Smith's Topical Index
Smith's Topical Index
A - Ammon
A — See Alpha
Aarat — (high or holy ground), a mountainous district of Asia mentioned in the Bible in connection with the following events:-- (1) As the resting-place of the ark after the deluge. (Genesis 8:4) (2) As the asylum of the sons of Sennacherib. (2 Kings 19:37 Isaiah 37:38) Authorized Version has 'the land of Armenia.' (3) As the ally, and probably the neighbor, of Minni and Ashchenaz. (Jeremiah [Armenia] The name Ararat was unknown to the geographers of Greece and Rome, as it still is to the Armenians of the present day; but it was an ancient name for a portion of Armenia. In its biblical sense it is descriptive generally of the Armenian highlands--the lofty plateau which over looks the plain of the Araxes on the north and of Mesopotomia on the south. Various opinions have been put forth as to the spot where the ark rested, as described in (Genesis 8:4) (but it is probable that it rested on some of the lower portions of the range than on the lofty peak to which exclusively) Europeans have given the name Ararat, the mountain which is called Massis by the Armenians, Agri-Dagh, i.e. Steep Mountain, by the Turks, and Kuh-i-Nuh, i.e. Noah's Mountain, by the Persians. It rises immediately out of the plain of the Araxes, and terminates in two conical peaks, named the Great and Less Ararat, about seven miles distant from each other; the former of which attain an elevation of 17,260 feet above the level of the sea and about 14,000 above the plain of the Araxes, while the latter is lower by 4000 feet. The summit of the higher is covered with eternal snow for about 3000 feet. Arguri, the only village known to have been built on its slopes, was the spot where, according to tradition, Noah planted his vineyard. 'The mountains of Ararat ' are co-extensive with the Armenian plateau from the base of Ararat in the north to the range of Kurdistan in the south, we notice the following characteristics of that region as illustrating the Bible narrative; (1) its elevation. It rises to a height of from 6000 to 7000 feet above the level of the sea. (2) Its geographical position . Viewed with reference to the dispersion of the nations, Armenia is the true centre of the world; and at the present day Ararat is the great boundary-stone between the empires of Russia, Turkey and Persia. (3) Its physical character . The plains as well as the mountains supply evidence of volcanic agency. (4) The climate . Winter lasts from October to May, and is succeeded by a brief spring and a summer of intense heat. (5) The vegetation . Grass grows luxuriantly on the plateau, and furnishes abundant pasture during the summer months to the flocks of the nomad Kurds. Wheat, barley and vines ripen at far higher altitudes than on the Alps and the Pyrenees.
Aaron — (a teacher, or lofty), the son of Amram and Jochebed, and the older brother of Moses and Miriam. (Numbers 26:59 33:39) (B.C. 1573.) He was a Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14) He was appointed by Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16) of his brother Moses, who was 'slow of speech;' and accordingly he was not only the organ of communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30 7:2) but also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus. (Exodus 7:19) etc. On the way to Mount Sinai, during the battle with Amalek, Aaron with Hur stayed up the weary hands of Moses when they were lifted up for the victory of Israel. (Exodus 17:9) He is mentioned as dependent upon his brother and deriving all his authority from him. Left, on Moses' departure into Sinai, to guide the people, Aaron is tried for a moment on his own responsibility, and he fails from a weak inability to withstand the demand of the people for visible 'gods to go before them,' by making an image of Jehovah, in the well-known form of Egyptian idolatry (Apis or Mnevis). He repented of his sin, and Moses gained forgiveness for him. (9:20) Aaron was not consecrated by Moses to the new office of the high priesthood. (Exodus 29:9) From this time the history of Aaron is almost entirely that of the priesthood, and its chief feature is the great rebellion of Korah and the Levites. Leaning, as he seems to have done, wholly on Moses, it is not strange that he should have shared his sin at Meribah and its punishment. See Moses. (Numbers 20:10-12) Aaron's death seems to have followed very speedily. It took place on Mount Hor, after the transference of his robes and office to Eleazar. (Numbers 20:28) This mount is still called the 'Mountain of Aaron.' See Hor. The wife of Aaron was Elisheba, (Exodus 6:23) and the two sons who survived him, Eleazar and Ithamar. The high priesthood descended to the former, and to his descendants until the time of Eli, who, although of the house of Ithamar, received the high priesthood and transmitted it to his children; with them it continued till the accession of Solomon, who took it from Abiathar and restored it to Zadok (of the house of Eleazar). See Abiathar.
