructed in the way of the Lord, according to the imperfect view of the disciples of John the Baptist, (Acts 18:24) but on his coming to Ephesus during a temporary absence of St. Paul, A.D. 54, more perfectly taught by Aquila and Priscilla. After this he became a preacher of the gospel, first in Achaia and then in Corinth. (Acts 18:27 19:1) When the apostle wrote his First Epistle to the Corinthians, Apollos was with or near him, (1 Corinthians 16:12) probably at Ephesus in A.D. 57. He is mentioned but once more in the New Testament, in (Titus 3:13) After this nothing is known of him. Tradition makes him bishop of Caesarea.


Apollyon — or, as it is literally in the margin of the Authorized Version of (Revelation 9:11) 'a destroyer,' is the rendering of the Hebrew word Abaddon, 'the angel of the bottomless pit.' From the occurrence of the word in (Psalms 88:11) the rabbins have made Abaddon the nethermost of the two regions into which they divide the lower world; but that in (Revelation 9:11) Abaddon is the angel and not the abyss is perfectly evident in the Greek.


Apostle — (one sent forth), in the New Testament originally the official name of those twelve of the disciples whom Jesus chose to send forth first to preach the gospel and to be with him during the course of his ministry on earth. The word also appears to have been used in a non-official sense to designate a much wider circle of Christian messengers and teachers See (2 Corinthians 8:23 Philemon It is only of those who were officially designated apostles that we treat in the article. Their names are given in (Matthew 10:2-4) and Christ's charge to them in the rest of the chapter. Their office.-- (1) The original qualification of an apostle, as stated by St. Peter on the occasion of electing a successor to the traitor Judas, was that he should have been personally acquainted with the whole ministerial course of our Lord from his baptism by John till the day when he was taken up into heaven. (2) They were chosen by Christ himself (3) They had the power of working miracles. (4) They were inspired. (John 16:13) (5) Their world seems to have been pre-eminently that of founding the churches and upholding them by supernatural power specially bestowed for that purpose. (6) The office ceased, a matter of course, with its first holders-all continuation of it, from the very condition of its existence (cf. (1 Corinthians 9:1)), being impossible. Early history and training .--The apostles were from the lower ranks of life, simple and uneducated; some of them were related to Jesus according to the flesh; some had previously been disciples of John the Baptist. Our Lord chose them early in his public career They seem to have been all on an equality, both during and after the ministry of Christ on earth. Early in our Lord's ministry he sent them out two and two to preach repentance and to perform miracles in his name Matt 10; Luke 9. They accompanied him in his journey, saw his wonderful works, heard his discourses addressed to the people, and made inquiries of him on religious matters. They recognized him as the Christ of God, (Matthew 16:16 Luke 9:20) and described to him supernatural power (Luke 9:54) but in the recognition of the spiritual teaching and mission of Christ they made very low progress, held back as they were by weakness of apprehension and by national prejudices. Even at the removal of our Lord from the earth they were yet weak in their knowledge, (Luke 24:21 John 16:12) though he had for so long been carefully preparing and instructing them. On the feast of Pentecost, ten days after our Lord's ascension, the Holy Spirit came down on the assembled church, Acts 2; and from that time the apostles became altogether different men, giving witness with power of the life and death and resurrection of Jesus, as he had declared they should. (Luke 24:48 Acts 1:8,22 2:32 3:15 5:32 13:31) Later labors and history.--First of all the mother-church at Jerusalem grew up under their hands, Acts 3-7, and their superior dignity and power were universally acknowledged by the rulers and the people. (Acts 5:12) ff. Their first mission out of Jerusalem was to Samaria (Acts 8:5-25) where the Lord himself had, during his ministry, sown the seed of the gospel. Here ends the first period of the apostles' agency, during which its centre is Jerusalem and the prominent figure is that of St. Peter. The centre of the second period of the apostolic agency is Antioch, where a church soon was built up, consisting of Jews and Gentiles; and the central figure of this and of the subsequent period is St. Paul. The third apostolic period is marked by the almost entire disappearance of the twelve from the sacred narrative and the exclusive agency of St. Paul, the great apostle of the Gentiles. Of the missionary work of the rest of the twelve we know absolutely nothing from the sacred narrative.


Appaim — or Ap'paim (the nostrils), son of Nadab, and descended from Jerahmeel, the founder of an important family of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:30,31)


Appeal — The principle, of appeal was recognized by the Mosaic law in the establishment of a central court under the presidency of the judge or ruler for the time being, before which all cased too difficult for the local court were to be tried. (17:8,9) According to the above regulation, the appeal lay in the time of the Judges to the judge, (Judges 4:5) and under the monarchy to the king. Jehoshaphat delegated his judicial authority to a court permanently established for the purpose. (2 Chronicles 19:8) These courts were re-established by Ezra. (Ezra 7:25) After the institution of the Sanhedrin the final appeal lay to them. St. Paul, as a Roman citizen, exercized a right of appeal from the jurisdiction of the local court at Jerusalem to the emperor. (Acts 25:11)


Apphia — (fruitful) a Christian woman addressed jointly with Philemon and Archippus in Phil. 2; apparently a member of Philemon's household, and not improbably his wife. (A.D. 57)

Appii Forum

Appii Forum — (market-place of Appius), a well-known station on the Appian Way, the great road which led from Rome to the neighborhood of the Bay of Naples. (Acts 28:15) There is no difficulty in identifying the site with some ruins near Treponti . [Three Taverns Taverns, The Three]

Appius, Market Of

Appius, Market Of — Revised Version for Appii Forum. (Acts 28:16)

Apple Tree, Apple

Apple Tree, Apple — (Heb. tappuach). Mention of the apple tree occurs in the Authorized Version in (Song of Solomon 2:3 8:5) and Joel 1:12 The fruit of this tree is alluded to in (Proverbs 25:11) and Song of Solomon 2:5 7:8 It is a difficult matter to say what is the specific tree denoted by the Hebrew word tappuach . ('The apple proper is rare in Syria, and its fruit inferior.') Most modern writers maintain that it is either the quince or the citron; (others speak of the apricot, which is abundant and deliciously perfumed.) The quince had some plausible arguments in its favor. Its fragrance was held in high esteem by the ancients. The quince was sacred to Venus. On the other hand Dr Royle says,'The rich color, fragrant odor and handsome appearance of the citron, whether in flower or in fruit, are particularly suited to the passages of scripture mentioned above.' But neither the quince nor the citron nor the apple appears fully to answer to all the scriptural allusions. The orange would answer all the demands of the scriptural passages, and orange trees are found in Palestine; but there does not appear sufficient evidence that this tree was known in the earlier times to the inhabitants of Palestine. The question of identification therefore, must still be left an open one.


Aquila — (an eagle), a Jew whom St. Paul found at Corinth on his arrival from Athens. (Acts 18:2) (A.D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city. He became acquainted with St. Paul, and they abode together, and wrought at their common trade of making the Cilician tent or hair-cloth. On the departure of the apostle from Corinth, a year and eight months after, Priscilla and Aquila accompanied him to Ephesus. There they remained and there they taught Apollos. At what time they became Christians is uncertain.


Ar — (a city), or Ar of Moab, one of the chief places of Moab. (Numbers 21:28 Isaiah 15:1) In later times the place known as Areopolis and Rabbath-Moab. The site still called Rabba . It lies about halfway between Kerak and the Wady Mojeb, 10 or 11 miles from each, the Roman road passing through it.


Ara — (lion), one of the sons of Jether, the head of a family of Asherites. (1 Chronicles


Arab — (ambush) a city of Judah in the mountainous district, probably in the neighborhood of Hebron; mentioned only in (Joshua 15:62)


Arabah — (burnt up). Although this word appears in the Authorized Version in its original shape only in (Joshua 18:18) yet in the Hebrew text it is of frequent occurrence. It indicates more particularly the deep-sunken valley or trench which forms the most striking among the many striking natural features of Palestine, and which extends with great uniformity of formation from the slopes of Hermon to the Elanitic Gulf (Gulf of Akabah) of the Red Sea; the most remarkable depression known to exist on the surface of the globe. Through the northern portion of this extraordinary fissure the Jordan rushes through the lakes of Huleh and Gennesaret down its tortuous course to the deep chasm of the Dead Sea. This portion, about 150 miles in length, is known amongst the Arabs by the name of el-Ghor . The southern boundary of the (Ghor is the wall of cliffs which crosses the valley about 10 miles south of the Dead Sea. From their summits, southward to the Gulf of Akabah, the valley changes its name, or, it would be more accurate to say, retains old name of Wady el-Arabah .