Aaronites — (1 Chronicles 12:27) priests of the family of Aaron.
Ab — See Month. (father), an element in the composition of many proper names, of which Abba is a Chaldaic form, having the sense of 'endowed with,' 'possessed of.'
Abaddon — See Apollyon.
Abagtha — (God-given), one of the seven eunuchs in the Persian court of Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10)
Abana — (perennial, stony), one of the 'rivers of Damascus.' (2 Kings 5:12) The Barada and the Awaj are now the chief streams of Damascus, the former representing the Abana and the latter the Pharpar of the text. The Barada (Abana) rises in the Antilibanus, at about 23 miles from the city, after flowing through which it runs across the plain, of whose fertility it is the chief source, till it loses itself in the lake or marsh Bahret-el-Kibliyeh.
Abarim — (regions beyond), a mountain or range of highlands on the east of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, facing Jericho, and forming the eastern wall of the Jordan valley at that part. Its most elevated spot was 'the Mount Nebo, head of the Pisgah,' from which Moses viewed the Promised Land before his death. These mountains are mentioned in (Numbers 27:12 33:47,48) and Deuteronomy 32:49
Abba — See Ab.
Abdeel — father of Shelemiah. (Jeremiah
Abdi — (my servant).
Abdiel — (the servant of God), son of Guni and father of Ahi, one of the Gadites who were settled in the land of Bashan, (1 Chronicles 5:15), in the days of Jotham king of Judah. (B.C. 758.)
Abdon — (servile).
Abednego — (i.e. servant of Nego, perhaps the same as Nebo), the Chaldean name given to Azariah, one of the three friends of Daniel, miraculously save from the fiery furnace. Dan. 3. (B.C. about 600.)
Abel — the name of several places in Palestine, probably signifies a meadow . (i.e., breath, vapor, transitoriness, probably so called from the shortness of his life), the second son of Adam, murdered by his brother Cain, (Genesis 4:1-16) he was a keeper or feeder of sheep. Our Lord spoke of Abel as the first martyr, (Matthew 23:35) so did the early Church subsequently. The traditional site of his murder and his grave are pointed out near Damascus.
Abel, Stone Of
Abel, Stone Of — (the great abel), the place where the ark rested in the field of Joshua at Beth-shemesh. (1 Samuel 6:18)
Abelbethmaachah — (meadow of the house of oppression), a town of some importance, (2 Samuel 20:15) in the extreme north of Palestine, which fell an early prey to the invading kings of Syria, (1 Kings 15:20) and Assyria. (2 Kings 15:29)
Abelmeholah — (meadow of the dance), in the northern pat of the Jordan valley, (1 Kings 4:12) to which the routed Bedouin host fled from Gideon, (Judges 7:22) Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah returning up the valley from Horeb. (1 Kings 19:16-19)
Abelmizraim — (meadow of Egypt), the name given by the Canaanites to the floor of Atad, at which Joseph, his brothers and the Egyptians made their mourning for Jacob. (Genesis 50:11) It was beyond (on the east of) Jordan. See Atad. (Schaff and others say it was on the west bank, for the writer was on the east of Jordan. It was near Jericho, or perhaps Hebron.)
Abelshittim — (the meadow of the acacias), in the 'plains' of Moab, on the low level of the Jordan valley, opposite Jericho. The last resting-place of Israel before crossing the Jordan. (Numbers 33:49) The place is most frequently mentioned by its shorter name of Shittim. See Shittah Tree, Shittim, Shittim.
Abez — (lofty), a town in the possession of Issachar, named between Kishion and Remeth in (Joshua 19:20) only.
Abia, Abiah, Or Abijah
Abia, Abiah, Or Abijah —
Abia, Course Of
Abiaibon — (father of strength). See Abiel Or Abiel.
Abiasaph — (father of gathering, i.e. gathered), (Exodus 6:24) otherwise written Ebi/asaph. (1 Chronicles 6:23,37 9:19) one of the descendants of Korah, and head of the Korhites. Among the remarkable descendants of Abiasaph were Samuel the prophet, (1 Samuel 1:11) and Heman the singer.
Abiathar — (father of abundance, i.e. liberal), High priest and fourth in descent from Eli. (B.C. 1060-1012.) Abiathar was the only one of the all the sons of Ahimelech the high priest who escaped the slaughter inflicted upon his father's house by Saul, in revenge for his father's house by Saul, in revenge of his having inquired of the Lord for David and given him the shew-bread to eat. (1 Samuel 22:1) ... Abiathar having become high priest fled to David, and was thus enabled to inquire of the Lord for him. (1 Samuel 23:9 30:7 2 Samuel 2:1 5:19) etc. He adhered to David in his wanderings while pursued by Saul; he was with him while he reigned in Hebron, and afterwards in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 2:1-3) He continued faithful to him in Absalom's rebellion. (2 Samuel 15:24,29,35,36 17:15-17 19:11) When, however, Adonijah set himself up fro David's successor on the throne, in opposition to Solomon, Abiathar sided with him, while Zadok was on Solomon's side. For this Abiathar was deprived of the high priesthood. Zadok had joined David at Hebron, (1 Chronicles 12:28) so that there was henceforth who high priests in the reign of David, and till the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon, when Zadok became the sole high priest.
Abib — (green fruits). [Month]
Abida, Or Abidah
Abiel Or Abiel
Abiel Or Abiel — (father of strength, i.e. strong).
Abiezer — (father of help, helpful).
Abigail — (father, i.e. source, of joy).
Abihail — (father of, i.e. possessing, strength).
Abihu — (he (God) is my father), the second son, (Numbers 3:2) of Aaron by Elisheba. (Exodus 6:23) Being, together with his elder brother Nadab, guilty of offering strange fire to the lord, he was consumed by fire from heaven. (Leviticus 10:1,2)
Abihud — (father of renown, famous), son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:3)
Abijah Or Abijam
Abijah Or Abijam — (my father is Jehovah).
Abijam — [Abia, Abiah, Or Abijah, Abijah Or Abijam, 1]
Abila — [Abilene]
Abilene — (land of meadows), (Luke 3:1) a city situated on the eastern slope of Antilibanus, in a district fertilized by the river Barada (Abana). The city was 18 miles from Damascus, and stood in a remarkable gorge called Suk Wady Barada .
Abimelech — (father of the king), the name of several Philistine kings, was probably a common title of these kings, like that of Pharaoh among the Egyptians and that of Caesar and Augustus among the Romans. Hence in the title of (Psalms 34:1) ... the name of Abimelech is given to the king, who is called Achish in (1 Samuel 21:11)
Abiner — (father of light). Same as Abner. (1 Samuel 14:50) margin.