Arabia — (desert, barren), a country known in the Old Testament under two designations:--

  1. The East Country, (Genesis 25:6) or perhaps the East, ((Genesis 10:30 Numbers 23:7 Isaiah 2:6) and Land of the Sons of the East, (Genesis 29:1) Gentile name, Sons of the East, (Judges 6:3 7:12 1 Kings 4:30 Job 1:3 Isaiah 11:14 Jeremiah Ezekiel 25:4) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and that this original signification may have become gradually extended to Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict limitation.
  2. 'Arab and 'Arab, whence Arabia. (2 Chronicles 9:14 Isaiah 21:13 Jeremiah Ezekiel 27:21) (Arabia is a triangular peninsula, included between the Mediterranean and Red seas, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. Its extreme length, north and south, is about 1300 miles, and its greatest breadth 1500 miles. -Encyc. Brit.) Divisions .--Arabia may be divided into Arabia Proper, containing the whole peninsula as far as the limits of the northern deserts; Northern Arabia (Arabia Deserta), constituting the great desert of Arabia; and Western Arabia, the desert of Petra and the peninsula of Sinai, or the country that has been called Arabia Petraea, I. Arabia Proper, or the Arabian penninsula consists of high tableland, declining towards the north. Most of it is well peopled, watered by wells and streams, and enjoys periodical rains. The moist fertile tracts are those on the southwest and south. II. Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert, is a high, undulating, parched plain, of which the Euphrates forms the natural boundary from the Persian Gulf to the frontier of Syria, whence it is bounded by the latter country and the desert of Petra on the northwest and west, the peninsula of Arabia forming its southern limit. It has few oases, the water of the wells is generally either brackish or unpotable and it is visited by the sand-wind called Samoom . The inhabitants principally descended from Ishmael and from Keturah, have always led a wandering and pastoral life. They conducted a considerable trade of merchandise of Arabia and India from the shore of the Persian Gulf. (Ezekiel 27:20-24) III. Western Arabia includes the peninsula of Sinai [Sinai, Or Sinai] and the desert of Petra; corresponding generally with the limits of Arabia Petraea. The latter name is probably derived from that of its chief city, not from its stony character. It was mostly peopled by descendants of Esau, and was generally known as the land of Edom or Idumea [Edom, Idumaea Or Idumea], as well as by its older appellation, the desert of Seir or Mount Seir. [Seir] Inhabitants .-- (Arabia, which once ruled from India to the Atlantic, now has eight or nine millions of inhabitants, about one-fifth of whom are Bedouin or wandering tribes, and the other four-fifths settled Arabs.--Encyc. Brit.)
  3. The descendants of Joktan occupied the principal portions of the south and southwest of the peninsula, with colonies in the interior. The principal Joktanite kingdom, and the chief state of ancient Arabia, was that of the Yemen.
  4. The ISHMAELITES appear to have entered the peninsula from the northwest. That they have spread over the whole of it (with the exception of one or two districts on the south coast), and that the modern nation is predominantly Ishmaelite, is asserted by the Arabs.
  5. Of the descendants of Keturah the Arabs say little. They appear to have settled chiefly north of the peninsula in Desert Arabia, from Palestine to the Persian Gulf.
  6. In northern and western Arabia are other peoples, which, from their geographical position and mode of life are sometimes classed with the Arabs, of these are Amalek, the descendants of Esau, etc. (Productions-- The productions are varied. The most noted animal is the horse. Camels, sheep, cattle, asses, mules and cats are common. Agricultural products are coffee, wheat, barley, millet, beans, pulse, dates and the common garden plants. In pasture lands Arabia is peculiarly fortunate. In mineral products it is singularly poor, lead being most abundant.--Encyc. Brit.) Religion .-- The most ancient idolatry of the Arabs we must conclude to have been fetishism. Magianism, an importation from Chaldaea and Persia, must be reckoned among the religions of the pagan Arabs; but it never had very numerous followers. Christianity was introduced into southern Arabia toward the close of the second century, and about a century later it had made great progress. It flourished chiefly in the Yemen, where many churches were built. Judaism was propagated in Arabia, principally by Karaites, at the captivity. They are now nominally Mohammedans. Language .-- Arabic the language of Arabia, is the most developed and the richest of Shemitic languages, and the only one of which we have an extensive literature; it is, therefore, of great importance to the study of Hebrew. Government .-- Arabia is now under the government of the Ottoman empire.


Arabians — the nomadic tribes inhabiting the country to the east and south of Palestine, who in the early times of Hebrew history were known as Ishmaelites and descendants of Keturah.


Arad — a royal city of the Canaanites, named with Hormah and Libnah. (Joshua 12:14) The wilderness of Judah was to the south of Arad.' (Judges 1:16) It may be identified with a hill, Tel 'Arad, an hour and a half northeast by east from Milh (Moladah), and eight hours from Hebron. (a wild ass), a Benjamite, son of Beriah, who drove out the inhabitants of Gath. (1 Chronicles 8:15) (B.C. 536.)


Arah — (wayfaring).

  1. An Asherite, of the sons of Ulla. (1 Chronicles 7:39)
  2. The sons of Arah returned with Zerubbabel in number 775 according to (Ezra 2:5) but 652 according to (Nehemiah 7:10) (B.C. 536.) One of his descendants, Shechaniah, was the father-in-law of Tobiah the Ammonite. (Nehemiah 6:18)


Aram — (high).

  1. The name by which the Hebrews designated, generally, the country lying to the northeast of Palestine; the great mass of that high tableland which, rising with sudden abruptness from the Jordan and the very margin of the Lake of Gennesaret, stretched at an elevation of no less than 2000 feet above the level of the sea, to the banks of the Euphrates itself. Throughout the Authorized Version the word is, with only a very few exceptions, rendered, as in the Vulgate and LXX., Syria. Its earliest occurrence in the book of Genesis is in the form of Aram-naharaim, i.e. the 'highland of or between the two rivers.' (Genesis 24:10) Authorized Version 'Mesopotamia.' In the later history we meet with a number of small nations or kingdoms forming parts of the general land of Aram; but as Damascus increased in importance it gradually absorbed the smaller powers, (1 Kings 20:1) and the name of Aram was at last applied to it alone. (Isaiah 7:8) also 1Kin etc.
  2. Another Aram is named in (Genesis 22:21) as a son of Kemuel and descendant of Nahor.
  3. An Asherite, one of the sons of Shamer. (1 Chronicles 7:34)
  4. Son of Esrom or Hezron, and the Greek form of the Hebrew Ram. (Matthew 1:3,4 Luke 3:33)


Aramitess — a female inhabitant of Aram. (1 Chronicles 7:14)


Aramnahataim — (highlands of two rivers). (Psalms 60:1), title. [Aram]


Aramzobah — Psalms 60:1, title. [Aram, 1]


Aran — (wild goat), a Horite, son of Dishan and brother of Uz. Genesis 36:28 1Chr


Araunah — (ark), a Jebusite who sold his threshing floor on Mount Moriah to David as a site for an altar to Jehovah, together with his oxen. (2 Samuel 24:18-24 1 Chronicles 21:25)


Arba — (city of the four), the progenitor of the Anakim, or sons of Anak, from whom their chief city, Hebron, received its name of Kirjath-Arba. (Joshua 14:15 15:13 21:11)


Arbah — Hebron, or Kirjath-Arba, as 'the city of Arbah' is always rendered elsewhere. (Genesis 35:27)


Arbathite — a native of the Arabah or Ghor . [Arabah] Abi-albon the Arbathite was one of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:31 1 Chronicles 11:32)


Arbite — a native of Arab. Paarai the Arbite was one of David's guard. (2 Samuel 23:35)

Arch Of Titus

Arch Of Titus — A triumphal arch erected at Rome, and still remaining there, to commemorate the conquest of Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem by the emperor Titus. It was erected after his death, A.D. 91, by the senate and people of Rome. It was a magnificent structure, decorated with bas-reliefs and inscriptions, and is of especial interest because its historic bas-reliefs represent the captors carrying in triumph to Rome the golden candlestick and sacred utensils from the Jewish temple at Jerusalem. From these we obtain our best idea of their shape.--ED.


Archelaus — (prince of the people), son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan woman, Malthake, and, with his brother Antipas brought up at Rome. At the death of Herod (B.C. 4) his kingdom was divided between his three sons, Herod Antipas, Archelaus and Philip. Archelaus never properly bore the title of king, (Matthew 2:22) but only that of ethnarch. In the tenth year of his reign, or the ninth according to Dion Cassius, i.e. A.D. 6, a complaint was preferred against him by his brothers and his subjects on the ground of his tyranny, in consequence of which he was banished to Vienne in Gaul, where he is generally said to have died.


Archery — [Arms, Armor]


Archevites — perhaps the inhabitants of Erech, some of whom had been placed as colonists in Samaria. (Ezra 4:9)


Archi — (Joshua 16:2) A place in the neighborhood of Bethel, on the boundary between Ephraim and Benjamin. It designates a clan perhaps originally from Erech in Babylonia, of which Hushai was one. [Archite, The]


Archippus — (master of the horse), a Christian teacher in Colossae, (Colossians 4:17) called by St. Paul his 'fellow soldier,' Phil 2. He was probably a member of Philemon's family. (A.D. 62.)

Archite, The

Archite, The — (as if from a place named Erech, on the frontiers of Ephraim), the usual designation of David's friend Hushai. (2 Samuel 15:32 17:5,14 1 Chronicles 27:33)


Architecture — The book of (Genesis 4:17,20,22) appears to divide mankind into two great characteristic sections, viz., the 'dwellers in tents' and the 'dwellers in cities.' To the race of Shem is attributed (Genesis 10:11,12,22 11:2-9) the foundation of those cities in the plain of Shinar, Babylon Nineveh and others. The Israelites were by occupation shepherds, and by habit dwellers in tents. (Genesis 47:3) They had therefore originally, speaking properly, no architecture. From the time of the occupation of Canaan they became dwellers in towns and in houses of stone. (Leviticus 14:34,45 1 Kings 7:10) The peaceful reign and vast wealth of Solomon gave great impulse to architecture; for besides the temple and his other great works, he built fortresses and cities in various places, among which Baalath and Tadmor are in all probability represented by Baalbec and Palmyra. But the reigns of Herod and his successors were especially remarkable for their great architectural works. Not only was the temple restored, but the fortifications and other public buildings of Jerusalem were enlarged and embellished. (Luke 21:5) The town of Caesarea was built on the site of Strato's Tower; Samaria was enlarged, and received the name of Sebaste. Of the original splendor of these great works no doubt can be entertained; but of their style and appearance we can only conjecture that they were formed on Greek and Roman models. The enormous stones employed the Assyrian Persepolitan and Egyptian buildings find a parallel in the substructions of Baalbec and in the huge blocks which still remain at Jerusalem, relics of the buildings either of Solomon or of Herod.


Arcturus — (bear-keeper). The Hebrew words 'Ash and 'Aish, rendered 'Arcturus' in the Authorized Version of (Job 9:9 38:32) in conformity with the Vulgate of the former passages are now generally believed to be identical, and to represent the constellation Ursa Major, known commonly as the Great Bear or Charles' Wain.


Ard — (one that descending), the son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. (Genesis 46:21 Numbers 26:40) In (1 Chronicles 8:3) he is called Addar.