Abishag — a beautiful Shunammite (from Shunem, in the tribe of Issachar), taken into David's harem to comfort him in his extreme old age. (1 Kings 1:1-4)
Abishai, Or Abishai
Abishai, Or Abishai — (father of a gift), The eldest of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and brother to Joab and Asahel. (1 Chronicles 2:16) Like his two brothers he was the devoted follower of David. He was his companion in the desperate night expedition to the camp of Saul. (1 Samuel 26:6-9) (B.C. 1055.) On the outbreak of Absalom's rebellion he remained true to the king,a nd commanded a third part of the army in the decisive battle against Absalom. He rescued David from the hands of the gigantic Philistine, Ishbi-benob. (2 Samuel 21:17) His personal prowess on this, as on another occasion, when he fought singlehanded against three hundred, won for him a place as captain of the second three of David's mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:18 1 Chronicles 11:20)
Abishalom — (father of peace), father or grandfather of Maachah, who was the wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijah. (1 Kings 15:2,10) He is called Absalom in (2 Chronicles 11:20,21) This person must be David's son. See LXX.; (2 Samuel 14:27)
Abishua, Or Abishua
Abishua, Or Abishua — (father of deliverance).
Abishur — (father of the wall), son of Shammai. (1 Chronicles 2:28)
Abitub — (father of goodness), son of Shaharaim by Hushim. (1 Chronicles 8:11)
Abiud — (father of praise), descendant of Zorobabel in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:13)
Ablution — [Purification]
Abner — (father of light).
Abomination Of Desolation
Abomination Of Desolation — Mentioned by our Saviour, (Matthew 24:15) as a sign of the approaching destruction of Jerusalem, with reference to (Daniel 9:27 11:31 12:11) The prophecy referred ultimately to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, and consequently the 'abomination' must describe some occurrence connected with that event. It appears most probable that the profanities of the Zealots constituted the abomination, which was the sign of the impending ruin; but most people refer it to the standards or banners of the Roman army. They were abomination because there were idolatrous images upon them.
Abraham — (father of a multitude) was the son of Terah, and founder of the great Hebrew nation. (B.C. 1996-1822.) His family, a branch of the descendants of Shem, was settled in Ur of the Chaldees, beyond the Euphrates, where Abraham was born. Terah had two other sons, Nahor and Haran. Haran died before his father in Ur of the Chaldees, leaving a son, Lot; and Terah, taking with him Abram, with Sarai his wife and his grandson Lot, emigrated to Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died. On the death of his father, Abram, then in the 75th year of his age, with Sarai and Lot, pursued his course to the land of Canaan, whither he was directed by divine command, (Genesis 12:5) when he received the general promise that he should become the founder of a great nation, and that all the families of the earth should be blessed in him. He passed through the heart of the country by the great highway to Shechem, and pitched his tent beneath the terebinth of Moreh. (Genesis 12:6) Here he received in vision from Jehovah the further revelation that this was the land which his descendants should inherit. (Genesis 12:7) The next halting-place of the wanderer was on a mountain between Bethel and Ai, (Genesis 12:8) but the country was suffering from famine, and Abram journeyed still southward to the rich cornlands of Egypt. There, fearing that the great beauty of Sarai might tempt the powerful monarch of Egypt and expose his own life to peril, he arranged that Sarai should represent herself as his sister, which her actual relationship to him, as probably the daughter of his brother Haran, allowed her to do with some semblance of truth. But her beauty was reported to the king, and she was taken into the royal harem. The deception was discovered, and Pharaoh with some indignation dismissed Abram from the country. (Genesis 12:10-20) He left Egypt with great possessions, and, accompanied by Lot, returned by the south of Palestine to his former encampment between Bethel and Ai. The increased wealth of the two kinsmen was the ultimate cause of their separation. Lot chose the fertile plain of the Jordan near Sodom, while Abram pitched his tent among the groves of Mamre, close to Hebron. (Genesis 13:1) ... Lot with his family and possessions having been carried away captive by Chedorlaomer king of Elam, who had invaded Sodom, Abram pursued the conquerors and utterly routed them not far from Damascus. The captives and plunder were all recovered, and Abram was greeted on his return by the king of Sodom, and by Melchizedek king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who mysteriously appears upon the scene to bless the patriarch and receive from him a tenth of the spoil. (Genesis 14:1) ... After this the thrice-repeated promise that his descendants should become a mighty nation and possess the land in which he was a stranger was confirmed with all the solemnity of a religious ceremony. (Genesis 15:1) ... Ten years had passed since he had left his father's house, and the fulfillment of the promise was apparently more distant than at first. At the suggestion of Sarai, who despaired of having children of her own, he took as his concubine Hagar, her Egyptian main, who bore him Ishmael in the 86th year of his age. (Genesis 16:1) ... [Hagar; Ishmael] But this was not the accomplishment of the promise. Thirteen years elapsed, during which Abram still dwelt in Hebron, when the covenant was renewed, and the rite of circumcision established as its sign. This most important crisis in Abram's life, when he was 99 years old, is marked by the significant change of his name to Abraham, 'father of a multitude;' while his wife's from Sarai became Sarah. The promise that Sarah should have a son was repeated in the remarkable scene described in ch. 18. Three men stood before Abraham as he sat in his tent door in the heat of the day. The patriarch, with true Eastern hospitality, welcomed the strangers, and bade them rest and refresh themselves. The meal ended, they foretold the birth of Isaac, and went on their way to Sodom. Abraham accompanied them, and is represented as an interlocutor in a dialogue with Jehovah, in which he pleaded in vain to avert the vengeance threatened to the devoted cities of the plain. (Genesis 18:17-33) In remarkable contrast with Abraham's firm faith with regard to the magnificent fortunes of his posterity stand the incident which occurred during his temporary residence among the Philistines in Gerar, whither he had for some cause removed after the destruction of Sodom. It was almost a repetition of what took place in Egypt a few years before. At length Isaac, the long-looked for child, was born. Sarah's jealousy aroused by the mockery of Ishmael at the 'great banquet' which Abram made to celebrate the weaning of her son, (Genesis 21:9) demanded that, with his mother Hagar, he should be driven out. (Genesis 21:10) But the severest trial of his faith was yet to come. For a long period the history is almost silent. At length he receives the strange command to take Isaac, his only son, and offer him for a burnt offering at an appointed place Abraham hesitated not to obey. His faith, hitherto unshaken, supported him in this final trial, 'accounting that God was able to raise up his son, even from the dead, from whence also he received him in a figure.' (Hebrews 11:19) The sacrifice was stayed by the angel of Jehovah, the promise of spiritual blessing made for the first time, and Abraham with his son returned to Beersheba, and for a time dwelt there. (Genesis 22:1) ... But we find him after a few years in his original residence at Hebron, for there Sarah died, (Genesis 23:2) and was buried in the cave of Machpelah. The remaining years of Abraham's life are marked by but few incidents. After Isaac's marriage with Rebekah and his removal to Lahai-roi, Abraham took to wife Keturah, by whom he had six children, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbok and Shuah, who became the ancestors of nomadic tribes inhabiting the countries south and southeast of Palestine. Abraham lived to see the gradual accomplishment of the promise in the birth of his grandchildren Jacob and Esau, and witnessed their growth to manhood. (Genesis 25:26) At the goodly age of 175 he was 'gathered to his people,' and laid beside Sarah in the tomb of Machpelah by his sons Isaac and Ishmael. (Genesis 25:7-10)
Abram — (a high father), the earlier name of Abraham.