Ardites — the descendants of Ard or Addar, the grandson of Benjamin. (Numbers 26:40)


Ardon — (fugitive) a Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, by his wife Azubah. (1 Chronicles 2:18)


Areli — (heroic), a son of Gad. (Genesis 46:16 Numbers 26:17) His descendants are called Arelites. Numbers 26:17.


Areopagite — a member of the court of Areopagus. (Acts 17:31) [Mars Hill' HILL]


Areopagus — [Mars Hill' HILL]

Aretas, Or Aretas

Aretas, Or Aretas — (graver).

  1. A contemporary of Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 170, and Jason. 2 Macc. 5:8.
  2. The Aretas alluded to by St. Paul (2 Corinthians 11:32) was father-in-law of Herod Antipas.


Argob — perhaps a Gileadite officer who was governor of Argob. He was either an accomplice of Pekah in the murder of Pekahiah or was slain by Pekah. (2 Kings 15:25) (stony), a tract of country on the east of the Jordan, in Bashan, the kingdom of Og, containing 60 great and fortified cities. In later times it was called Trachonitis, and it is now apparently identified with the Leiah, a very remarkable district south of Damascus and east of the Sea of Galilee. (3:4,13,14)


Aridai — (the strong), ninth son of Haman. (Esther 9:9)


Aridatha — sixth son of Haman. (Esther 9:8)


Arieh — (lion). Either one of the accomplices of Pekah in his conspiracy against Pekahiah, or one of the princes of Pekahiah who was put to death with him. (2 Kings 15:20) (B.C. 757.)


Ariel — (lion of God).

  1. One of the 'chief men' who under Ezra directed the caravan which he led back from Babylon to Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:16) (B.C. 459.) The word occurs also in reference to two Moabites slain by Benaiah. (2 Samuel 23:20 1 Chronicles 11:22) Many regard the word as an epithet, 'lion-like;' but it seems better to look upon it as a proper name, and translate 'two of Ariel.'
  2. A designation given by Isaiah to the city of Jerusalem. (Isaiah 29:1,2,7) We must understand by it either 'lion of God,' as the chief city, or 'hearth of God,' a synonym for the altar of burnt offering. On the whole it seems most probable that, as a name given to Jerusalem, Ariel means 'lion of God,' whilst the word used by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 43:15,16) means 'hearth of God.'


Arimathea — (heights). (Matthew 27:57 Luke 23:51 John 19:38) St. Luke calls it 'a city of Judea.' It is identified by many with the modern Ramleh .


Arioch — (venerable).

  1. The king of Eliasar, one of the allies of Chedorlaomer in his expedition against his rebellious tributaries. (Genesis 14:1) (B.C. 1921-1912.)
  2. The captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard. (Daniel 2:14) etc.
  3. Properly Eirioch, or Erioch, mentioned in Judith 1:6 as king of the Elymaeans.


Arisai — (lion-like), eighth son of Haman. (Esther 9:9)


Aristarchus — (the best ruler), a Thessalonian, (Acts 20:4 27:2) who accompanied St. Paul on his third missionary journey. (Acts 19:29) He was with the apostle on his return to Asia, (Acts 20:4) and again, Acts 27:2 On his voyage to Rome. We trace him afterwards as St. Paul's fellow prisoner in (Colossians 4:10) and Philemon 1:24 Tradition makes him bishop of Apamea.


Aristobulus — (the best counsellor), a resident at Rome, some of whose household are greeted in (Romans 16:10) Tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples and reports that he preached the gospel in Britain.

Ark Of Moses

Ark Of Moses — A small boat or basket made of the papyrus, a reed which grows in the marshes of Egypt. It was covered with bitumen to make it water tight.

Ark Of The Covenant

Ark Of The Covenant — The first piece of the tabernacle's furniture, for which precise directions were delivered. Exod 25. I. Description.-- It appears to have been an oblong chest of shittim (acacia) wood, 2 1/2 cubits long by 1 1/2 broad and deep. Within and without gold was overlaid on the wood, and on the upper side or lid, which was edged round about with gold, the mercy-seat was placed. The ark was fitted with rings, one at each of the four corners, and through these were passed staves of the same wood similarly overlaid, by which it was carried by the Kohathites. (Numbers 7:9 10:21) The ends of the staves were visible without the veil in the holy place of the temple of Solomon. (1 Kings 8:8) The ark, when transported, was enveloped in the 'veil' of the dismantled tabernacle, in the curtain of badgers' skins and in a blue cloth over all, and was therefore not seen. (Numbers 4:5,20) II. Its purpose was to contain inviolate the divine autograph of the two tables, that 'covenant' from which it derived its title. It was also probably a reliquary for the pot of manna and the rod of Aaron. III. History .--Before David's time its abode was frequently shifted. It sojourned among several, probably Levitical, families, (1 Samuel 7:1 2 Samuel 6:3,11 1 Chronicles 13:13 15:24,25) in the border villages of eastern Judah; and did not take its place in the tabernacle, but dwelt in curtains, i.e. in a separate tent pitched for it in Jerusalem by David. Subsequently the temple, when completed, received, in the installation of the ark in its shrine, the signal of its inauguration by the effulgence of divine glory instantly manifested. It was probably taken captive or destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, 2 Esdr. so that there was no ark in the second temple.

Ark, Noahs

Ark, Noahs — [Noah]

Arkite, The

Arkite, The — from Arka, one of the families of the Canaanites, (Genesis 10:17 1 Chronicles 1:16) and from the context evidently located in the north of Phoenicia. The site which now bears the name of 'Arka lies on the coast, 2 to 2 1/2 hours from the shore, about 12 miles north of Tripoli and 5 south of the Nahr el-Kebir .


Armageddon — (the hill or city of Megiddo). (Revelation 16:16) The scene of the struggle of good and evil is suggested by that battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon, which was famous for two great victories, of Barak over the Canaanites and of Gideon over the Midianites; and for two great disasters, the deaths of Saul and Josiah. Hence it signifies in Revelation a place of great slaughter, the scene of a terrible retribution upon the wicked. The Revised Version gives the name as Har-Magedon, i.e. the hill (as Ar is the city) of Megiddo .--ED.)


Armenia — (land of Aram) is nowhere mentioned under that name in the original Hebrew, though it occurs in the English version, (2 Kings 19:37) for Ararat. Description.--Armenia is that lofty plateau whence the rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Araxes and Acampsis pour down their waters in different directions; the first two to the Persian Gulf, the last two respectively to the Caspian and Euxine seas. It may be termed the nucleus of the mountain system of western Asia. From the centre of the plateau rise two lofty chains of mountains, which run from east to west. Divisions.--Three districts are mentioned in the Bible. (1) ARARAT is mentioned as the place whither the sons of Sennacherib fled. (Isaiah 37:38) It was the central district, surrounding the mountain of that name. (2) Minni only occurs in (Jeremiah It is probably identical with the district Minyas, in the upper valley of the Murad-su branch of the Euphrates. (3) Togarmah is noticed in two passages of (Ezekiel 27:14 38:6) both of which are in favor of its identity with Armenia. Present condition.--The Armenians, numbering about two millions, are nominally Christians. About half of them live in Armenia. Their favorite pursuit is commerce. The country is divided, as to government, between Russia, Turkey and Persia.--ED.


Armlet — an ornament universal in the East, especially among women; used by princes as one of the insignia of royalty, and by distinguished persons in general. The word is not used in the Authorized Version, as even in (2 Samuel 1:10) it is rendered by 'the bracelet on his arm.'


Armoni — son of Saul by Rizpah. (2 Samuel 21:8)

Arms, Armor

Arms, Armor — The subject naturally divides itself into-- I. Offensive weapons: Arms. II. Defensive weapons: Armor. I. Offensive weapons.--

  1. Apparently the earliest known and most widely used was the Chereb or Sword. Very little can be gathered as to its shape, size, material or mode of use. Perhaps if anything is to be inferred it is that the Chereb is both a lighter and a shorter weapon than the modern sword. It was carried in a sheath, (1 Samuel 17:51 2 Samuel 20:8 1 Chronicles 21:27) slung by a girdle, (1 Samuel 25:13) and resting upon the thigh, (Psalms 45:3 Judges 3:16) or upon the hips. (2 Samuel 20:8)
  2. Next we have the Spear; and of this weapon we meet with at least three distinct kinds. A. The Chanith, a 'spear,' and that of the largest kind. It was the weapon of Goliath, (1 Samuel 17:7,45 2 Samuel 21:19 1 Chronicles 20:5) and also of other giants, (2 Samuel 23:21 1 Chronicles 11:23) and mighty warriors. (2 Samuel 2:23 23:18 1 Chronicles 11:11,20) b. Apparently lighter than the preceding was the Cidon or 'javelin.' When not in action the Cidon was carried on the back of the warrior, (1 Samuel 17:6) Authorized Version 'target.' c. Another kind of spear was the Romach . In the historical books it occurs in (Numbers 25:7) and 1 Kings 18:28 And frequently in the later books, as in (1 Chronicles 12:8) ('buckler'); (2 Chronicles 11:12) (It varied much in length, weight and size.) d. The Shelach was probably a lighter missile or 'dart.' see (2 Chronicles 23:10 32:5) ('darts'); (Nehemiah 4:17,23) (see margin); (Job 33:18 36:12 Joel 2:8) e. Shebet, a rod or staff, is used once only to denote a weapon. (2 Samuel 18:14)
  3. Of missile weapons of offence the chief was undoubtedly the Bow, Kesheth . The Arrows were carried in a quiver. (Genesis 27:3 Isaiah 22:6 49:2 Psalms 127:5) From an allusion in Job 6:4 they would seem to have been some times poisoned; and (Psalms 120:4) may point to a practice of using arrows with some burning material attached to them.
  4. The Sling is first mentioned in (Judges 20:16) This simple weapon, with which David killed the giant Philistine, was the natural attendant of a shepherd. Later in the monarchy, slingers formed part of the regular army. (2 Kings 3:25)
  5. The BATTLE AXE, (Jeremiah a powerful weapon of whose exact form we have no knowledge. II. Armor.--
  6. The Breastplate, enumerated in the description of the arms of Goliath, a 'coat of mail,' literally a 'breastplate of scales.' (1 Samuel 17:5) This word has furnished one of the names of Mount Hermon. See (3:9)
  7. The Habergeon is mentioned but twice--in reference to the gown of the high priest. (Exodus 28:32 39:28) It was probably a quilted shirt or doublet.
  8. The Helmet is referred to in (1 Samuel 17:5 2 Chronicles 26:14 Ezekiel 27:10)
  9. (Greaves) or defences for the feet, made of brass, are named in (1 Samuel 17:6) only.
  10. Two kinds of Shield are distinguishable. A. The large shield; encompassing, (Psalms the whole person. When not in actual conflict it was carried before the warrior. (1 Samuel 17:7,41) b. Of smaller dimensions was the buckler or target, probably for use in hand-to-hand fight. (1 Kings 10:16 2 Chronicles 9:15,16)


Army — I. Jewish ARMY.--Every man above 20 years of age was a soldier, (Numbers 1:3) each tribe formed a regiment, with its own banner and its own leader (Numbers 2:2 10:14) their positions in the camp or on the march were accurately fixed, Numb. 2; the whole army started and stopped at a given signal, (Numbers 10:5,6) thus they came up out of Egypt ready for the fight. (Exodus 13:18) On the approach of an enemy a conscription was made from the general body, under the direction of a muster-master, (20:5 2 Kings 25:19) by whom also the officers were appointed. (20:9) The army had then divided into thousands and hundreds under their respective captains, (Numbers 31:14) and still further into families. (Numbers 2:34 2 Chronicles 25:5 26:12) With the king arose the custom of maintaining a body-guard, which formed the nucleus of a standing army, and David's band of 600, (1 Samuel 23:13 25:13) he retained after he became king, and added the Cherethites and Pelethites. (2 Samuel 15:18 20:7) David further organized a national militia, divided into twelve regiments under their respective officers, each of which was called out for one month in the year. (1 Chronicles 27:1) ... It does not appear that the system established by David was maintained by the kings of Judah; but in Israel the proximity of the hostile kingdom of Syria necessitated the maintenance of a standing army. The maintenance and equipment of the soldiers at the public expense dated from the establishment of a standing army. It is doubtful whether the soldier ever received pay even under the kings. II. Roman Empire ARMY.--The Roman army was divided into legions, the number of which varied considerably (from 3000 to 6000), each under six tribuni ('chief captains,') (Acts 21:31) who commanded by turns. The legion was subdivided into ten cohorts ('band,') (Acts 10:1) the cohort into three maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, containing originally 100 men, as the name implies, but subsequently from 50 to 100 men, according to the strength of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries in a legion, each under the command of a centurion. (Acts 10:1,22 Matthew 8:5 27:54) In addition to the legionary cohorts, independent cohorts of volunteers served under the Roman standards. One of these cohorts was named the Italian, (Acts 10:1) as consisting of volunteers from Italy. The headquarters of the Roman forces in Judea were at Caesarea.


Arnan — In the received Hebrew text 'the sons of Arnan' are mentioned in the genealogy of Zerubbabel. (1 Chronicles 3:21)


Arni — (Used in the Revised Version for Aram in (Luke 3:33) and is probably another name or form of the name of Aram. [Aram, 4])


Arnon — (roaring), the river or torrent which formed the boundary between Moab and the Amorites, on the north of Moab, (Numbers 21:13,14,24,26 Judges 11:22) and afterwards between Moab and Israel (Reuben). 3:8,12,16 Joshua 12:1,2 13:9,16 Judges 11:13,26) There can be no doubt that the Wady el-Mojeb of the present day is the Arnon. Its principal source is near Katrane, on the Haj route.


Arod — (a wild ass), a son of Gad, (Numbers 26:17) called Arodi in (Genesis 46:16)


Arodi — [Arod]


Arodites — [Arod]


Aroer — (ruins).

  1. A city on the torrent Arnon, the southern point of the territory of Sihon king of the Amorites and afterwards of the tribe of Reuben, 3:12 Joshua 12:2 13:9,16 Judges 11:26 2 Kings 10:33 1 Chronicles 5:8) but later again in possession of Moab. (Jeremiah It is the modern Ara'ir, upon the very edge of the precipitous north bank of the Wady Mojeb .
  2. Aroer, 'that is 'facing' Rahbah' (Rabbah of Ammon), a town built by and belonging to Gad. (Numbers 32:34 Joshua 13:25 2 Samuel 24:5) This is probably the place mentioned in (Judges 11:33) which was shown in Jerome's time.
  3. Aroer, in (Isaiah 17:2) if a place at all, must be still farther north than either of the two already named.
  4. A town in Judah, named only in (1 Samuel 30:28) perhaps Wady Ar'arah, on the road from Petra to Gaza.


Aroerite — Hothan the Aroerite was the father of two of David's captains. (1 Chronicles 11:44)

Arpad, Or Arphad

Arpad, Or Arphad — (strong city), (Isaiah 36:19 37:13) a city or district in Syria, apparently dependent on Damascus. (Jeremiah 49:23) No trace of its existence has yet been discovered. (2 Kings 18:34 19:13 Isaiah 10:9)


Arphaxad — (stronghold of the Chaldees).

  1. The son of Shem and ancestor of Eber. (Genesis 10:22,24 11:10)
  2. Arphaxad, a king 'who reigned over the Medes in Ecbatana,' Judith 1:1-4 perhaps the same as Phraortes, who fell in a battle with the Assyrians, 633 B.C.


Arrows — [Arms, Armor]


Artaxerxes — (the great warrior).

  1. The first Artaxerxes is mentioned in (Ezra 4:7) and appears identical with Smerdis, the Magian impostor and pretended brother of Cambyses, who usurped the throne B.C. 522, and reigned eight months.
  2. In (Nehemiah 2:1) we have another Artaxerxes. We may safely identify him with Artaxerxes Macrocheir or Longimanus, the son of Xerxces, who reigned B.C. 464-425.


Artemas — (gift of Artemis), a companion of St. Paul. (Titus 3:12) According to tradition he was bishop of Lystra.


Aruboth — (windows), the third of Solomons commissariat districts. (1 Kings 4:10) It included Sochoh, and was therefore probably a name for the rich corn-growing lowland country.


Arumah — (height), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Shechem, at which Abimelech resided. (Judges 9:41)


Arvad — (wandering) (Ezekiel 27:8,11) The island of Ruad, which lies off Tortosa (Tartus), two or three miles from the Phoenician coast. In agreement with this is the mention of 'the Arvadite, in (Genesis 10:18) and 1 Chronicles 1:16 As a son of Canaan, with Zidon, Hamath an other northern localities.


Arvadite — [Arvad]


Arza — prefect of the palace at Tirzah to Elah king of Israel, who was assassinated at a banquet in his house by Zimri. (1 Kings 16:9)


Asa — (physician, or cure).

  1. Son of Abijah and third king of Judah. (B.C. 956-916.) (His long reign of 41 years was peaceful in its earlier portion, and he undertook the reformation of all abuses, especially of idolatry. He burnt the symbol of his grandmother Maachah's religion and deposed her from the dignity of 'king's mother,') and renewed the great altar which the idolatrous priests apparently had desecrated. (2 Chronicles 15:8) Besides this he fortified cities on his frontiers, and raised an army, amounting, according to (2 Chronicles 14:8) to 580,000 men, a number probably exaggerated by an error of the copyist. During Asa's reign, Zerah, at the head of an enormous host, (2 Chronicles 14:9) attacked Mareshah. There he was utterly defeated, and driven back with immense loss to Gerar. The peace which followed this victory was broken by the attempt of Baasha of Israel to fortify Ramah. To stop this Asa purchased the help of Benhadad I. king of Damascus, by a large payment of treasure, forced Baasha to abandon his purpose, and destroyed the works which he had begun at Ramah. In his old age Asa suffered from gout, He died, greatly loved and honored, in the 41st year of his reign.
  2. Ancestor of Berechiah a Levite who resided in one of the villages of the Netophathites after the return from Babylon. (1 Chronicles 9:16)


Asahel — (made by God).

  1. Nephew of David, being the youngest son of his sister Zeruiah. He was celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting under his brother Joab at Gibeon, he pursued Abner, who was obliged to kill him in self-defence. (2 Samuel 2:18) ff. [Abner] (B.C. 1050.)
  2. One of the Levites in the reign of Jehoshaphat, who went throughout the cities of Judah to instruct the people in the knowledge of the law. (2 Chronicles 17:8) (B.C. 910.)
  3. A Levite in the reign of Hezekiah, who had charge of the tithes and dedicated things in the temple. (2 Chronicles 31:13) (B.C. 927.)
  4. A priest, father of Jonathan, in the time of Ezra. (Ezra 10:15) He is called AZAEL in 1Esd 9:14. (B.C. before 459.)


Asahiah — (the Lord hath made), a servant of King Josiah, sent by him to seek information of Jehovah respecting the book of the law which Hilkiah found in the temple, (2 Kings 22:12,14) also called Asaiah. (2 Chronicles 34:20) (B.C. 641.)


Asaiah — (the Lord hath made).

  1. A prince of one of the families of the Simeonites in the reign of Hezekiah. (1 Chronicles 4:36) (B.C. 910.)
  2. A Levite in the reign of David, chief of the family of Merari. (1 Chronicles 6:30) With 120 of his brethren he took part in bringing the ark from the house of Obed-edom to the city of David. (1 Chronicles 15:6,11)
  3. The first-born of 'the Shilonite,' from Shiloni, (1 Chronicles 9:5) who with his family dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon. (B.C. 536.) In (Nehemiah 11:5) he is called Maaseiah.
  4. (2 Chronicles 34:20) [Asahiah]


Asaph — (collector of the people).