Absalom — (father of peace),third son of David by Maachah, daughter of Tamai king of Geshur, a Syrian district adjoining the northeast frontier of the Holy Land. (Born B.C. 1050.) Absalom had a sister, Tamar, who was violated by her half-brother Amnon. The natural avenger of such an outrage would be Tamar's full brother Absalom. He brooded over the wrong for two years, and then invited all the princes to a sheep-shearing feast at his estate in Baalhazor, on the borders of Ephraim and Benjamin. Here he ordered his servants to murder Amnon, and then fled for safety to his grandfather's court at Geshur, where he remained for three years. At the end of that time he was brought back by an artifice of Joab. David, however, would not see Absalom for two more years; but at length Joab brought about a reconciliation. Absalom now began at once to prepare for rebellion. He tried to supplant his father by courting popularity, standing in the gate, conversing with every suitor, and lamenting the difficulty which he would find in getting a hearing. He also maintained a splendid retinue, (2 Samuel 15:1) and was admired for his personal beauty. It is probable too that the great tribe of Judah had taken some offence at David's government. Absalom raised the standard of revolt at Hebron, the old capital of Judah, now supplanted by Jerusalem. The revolt was at first completely successful; David fled from his capital over the Jordan to Mahanaim in Gilead, and Absalom occupied Jerusalem. At last, after being solemnly anointed king at Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 19:10) Absalom crossed the Jordan to attack his father, who by this time had rallied round him a considerable force. A decisive battle was fought in Gilead, in the wood of Ephraim. Here Absalom's forces were totally defeated, and as he himself was escaping his long hair was entangled in the branches of a terebinth, where he was left hanging while the mule on which he was riding ran away from under him. He was dispatched by Joab in spite of the prohibition of David, who, loving him to the last, had desired that his life might be spared. He was buried in a great pit in the forest, and the conquerors threw stones over his grave, an old proof of bitter hostility. (Joshua 7:26)
Absaloms Pillar, Or Place
Absaloms Pillar, Or Place — A monument of tomb which Absalom had built during his lifetime in the king's dale, i.e. the valley of the Kedron, at the foot of Mount Olivet, near Jerusalem, (2 Samuel 18:18) comp. with 2 Samuel 14:27 For his three sons, and where he probably expected to be buried. The tomb there now, and called by Absalom's name was probably built at a later date.
Accad — one of the cities in the land of Shinar. (Genesis 10:10) Its position is quite uncertain.
Accaron — [Ekron]
Accho — (the Ptolemais of the Maccabees and New Testament), Now called Acca, or more usually by Europeans St. Jean d'Acre, the most important seaport town on the Syrian coast, about 30 miles south of Tyre. It was situated on a slightly projecting headland, at the northern extremity of that spacious bay which is formed by the bold promontory of Carmel on the opposite side. Later it was named Ptolemais, after one of the Ptolemies, probably Soter. The only notice of it in the New Testament is in (Acts 21:7) where it is called Ptolemais .
Aceldama — (the field of blood) (Akeldama in the Revised Version), the name given by the Jews of Jerusalem to a field near Jerusalem purchased by Judas with the money which he received for the betrayal of Christ, and so called from his violent death therein. (Acts 1:19) The 'field of blood' is now shown on the steep southern face of the valley or ravine of Hinnom, 'southwest of the supposed pool of Siloam.'
Achaia — (trouble) signifies in the New Testament a Roman province which included the whole of the Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas proper, with the adjacent islands. This province, with that of Macedonia, comprehended the while of Greece; hence Achaia and Macedonia are frequently mentioned together in the New Testament to indicate all Greece. (Acts 18:12 19:21 Romans 15:26 16:5 1 Corinthians 16:15 2 Corinthians 7:5 9:2 11:10 1 Thessalonians 1:7,8) In the time of the emperor Claudius it was governed by a proconsul, translated in the Authorized Version 'deputy,' of Achaia. (Acts 18:12)
Achaicus — (belonging to Achaia), a name of a Christian. (1 Corinthians 16:17)
Achan — (troubler), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt. (Joshua 7:19-26) From this event the valley received the name of Achor (i.e. trouble). [Achor, Valley Of] (B.C. 1450.)
Achar = Achan
Achar = Achan — (1 Chronicles 2:7)
Achaz = Ahaz
Achaz = Ahaz — king of Judah, (Matthew 1:9)
Achbor — (mouse).
Achim — son of Sadoc and father of Eliud in our Lord's genealogy. (Matthew 1:14) The Hebrew form of the name would be Jachin, which is a short form of Jehoiachin, the Lord will establish.