  1. A Levite, son of Berechiah, one of the leaders of David's choir. (1 Chronicles 6:39) Psalms 50 and 73-83 are attributed to him; and he was in after times celebrated as a seer as well as a musical composer. (2 Chronicles 29:30 Nehemiah 12:46) (B.C. 1050.)
  2. The father or ancestor of Joah, the chronicler to the kingdom of Judah in the reign of Hezekiah, (2 Kings 18:18,37 Isaiah 36:3,22) probably the same as the preceding.
  3. The keeper of the royal forest or 'paradise' of Artaxerxes, (Nehemiah 2:8) a Jew, in high office at the court of Persia. (B.C. 536.)
  4. Ancestor of Mattaniah, the conductor of the temple-choir after the return from Babylon. (1 Chronicles 9:16 Nehemiah 11:17) Most probably the same as 1 and 2.

Asaph, Sons Of

Asaph, Sons Of — (A school of poetry and musical composers founded by Asaph.)


Asareel — (whom God hath bound (by an oath)), a son of Jehaleleel, in the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:16)


Asarelah — (upright toward God), one of the sons of Asaph, a musician, (1 Chronicles 25:2) called Jesharelah in ver. 14


Ascalon — [Ashkelon, Askelon]


Asenath — (worshipper of Neith), daughter of Potipherah, priest, or possibly prince, of On [Potipherah, Or Potipherah], wife of Joseph, (Genesis 41:45) and mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. (Genesis 41:50 46:20) (B.C. 1715.)


Aser — (Luke 2:36 Revelation 7:6) [Asher, Asher]


Ash — (Heb. oren), only in (Isaiah 44:14) As the true ash is not a native of Palestine, some understand this to be a species of pine tree. Perhaps the larch (Laryx europaea) may be intended.


Ashan — (smoke), a city in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:42) In (Joshua 19:7) and 1Chr It is mentioned again as belonging to Simeon. It has not yet been identified.


Ashbea — (I adjure), a proper name, but whether of a person or place is uncertain. (1 Chronicles 4:21)


Ashbel — (reproof of God), second son of Benjamin and ancestor of the Ashbelites. (Genesis 46:21 Numbers 26:38 1 Chronicles 8:1)


Ashchenaz — (1 Chronicles 1:6 Jeremiah [Ashkenaz]

Ashdod, Or Azotus

Ashdod, Or Azotus — (a stronghold), (Acts 8:40) one of the five confederate cities of the Philistines situated about 30 miles from the southern frontier of Palestine, three from the Mediterranean Sea, and nearly midway between Gaza and Joppa. It was assigned to the tribe of Judah, (Joshua 15:47) but was never subdued by the Israelites. Its chief importance arose from its position on the high road from Palestine to Egypt. It is now an insignificant village, with no memorials of its ancient importance, but is still called Esdud.


Ashdodites — the inhabitants of Ashdod, (Nehemiah 4:7) called Ashdothites in (Joshua 13:3)


Ashdothpisgah — (3:17 Joshua 12:3 13:20) and in Deuteronomy 4:49 Authorized Version, translated springs of Pisgah, i.e. a valley or fountain near Mount Pisgah.


Asher — a place which formed one boundary of the tribe of Manasseh on the south. (Joshua 17:7) Mr. Porter suggests that Teyasir may be the Asher of Manasseh. Handbook, p.348. Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser (blessed), the eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid. (Genesis 30:13) (B.C. 1753.) The general position of his tribe was on the seashore from Carmel northward with Manasseh on the south, Zebulun and Issachar on the southeast, and Naphtali on the north-east. (Joshua 19:24-31 17:10,11) and Judges 1:31,32 They possessed the maritime portion of the rich plain of Esdraelon;, probably for a distance of 8 or 10 miles from the shore. This territory contained some of the richest soil in all Palestine.


Asherah — (straight), the name of a Phoenician goddess, or rather of the idol itself (Authorized Version 'grove'). Asherah is closely connected with Ashtoreth and her worship, (Judges 3:7) comp. Judges 2:3 6:25 1 Kings 18:19 Ashtoreth being, perhaps, the proper name of the goddess, whilst Asherah is the name of her image or symbol, which was of wood. See (Judges 6:25-30 2 Kings 23:14)


Asherites — descendants of Asher, and members of his tribe. (Judges 1:32)


Ashes — The ashes on the altar of burnt offering were gathered into a cavity in its surface. The ashes of a red heifer burnt entire, according to regulations prescribed in Numb. 19, had the ceremonial efficacy of purifying the unclean, (Hebrews 9:13) but of polluting the clean. [Sacrifice] Ashes about the person, especially on the head, were used as a sign of sorrow. [Mourning]


Ashima — a god of the Hamathite colonists in Samaria. (2 Kings 17:30) It has been regarded as identical with the Pan of the Greeks.

Ashkelon, Askelon

Ashkelon, Askelon — Apocrypha As'calon (migration), one of the five cities of the Philistines, (Joshua 1 Samuel 6:17) a seaport on the Mediterranean, 10 miles north of Gaza. Samson went down from Timnath to Ashkelon. (Judges 14:19) In the post-biblical times Ashkelon rose to considerable importance. Near the town were the temple and sacred lake of Derceto, the Syrian Venus. The soil around was remarkable for its fertility. Ashkelon played a memorable part in the struggles of the Crusades.


Ashkenaz — (spreading fire), one of the three sons of Gomer, son of Japhet. (Genesis 10:3) We may probably recognize the tribe of Ashkenaz on the northern shore of Asia Minor in the name of Lake Ascanius, and in Europe in the name Scandia, Scandinavia . Knobel considers that Ashkenaz is to be identified with the German race.


Ashnah — the name of two cities, both in the lowlands of Judah: (1) named between Zoreah and Zanoah, and therefore probably northwest of Jerusalem, (Joshua 15:33) and (2) between Jiptah and Nezib, and therefore to the southwest of Jerusalem. (Joshua 15:43) Each, according, to Robinson's map (1857), would be about 16 miles from Jerusalem.


Ashpenaz — (horse-nose), the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar. (Daniel 1:3)


Ashriel — properly As'riel (vow of God). (1 Chronicles 7:14)


Ashtaroth — and once As'taroth (a star), a city on the east of Jordan in Bashan, in the kingdom of Og, doubtless so called from being a seat of the worship of the goddess of the same name. (1:4 Joshua 9:10 12:4 13:12)


Ashterathite — a native or inhabitant of Ashtaroth, (1 Chronicles 11:44) beyond Jordan.

Ashteroth Karnaim

Ashteroth Karnaim — (Ashteroth of the two horns or peaks) a place of very great antiquity, the abode of the Rephaim. (Genesis 14:5) The name reappears but once, as Carnaim or Carnion, 1 Macc. 5:26,43,44 2 Macc. in 'the land of Galaad.' It is probably the modern Es-Sanamein, on the Haj route, about 25 miles south of Damascus.


Ashtoreth — (a star) the principal female divinity of the Phoenicians, called Ishtar by the Assyrians and Astarte by the Greeks and Romans. She was by some ancient writers identified with the moon. But on the other hand the Assyrian Ishtar was not the moon-goddess, but the planet Venus; and Astarte was by many identified with the goddess Venus (or Aphrodite), as well as with the plant of that name. It is certain that the worship of Astarte became identified with that of Venus, and that this worship was connected with the most impure rites is apparent from the close connection of this goddess with Asherah. (1 Kings 11:5,33 2 Kings 23:13)


Ashur — (black), the posthumous son of Hezron by his wife Abiah. (1 Chronicles 2:24 4:5) He became 'father' or founder of the town of Tekoa. (B.C. 1658.)


Ashurim — (steps), a tribe descended from Dedan, the grandson of Abraham. (Genesis 26:3) Knobel considers them the same with the Asshur of (Ezekiel 27:28) and connected with southern Arabia.

Ashurites, The

Ashurites, The — Only in (2 Samuel 2:9) By some of the old interpreters the name is taken as meaning the Geshurites; but if we follow the Targum of Jonathan, 'the Asherites' will denote the inhabitants of the whole of the country west of the Jordan above Jez-reel.


Ashvath — One of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:33)


Asia — (orient). The passages in the New Testament where this word occurs are the following; (Acts 2:9 6:9 16:6 19:10,22,26,27 20:4,16,18 21:27 27:2 Romans 16:5 1 Corinthians 16:19 2 Corinthians 1:8 2 Timothy 1:15 1 Peter 1:1 Revelation 1:4,11) In all these it may be confidently stated that the word is used for a Roman province which embraced the western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor and of which Ephesus was the capital.


Asiarchae — (chief of Asia) (Authorized Version; (Acts 19:31)), officers chosen annually by the cities of that part of the province of Asia of which Ephesus was, under Roman government, the metropolis. They had charge of the public games and religious theatrical spectacles, the expenses of which they bore.


Asiel — (created by God).

  1. A Simeonite whose descendant Jehu lived in the reign of Hezekiah. (1 Chronicles 4:35)
  2. One of the five swift writers whom Esdras was commanded to take to write the law and the history of the world. 2 Esd.


Asnah — (thorn-bush). The children of Asnah were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:50)


Asnapper — (swift), mentioned in (Ezra 4:10) as the person who settled the Cutheans in the cities of Samaria. He was probably a general of Esarhaddon. (B.C. 712.)


Asp — (Heb. pethen), translated (adder in) (Psalms 58:4 91:13) Probably the Egyptian cobra, a small and very poisonous serpent, a dweller in the holes of walls, (Isaiah 11:8) and a snake upon which the serpent-charmers practiced their art.


Aspalathus — the name of some sweet perfume mentioned in Ecclus. The Lignum rhodianum, is by some supposed to be the substance indicated by the aspalathus, the plant which yields it is the Convolvulus scoparius if Linnaeus.


Aspatha — third son of Haman. (Esther 9:7)


Asphar — the pool in the 'wilderness of Thecoe.' 1 Macc. Is it possible that the name is a corruption of lacus Asphaltites?


Asriel — the son of Gilead and great-grandson of Manasseh. (Numbers 26:31 Joshua 17:2) He was the founder of the family of the Asrielites. (B.C. 1444.)


Ass — Five Hebrew names of the genus Asinus occur in the Old Testament.

  1. Chamor denotes the male domestic ass.
  2. Athon, the common domestic she-ass.
  3. Air, the name of a wild ass, which occurs (Genesis 32:15 49:11)
  4. Pere, a species of wild ass mentioned (Genesis 12:16)
  5. Arod occurs only in (Job 39:5) but in what respect it differs from the Pere is uncertain. The ass in eastern countries is a very different animal from what he is in western Europe. The most noble and honorable amongst the Jews were wont to be mounted on asses. (With us the ass is a symbol of stubbornness and stupidity, while in the East it is especially remarkable for its patience, gentleness, intelligence, meek submission and great power of endurance.'--L. Abbott. The color is usually a reddish brown, but there are white asses, which are much prized. The ass was the animal of peace as the horse was the animal of war; hence the appropriateness of Christ in his triumphal entry riding on an ass. The wild ass is a beautiful animal.--ED.) Mr. Lavard remarks that in fleetness the wild ass (Asinus hemippus) equals the gazelle and to overtake it is a feat which only one or two of the most celebrated mares have been known to accomplish.


Asshur — second son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) also the Hebrew form for Assyria. [Assyria, Asshur]


Assir — (captive).

  1. Son of Korah. (Exodus 6:24 1 Chronicles 6:22)
  2. Son of Ebiasaph, and a forefather of Samuel (1 Chronicles 6:23,37)
  3. Son of Jeconiah, (1 Chronicles 3:17) unless 'Jeconiah the captive' be the true rendering.

Assos, Or Assus

Assos, Or Assus — (approaching), a seaport of the Roman province of Asia in the district anciently called Mysia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Adrn-myttium, and about seven miles from Lesbos. (Acts 20:13,14)


Assur — (Ezra 4:2 Psalms 83:8) [Asshur, Assyria, Asshur; ASSYRIA]

Assyria, Asshur

Assyria, Asshur — was a great and powerful country lying on the Tigris, (Genesis 2:14) the capital of which was Nineveh. (Genesis 10:11) etc. It derived its name apparently from Asshur, the son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) who in later times was worshipped by the Assyrians as their chief god.

  1. Extent.-- The boundaries of Assyria differed greatly at different periods, Probably in the earliest times it was confined to a small tract of low country lying chiefly on the left bank of the Tigris. Gradually its limits were extended, until it came to be regarded as comprising the whole region between the Armenian mountains (lat. 37 30') upon the north, and upon the south the country about Baghdad (lat. 33 30'). Eastward its boundary was the high range of Zagros, or mountains of Kurdistan; westward it was, according to the views of some, bounded by the Mesopotamian desert, while according to others it reached the Euphrates.
  2. General character of the country.-- On the north and east the high mountain-chains of Armenia and Kurdistan are succeeded by low ranges of limestone hills of a somewhat arid aspect. To these ridges there succeeds at first an undulating zone of country, well watered and fairly productive, which extends in length for 250 miles, and is interrupted only by a single limestone range. Above and below this barrier is an immense level tract, now for the most part a wilderness, which bears marks of having been in early times well cultivated and thickly peopled throughout.
  3. Original peopling.--Scripture informs us that Assyria was peopled from Babylon, (Genesis 10:11) and both classical tradition and the monuments of the country agree in this representation.
  4. Date of the foundation of the kingdom.--As a country, Assyria was evidently known to Moses. (Genesis 2:14 25:18 Numbers 24:22,24) The foundation of the Assyrian empire was probably not very greatly anterior to B.C. 1228.
  5. History.--The Mesopotamian researches have rendered it apparent that the original seat of government was not at Nineveh, but at Kileh-Sherghat, on the right bank of the Tigris. The most remarkable monarch of the earlier kings was called Tiglath-pileser. He appears to have been king towards the close of the twelfth century, and thus to have been contemporary with Samuel. Afterwards followed Pul, who invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem (2 Kings 15:29) about B.C. 770, and Shalmaneser who besieged Samaria three years, and destroyed the kingdom of Israel B.C. 721, himself or by his successor Sargon, who usurped the throne at that time. Under Sargon the empire was as great as at any former era, and Nineveh became a most beautiful city. Sargon's son Sennacherib became the most famous of the Assyrian kings. He began to reign 704 B.C. He invaded the kingdom of Judea in the reign of Hezekiah. He was followed by Esarhaddon, and he by a noted warrior and builder, Sardanapalus. In Scripture it is remarkable that we hear nothing of Assyria after the reign of Esarhaddon, and profane history is equally silent until the attacks began which brought about her downfall. The fall of Assyria, long previously prophesied by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:5-19) was effected by the growing strength and boldness of the Medes, about 625 B.C. The prophecies of Nahum and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:13-15) against Assyria were probably delivered shortly before the catastrophe.
  6. General character of the empire.-- The Assyrian monarchs bore sway over a number of petty kings through the entire extent of their dominions. These native princes were feudatories of the great monarch, of whom they held their crown by the double tenure of homage and tribute. It is not quite certain how far Assyria required a religious conformity from the subject people. Her religion was a gross and complex polytheism, comprising the worship of thirteen principal and numerous minor divinities, at the head of all of whom stood the chief god, Asshur, who seems to be the deified patriarch of the nation. (Genesis 10:22)
  7. Civilization of the Assyrians.-- The civilization of the Assyrians was derived originally from the Babylonians. They were a Shemitic race originally resident in Babylonia (which at that time was Cushite) and thus acquainted with the Babylonian inventions and discoveries, who ascended the valley of the Tigris and established in the tract immediately below the Armenian mountains a separate and distinct nationality. Still, as their civilization developed it became in many respects peculiar. Their art is of home growth. But they were still in the most important points barbarians. Their government was rude and inartificial, their religion coarse and sensual, and their conduct of war cruel.
  8. Modern discoveries in Assyria.-- (Much interest has been excited in reference to Assyria by the discoveries lately made there, which confirm and illustrate the Bible. The most important of them is the finding of the stone tablets or books which formed the great library at Nineveh, founded by Shalmaneser B.C. 860, but embodying tablets written 2000 years B.C. This library was more than doubled by Sardanapalus. These tablets were broken into fragments, but many of them have been put together and deciphered by the late Mr. George Smith, of the British Museum. All these discoveries of things hidden for ages, but now come to light, confirm the Bible.--ED.)


Astaroth — (1:4) [Ashtaroth]


Astarte — [Ashtoreth]

Asuppim, And House Of

Asuppim, And House Of — (1 Chronicles 26:15,17) literally house of the gatherings. Some understand it as the proper name of chambers on the south of the temple others of certain store-rooms, or of the council chambers in the outer court of the temple in which the elders held their celebrations.


Asyncritus — (incomparable), a Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul. (Romans 16:14)


Atad — (thorn), The threshing-floor of, called also Abel-mizraim, (Genesis 50:10,11) afterwards called Beth-hogla, and known to have lain between the Jordan and Jericho, therefore on the west side of Jordan.


Atarah — (a crown) a wife of Jerahmeel, and mother of Onam. (1 Chronicles 2:26)


Ataroth — (crowns).

  1. One of the towns in the 'land of Jazer and land of Gilead,' (Numbers 32:3) east of the Jordan, taken and built by the tribe of Gad. (Numbers 32:34)
  2. A place on the (south?) boundary of Ephraim and Manasseh. (Joshua 16:2,7) It is impossible to say whether Ataroth is or is not the same place as
  3. ATAROTH-ADAR, or -~~Addar, on the west border of Benjamin, 'near the 'mountain' that is on the south side of the nether Beth-horon.' (Joshua 16:5 18:13) Perhaps the modern Atara, six miles northeast of Bethel.
  4. 'ATAROTH, THE House OF Joab,' a place(?) occurring in the list of the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:54)


Ater — (shut up).

  1. The children of Ater were among the porters or gate-keepers of the temple who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:42 Nehemiah 7:45)
  2. The children of ATER OF Hezekiah to the number of 98 returned with Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:16 Nehemiah 7:21) and were among the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17)


Athach — (lodging place). (1 Samuel 30:30) As the name does not occur elsewhere, it has been suggested that it is an error of the transcriber for Ether, a town in the low country of Judah. (Joshua 15:42)


Athaiah — (whom Jehovah made), a descendant of Pharez, the son of Judah, who dwelt at Jerusalem after the return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:4) called Uthai in (1 Chronicles 9:4)


Athaliah — (afflicted of the Lord) daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah and introduced into that kingdom the worship of Baal. (B.C. 891.) After the great revolution by which Jehu seated himself on the throne of Samaria she killed all the members of the royal family of Judah who had escaped his sword. (2 Kings 11:1) From the slaughter one infant, named Joash, the youngest son of Ahaziah, was rescued by his aunt Jehosheba wife of Jehoiada, (2 Chronicles 23:11) the high priest. (2 Chronicles 24:6) The child was brought up under Jehoiada's care, and concealed in the temple for six years, during which period Athaliah reigned over Judah. At length Jehoiada thought it time to produce the lawful king to the people, trusting to their zeal for the worship of God and their loyalty to the house of David. His plan was successful, and Athaliah was put to death.