Achish — (angry), a Philistine king of Gath, who in the title of the 34th Psalm is called Abimelech. David twice found a refuge with him when he fled from Saul. (B.C. 1061.) On the first occasion he was alarmed for his safety, feigned madness, and was sent away.
Achmetha — [Ecbatana]
Achor, Valley Of
Achsa — (1 Chronicles 2:49) [Achsah]
Achsah — (ankle-chain, anklet), daughter of Caleb. Her father promised her in marriage to whoever should take Debir. Othniel, her father's younger brother, took that city, and accordingly received the hand of Achsah as his reward. Caleb added to her dowry the upper and lower springs. (B.C. 1450-1426.) (Joshua 15:15-19 Judges 1:11-15)
Achzib — (lying, false).
Acrabbim — See MAALEH-ACRABBIM, (Joshua 15:3) in the margin.
Acts Of The Apostles
Acts Of The Apostles — the fifth book in the New testament and the second treatise by the author of the third Gospel, traditionally known as Luke. The book commences with an inscription to one Theophilus, who was probably a man of birth and station. The readers were evidently intended to be the members of the Christian Church, whether Jews or Gentiles; for its contents are such as are of the utmost consequence to the whole Church. They are the fulfillment of the promise of the Father by the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the results of that outpouring by the dispersion of the gospel among the Jews and Gentiles. Under these leading heads all the personal and subordinate details may be arranged. First St. Peter becomes the prime actor under God int he founding of the Church. He is the centre of the first group of sayings and doings. The opening of the door to Jews, ch. 2, and Gentiles, ch. 10, is his office, and by him, in good time, is accomplished. Then the preparation of Saul of Tarsus for the work to be done, the progress, in his hand, of that work, his journeyings, preachings and perils, his stripes and imprisonments, his testifying in Jerusalem and being brought to testify in Rome,--these are the subjects of the latter half of the book, of which the great central figure is the apostle Paul. The history given in the Acts occupies about 33 years, and the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. It seems most probable that the place of writing was Roma, and the time about two years from the date of St. Paul's arrival there, as related in (Acts 28:30) This would give us fro the publication about 63 A.D.
Adadah — (festival or boundary), one of the cities in the extreme south of Judah, named with Dimonah and Kedesh. (Joshua 15:22)
Adah — (ornament, beauty).
Adaiah — (adorned by Jehovah).
Adalia — (a fire-god), the fifth son of Haman. (Esther 9:8)
Adam — a city on the Jordan, 'beside Zaretan,' in the time of Joshua. (Joshua 3:16) Man, generically, for the name Adam was not confined to the father of the human race, but like homo was applicable to woman as well as to man . (Genesis 5:2) (red earth), the name given in Scripture to the first man. It apparently has reference to the ground from which he was formed, which is called in Hebrew Adamah . The idea of redness of color seems to be inherent in either word. The creation of man was the work of the sixth day--the last and crowning act of creation. Adam was created (not born) a perfect man in body and spirit, but as innocent and completely inexperienced as a child. The man Adam was placed in a garden which the Lord God had planted 'eastward in Eden,' for the purpose of dressing it and keeping it. [Eden] Adam was permitted to eat of the fruit of every tree in the garden but one, which was called ('the tree of the knowledge of good and evil,' because it was the test of Adam's obedience. By it Adam could know good and evil int he divine way, through obedience; thus knowing good by experience in resisting temptation and forming a strong and holy character, while he knew evil only by observation and inference. Or he could 'know good and evil,' in Satan's way, be experiencing the evil and knowing good only by contrast. -ED.) The prohibition to taste the fruit of this tree was enforced by the menace of death. There was also another tree which was called 'the tree of life.' While Adam was in the garden of Eden, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air were brought to him to be named. After this the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs from him, which he fashioned into a woman and brought her to the man. At this time they were both described as being naked without the consciousness of shame. By the subtlety of the serpent the woman who was given to be with Adam was beguiled into a violation of the one command which had been imposed upon them. She took of the fruit of the forbidden tree and gave it to her husband. The propriety of its name was immediately shown in the results which followed; self-consciousness was the first-fruits of sin their eyes were opened and they knew that they were naked. Though the curse of Adam's rebellion of necessity fell upon him, yet the very prohibition to eat of the tree of life after his transgression was probably a manifestation of divine mercy, because the greatest malediction of all would have been to have the gift of indestructible life super-added to a state of wretchedness and sin. The divine mercy was also shown in the promise of a deliverer given at the very promise of a deliverer given at the very time the curse was imposed, (Genesis 3:15) and opening a door of hope to Paradise, regained for him and his descendants. Adam is stated to have lived 930 years. His sons mentioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel and Seth; it is implied, however, that he had others.