Athenians — natives of Athens (Acts 17:21)


Athens — (city of Athene), the capital of Attica, and the chief seat of Grecian learning and civilization during the golden period of the history of Greece. Description--Athens is situated about three miles from the seacoast, in the central plain of Attica. In this plain rise several eminences Of these the most prominent is a lofty insulated mountain with a conical peaked Summit, now called the Hill of St. George, and which bore in ancient times the name of Lycabettus . This mountain, which was not included within the ancient walls, lies to the northeast of Athens, and forms the most striking feature in the environs of the city. It is to Athens what Vesuvius is to Naples, or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh Southwest of Lycabettua there are four hills of moderate height, all of which formed part of the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus and at the distance of a mile from the latter, was the Aeropolis, or citadel of Athens, a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north to south. Immediately west of the Aeropolis is a second hill of irregular form, the Areopagus (Mars' Hill). To the southwest there rises a third hill, the Pnyx, on which the assemblies of the citizens were held. South of the city was seen the Saronic Gulf, with the harbors of Athens. History.--Athens is said to have derived its name from the prominence given to the worship of the goddess Athena (Minerva) by its king, Erechtheus. The inhabitants were previously called Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who, according to tradition, was the original founder of the city. This at first occupied only the hill or rock which afterwards became the Acropolis; but gradually the buildings spread over the ground at the southern foot of this hill. It was not till the time of Pisistratus and his sons (B.C. 560-514) that the city began to assume any degree of splendor. The most remarkable building of these despots was the gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus or Jupiter. Under Themistocles the Acropolis began to form the centre of the city, round which the new walls described an irregular circle of about 60 stadia or 7 1/4 miles in circumference. Themistocles transferred the naval station of the Athenians to the peninsula of Piraeus, which is distant about 4 1/2 miles from Athens, and contains three natural harbors. It was not till the administration of Pericles that the walls were built which connected Athens with her ports. Buildings.--Under the administration of Pericles, Athens was adorned with numerous public buildings, which existed in all their glory when St. Paul visited the city. The Acropolis was the centre of the architectural splendor of Athens. It was covered with the temples of gods and heroes; and thus its platform presented not only a sanctuary, but a museum containing the finest productions of the architect and the sculptor, in which the whiteness of the marble was relieved by brilliant colors, and rendered still more dazzling by the transparent clearness of the Athenian atmosphere. The chief building was the Parthenon (i.e. House of the Virgin), the most perfect production of Grecian architecture. It derived its name from its being the temple of Athena Parthenos, or Athena the Virgin, the invincible goddess of war. It stood on the highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre. It was entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone, and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of the purest kind. It was adorned with the most exquisite sculptures, executed by various artists under the direction of Phidias. But the chief wonder of the Parthenon was the colossal statue of the virgin goddess executed by Phidias himself: The Acropolis was adorned with another colossal figure of Athena, in bronze, also the work of Phidias. It stood in the open air, nearly opposite the Propylaea. With its pedestal it must have been about 70 feet high, and consequently towered above the roof of the Parthenon, so that the point of its spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off the promontory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens. The Areopagus, or Hill of Ares (Mars), is described elsewhere. [Mars Hill' HILL] The Pnyx, or place for holding the public assemblies of the Athenians, stood on the side of a low rocky hill, at the distance of about a quarter of a mile from the Areopagus. Between the Pnyx on the west) the Areopagus on the north and the Acropolis on the east, and closely adjoining the base of these hills, stood the Agora or 'Market,' where St. Paul disputed daily. Through it ran the road to the gymnasium and gardens of the Academy, which were situated about a mile from the walls. The Academy was the place where Plato and his disciples taught. East of the city, and outside the walls was the Lyceum, a gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, and celebrated as the place in which Aristotle taught. Character.--The remark of the sacred historian respecting the inquisitive character of the Athenians (Acts 17:21) is attested by the unanimous voice of antiquity. Their natural liveliness was partly owing to the purity and clearness of the atmosphere of Attica, which also allowed them to pass much of their time in the open air. The Athenian carefulness in religion is confirmed by the ancient writers. Of the Christian church, founded by St. Paul at Athens, according to ecclesiastical tradition, Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop. [Dionysius] Present condition.-- (The population of Athens in 1871 was 48,000. Its university has 52 professors and 1200 students. Educational institutions are very numerous. A railway connects the Pirzeus or port with the city and its terminus stands in the midst of what was once the Agora.--ED.)


Athlai — (whom Jehovah afflicts), one of the sons of Bebai, who put away his foreign wife at the exhortation of Ezra. (Ezra 10:28)

Atonement, The Day Of

Atonement, The Day Of — I. The great day of national humiliation, and the only one commanded in the Mosaic law. [Fasts] The mode of its observance is described in Levi 16, and the conduct of the people is emphatically enjoined in (Leviticus 23:26-32) II. Time.-- It was kept on the tenth day of Tisri, that is, from the evening of the ninth to the evening of the tenth of that month, five days before the feast of tabernacles. Tisri corresponds to our September-October, so that the 10th of Tisri would be about the first of October. [Festivals] III. How observed.-- It was kept by the people as a high solemn sabbath. On this occasion only the high priest was permitted to enter into the holy of holies. Having bathed his person and dressed himself entirely in the holy white linen garments, he brought forward a young bullock for a sin offering, purchased at his own cost, on account of himself and his family, and two young goats for a sin offering, with a ram for a burnt offering, which were paid for out of the public treasury, on account of the people. He then presented the two goats before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle and cast lots upon them. On one lot 'For Jehovah ' was inscribed, and on the other 'For Azazel .' A phrase of unusual difficulty. The best modern scholars agree that it designates the personal being to whom the goat was sent, probably Satan. This goat was called the scapegoat . After various sacrifices and ceremonies the goat upon which the lot 'For Jehovah ' had fallen was slain and the high priest sprinkled its blood before the mercy-seat in the same manner as he had done that of the bullock. Going out from the holy of holies he purified the holy place, sprinkling some of the blood of both the victims on the altar of incense. At this time no one besides the high priest was suffered to be present in the holy place. The purification of the holy of holies and of the holy place being thus completed, the high priest laid his hands upon the head of the goat on which the lot 'For Azazel ' had fallen and confessed over it all the sins of the people. The goat was then led, by a man chosen for the purpose, into the wilderness, into 'a land not inhabited,' and was there let loose. The high priest after this returned into the holy place bathed himself again, put on his usual garments of office, and offered the two rams as burnt offerings, one for himself and one for the people. IV. Significance. In considering the I. meaning of the particular rites of the day, three points appear to be of a very distinctive character.

  1. The white garments of the high priest.
  2. His entrance into the holy of holies.
  3. The scapegoat. The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Hebrews 9:7-25) teaches us to apply the first two particulars. The high priest himself, with his person cleansed and dressed in white garments, was the best outward type which a living man could present in his own person of that pure and holy One who was to purify his people and to cleanse them from their sins. But respecting the meaning of the scapegoat we have no such light to guide us, and the subject is one of great doubt and difficulty. It has been generally considered that it was dismissed to signify the carrying away of the sins of the people, as it were, out of the sight of Jehovah. If we keep in view that the two goats are spoken of as parts of one and the same sin offering, we shall not have much difficulty in seeing that they form together but one symbolical expression; the slain goat setting forth the act of sacrifice, in giving up its own life for others 'to Jehovah;' and the goat which carried off its load of sin 'for complete removal' signifying the cleansing influence of faith in that sacrifice.


Atroth — (crowns), a city of Gad. (Numbers 32:35)


Attai — (opportune).

  1. Grandson of Sheshan the Jerahmeelite through his daughter Ahlai, whom he gave in marriage to Jarha, his Egyptian slave. (1 Chronicles 2:35,36) His grandson Zabad was one of David's mighty men. (1 Chronicles 11:41)
  2. One of the lion-faced warriors of Gad, captains of the host, who forded the Jordan at the time of its overflow and joined David in the wilderness. (1 Chronicles 12:11) (B.C. 1060.)
  3. Second son of King Rehoboam by Maachah the daughter of Absalom. (2 Chronicles 11:20) (B.C. 975.)


Attalia — (from Attalus), a coast-town of Pamphylia, mentioned (Acts 14:25) It was built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, and named after the monarch. All its remains are characteristic of the date of its foundation. Leake fixes Attalia at Adalia, on the south court of Asia Minor, north of the Duden Su, the ancient Catarrhactes.


Augustus — (venerable) Cae'sar, the first Roman emperor. He was born A.U.C. 691, B.C. 63. His father was Caius Octavius; his mother Atia, daughter of Julia the sister of C. Julius Caesar. He was principally educated by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his heir. After his murder, the young Octavius, then Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was taken into the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and, after the removal of the latter, divided the empire with Antony. The struggle for the supreme power was terminated in favor of Octavianus by the battle of Actium, B.C. 31. On this victory he was saluted imperator by the senate, who conferred on him the title Augustus, B.C. 27. The first link binding him to New Testament history is his treatment of Herod after the battle of Actium. That prince, who had espoused Antony's side, found himself pardoned, taken into favor and confirmed, nay even increased, in his power. After Herod's death, in A.D. 4, Augustus divided his dominions, almost exactly according to his dying directions, among his sons. Augustus died in Nola in Campania, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767, A.D. 14, in his 76th year; but long before his death he had associated Tiberius with him in the empire.

Augustus Band

Augustus Band — (Acts 27:1) [Army]


Ava — (ruin), a place in the empire of Assyria, apparently the same as Ivan. (2 Kings 17:24)


Aven — (nothingness).

  1. The 'plain of Aven' is mentioned by (Amos 1:5) in his denunciation of Syria and the country to the north of Palestine. This Aven is by some supposed to be the once magnificent Heiropolis, 'city of I the sun,' now Baalbek (Bal'bek) of Coele-Syria, whose ruins are one of the wonders of the ages. It was situated in a plain near the foot of the Anti-Libanus range of mountains, 42 miles northwest of Damascus. It is famous for the colossal ruins of its temples, one of which with its courts and porticos, extended over 1000 feet in length. The temples were built of marble or limestone and granite. Some of the columns were 7 feet in diameter and 62 feet high, or including capital and pedestal, 89 feet. Some of the building-stones were 64 feet long and 12 feet thick. The temples are of Roman origin.
  2. In (Hosea 10:8) the word is clearly an abbreviation of Bethaven, that is, Bethel. Comp. (Hosea 4:15) etc.
  3. The sacred city of Heliopolis or On, in Egypt. (Ezekiel 30:17)


Avim — (ruins), A'vims or A'vites .

  1. A people among the early inhabitants of Palestine, whom we meet with in the southwest corner of the seacoast, whither they may have made their way north-ward from the desert, probably the same as the Hivites.
  2. The people of Avva, among the colonists who were sent by the king of Assyria to reinhabit the depopulated cities of Israel. (2 Kings 17:31)


Avith — (ruins), the city of Hadad ben-Bedad, one of the kings of Edom before there were kings in Israel. (Genesis 36:35 1 Chronicles 1:46)


Awl — a tool of which we do not know the ancient form. The only notice of it is in connection with the custom of boring the ear of the slave. (Exodus 21:6 15:17)


Azal — a name only occurring in (Zechariah 14:5) It is mentioned as the limit to which the ravine of the Mount of Olives will extend when 'Jehovah shall go forth to fight.'


Azaliah — (whom the Lord reserved), the father of Shaphan the scribe in the reign of Josiah. (2 Kings 22:3 2 Chronicles 34:8) (B.C. before 641.)


Azaniah — (whom the Lord hears), the father or immediate ancestor of Jeshua the Levite, in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:9)


Azarael — a Levite musician. (Nehemiah 12:36)

Azareel, Or Azareel

Azareel, Or Azareel — (whom the Lord helps).

  1. A Korhite who joined David in his retreat at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:6) (B.C. 1060.)
  2. A Levite musician of the family of Heman in the time of David, (1 Chronicles 25:18) called Uzziel in (1 Chronicles 25:4) (B.C. 1050.)
  3. Son of Jeroham, and prince of the tribe of Dan when David numbered the people. (1 Chronicles 27:22)
  4. One of the sons of Bani, who put away his foreign wife on the remonstrance of Ezra. (Ezra 10:41) (B.C. 459.)
  5. Father or ancestor of Maasiai, or Amashai, a priest who dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon. (Nehemiah 11:13) comp. 1 Chronicles 9:12 (B.C. about 440.)


Azariah — (whom the Lord helps) a common name in Hebrew, and especially in the families of the priests of the line of Eleazar, whose name has precisely the same meaning as Azariah. It is nearly identical, and is often confounded, with Ezra as well as with Zerahiah and Seraiah. The principal persons who bore this name were--

  1. Son of Ahimaaz. (1 Chronicles 6:9) He appears from (1 Kings 4:2) to have succeeded Zadok, his grandfather, in the high priesthood, in the reign of Solomon, Ahimaaz having died before Zadok. (B.C. About 1000.) [Ahimaaz]
  2. A chief officer of Solomon's, the son of Nathan, perhaps David's grandson. (1 Kings 4:5)
  3. Tenth king of Judah, more frequently called Uzziah. (2 Kings 14:21 15:1,6,8,17,23,27 1 Chronicles 8:12)
  4. Son of Ethan, of the sons of Zerah, where, perhaps, Zerahiah is the more probable reading. (1 Chronicles 2:8)
  5. Son of Jehu of the family of the Jerahmeelites, and descended from Jarha the Egyptian slave of Sheshan. (1 Chronicles 2:38,39) He was probably one of the captains of hundreds in the time of Athaliah mentioned in (2 Chronicles 23:1) (B.C. 886.)
  6. The son of Johanan. (1 Chronicles 6:10) He must have been high priest in the reign of Abijah and Asa. (B.C. 939.)
  7. Another Azariah is inserted between Hilkiah, in Josiah's reign, and Seraiah who was put to death by Nebuchadnezzar, in (1 Chronicles 6:13,14)
  8. Son of Zephaniah, a Kohathite, and ancestor of Samuel the prophet. (1 Chronicles 6:36) Apparently the same as Uzziah in ver. 24.
  9. Azariah; the son of Oded, (2 Chronicles 15:1) called simply Oded in ver. 8, was a remarkable prophet in the days of King Asa, and a contemporary of Azariah the son of Johanan the high priest, and of Hanani the seer. (B.C. 939.)
  10. Son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 21:2) (B.C.910.)
  11. Another son of Jehoshaphat, and brother of the preceding. (2 Chronicles 21:2)
  12. In (2 Chronicles 22:6) Azariah is a clerical error for Ahaziah.
  13. Son of Jeroham, one of the captains of Judah in the time of Athaliah. (2 Chronicles 23:1)
  14. The high priest in the reign of Uzziah king of Judah. The most memorable event of his life is that which is recorded in (2 Chronicles 26:17-20) (B.C. 810.) Azariah was contemporary with Isaiah the prophet and with Amos and Joel.
  15. Son of Johanan, one of the captains of Ephraim in the reign of Ahaz. (2 Chronicles 28:12)
  16. A Kohathite, father of Joel, in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:12) (B.C. 726.)
  17. A Merarite, son of Jehalelel, in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:12)
  18. The high priest in the days of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:10,13) He appears to have co operated zealously with the king in that thorough purification of the temple and restoration of the temple service, which was so conspicuous a feature in his reign. He succeeded Urijah, who was high priest in the reign of Ahaz.
  19. Son of Maaseiah who repaired part of the wall of Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 3:23,24) (B.C. 446-410.)
  20. One of the leaders of the children of the province who went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:7)
  21. One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in instructing the people in the knowledge of the law. (Nehemiah 8:7)
  22. One of the priests who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:2) and probably the same with the Azariah who assisted in the dedication of the city wall. (Nehemiah 12:33)
  23. (Jeremiah 13:2) (Jezaniah).
  24. The original name of Abednego. (Daniel 1:6,7,11,19) He appears to have been of the seed-royal of Judah. (B.C. 603.)


Azaz — (strong), a Reubenite, father of Bela. (1 Chronicles 5:8)


Azaziah — (whom the Lord strengthens)

  1. A Levite musician in the reign of David, appointed to play the harp in the service which attended the procession by which the ark was brought up from the house of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 15:21) (B.C. 1048.)
  2. The father of Hoshea, prince of the tribe of Ephraim when David numbered the people. (1 Chronicles 27:20)
  3. One of the Levites in the reign of Hezekiah, who had charge of the tithes, and dedicated things in the temple. (2 Chronicles 31:13)


Azbuk — (strong devastation), father or ancestor of Nehemiah, the prince of part of Bethzur. (Nehemiah 3:16)


Azekah — (dugover), a town of Judah, with dependent villages, lying in the Shefelah or rich agricultural plain. It is most clearly defined as being near Shochoh, (1 Samuel 17:1) but its position has not yet been recognized.


Azel — (noble), a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:37,38 9:43,44)


Azem — (bone), a city in the extreme south of Judah, (Joshua 15:29) afterwards allotted to Simeon. (Joshua 19:3) Elsewhere it is Ezem.


Azgad — (strength of fortune). The children of Azgad, to the number of 1222 (2322 according to) (Nehemiah 7:17) were among the laymen who returned with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:12 8:12) With the other heads of the People they joined in the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:15) (B.C. 536.)


Aziel — (whom God comforts), a Levite. (1 Chronicles 15:20) The name is a shortened form of Jaaziel in ver. 18.


Aziza — (strong) a layman of the family of Zattu, who had married a foreign wife after the return from Babylon.


Azmaveth — a place to all appearance in Benjamin, being named with other towns belonging to that tribe. (Ezra 2:24) The name elsewhere occurs as BETH-AZMAVETH. (strong unto death).

  1. One of David's mighty men, a native of Bahurim, (2 Samuel 23:31 1 Chronicles 11:33) and therefore probably a Benjamite. (B.C. 1060).
  2. A descendant of Mephibosheth, or Merib-baal. (1 Chronicles 8:36 9:42)
  3. The father of Jeziel and Pelet, two of the skilled Benjamite slingers and archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 10:3) perhaps identical with No. 1.
  4. Overseer of the royal treasures in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:25)


Azmon — (strong), a place named as being on the southern boundary of the Holy Land, apparently near the torrent of Egypt (Wadi el-Arish). (Numbers 34:4,5 Joshua 15:4) It has not yet been identified.


Aznothtabor — (the ears (i.e. possibly the summits) of Tabor), one of the landmarks of the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:34) The town, if town it be, has hitherto escaped recognition.


Azor — (a helper), son of Eliakim, in the line of our Lord. (Matthew 1:13,14)


Azotus — [Ashdod, Or Azotus]


Azriel — (whom God helps).

  1. The head of a house of the half tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan, a man of renown. (1 Chronicles 5:24) (B.C. 741.)
  2. A Naphtalite, ancestor of Jerimoth, the head of the tribe at the time of David's census. (1 Chronicles 27:19) (B.C. 1015.)
  3. The father of Seraiah, an officer of Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah (B.C. 605.)


Azrikam — (help against the enemy).

  1. A descendant of Zerubbabel, and son of Neariah of the royal line of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:23)
  2. Eldest son of Azel, and descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:38 9:44) (B.C after 1037.)
  3. A Levite, ancestor of Shemaiah, who lived in the time of Nehemiah. (1 Chronicles 9:14 Nehemiah 11:15) (B.C. before 536.)
  4. Governor of the house, or prefect of the palace, to King Ahaz, who was slain by Zichri, an Ephraimite hero, in the successful invasion of the southern kingdom by Pekah king of Israel. (2 Chronicles 28:7) (B.C. 738.)


Azubah — (forsaken).

  1. Wife of Caleb, son of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:18,19)
  2. Mother of King Jehoshaphat. (1 Kings 22:42 2 Chronicles 20:31) (B.C. 950.)


Azur — properly Az'zur (he that assists)

  1. A Benjamite of Gibeon, and father of Hananiah the false prophet. (Jeremiah 28:1)
  2. Father of Jaazaniah, one of the princes of the people against whom Ezekiel was commanded to prophesy. (Ezekiel 11:1)


Azzah — (the strong). The more accurate rendering of the name of the well-known Philistine city Gaza. (2:23 1 Kings 4:24 Jeremiah


Azzan — (very strong), the father of Paltiel prince of the tribe of Issachar, who represented his tribe in the division of the promised land. (Numbers 34:26)


Azzur — (one who helps), one of the heads of the People who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:17) (B.C. 410.) The name is probably that of a family, and in Hebrew is the same as is elsewhere represented by Azur.