Adamah — (red earth), one of the 'fenced cities' of Naphtali, named between Chinnereth and Ramah. (Joshua 19:36)
Adamant — the translation of the Hebrew word Shamir in (Ezekiel 3:9) and Zechariah 7:12 In (Jeremiah it is translated 'diamond.' In these three passages the word is the representative of some stone of excessive hardness, and is used metaphorically. It is very probable that by Shamir is intended emery, a variety of corundum, a mineral inferior, only to the diamond in hardness.
Adami — (my man, earth), a place on the border of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:33)
Adar — [Month] (high), a place on the south boundary of Judah. (Joshua 15:3)
Adasa — (new), a place in Judea, about four miles from Beth-horon. 1Ma [Hadashah]
Addan — (strong or stony), one of the places from which some of the captivity returned with Zerubbabel to Judea who could not show their pedigree as Israelites. (Ezra 2:59) Called Addon (Nehemiah 7:61)
Adder — This word is used for any poisonous snake, and is applied in this general sense by the translators of the Authorized Version. The word adder occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version (see below), and three times int he margin as synonymous with cockatrice, viz., (Isaiah 11:8 14:29 59:5) It represents four Hebrew words:
Addi — (ornament). (Luke 3:28) Son of Cosam, and father of Melchi in our Lord's genealogy; the third above Salathiel.
Addon — (lord). [Addan]
Ader — (flock), a Benjamites, son of Beriah, chief of the inhabitants of Aijalon. (1 Chronicles 8:15) The name is more correctly Eder.
Adida — a fortified town near Jerusalem, probably the Hadid of (Ezra 2:33) and referred to in 1Ma
Adiel — (ornament of God).
Adin — (dainty, delicate), ancestor of a family who returned form Babylon with Zerubbabel, to the number of 454, (Ezra 2:15) or 655 according to the parallel list in (Nehemiah 7:20) (B.C. 536.) They joined with Nehemiah in a covenant to separate themselves from the heathen. (Nehemiah 10:16) (B.C. 410.)
Adina — (slender), one of David's captains beyond the Jordan, and a chief of the Reubenites. (1 Chronicles 11:42)
Adino, Or Adino, The Eznite
Adino, Or Adino, The Eznite — (2 Samuel 23:8) See Jashobeam.
Adithaim — (double ornament), a town belonging to Judah, lying in the low country, and named, between Sharaim and hag-Gederah, in (Joshua 15:36) only.
Adlai Or Adlai
Adlai Or Adlai — (justice of Jehovah), Ancestor of Shaphat, the overseer of David's herds that fed in the broad valleys. (1 Chronicles 27:29) (B.C. before 1050.)
Admatha — (given by the highest), one of the seven princes of Persia. (Esther 1:14)
Adna — (rest, pleasure).
Adnah — (pleasure).
Adonibezek — (lord of Bezek), king of Bezek, a city of the Canaanites. [Bezek] This chieftain was vanquished by the tribe of Judah, (Judges 1:3-7) who cut off his thumbs and great toes, and brought him prisoner to Jerusalem, where he died. He confessed that he had inflicted the same cruelty upon 70 petty kings whom he had conquered. (B.C. 1425).
Adonijah — (my Lord is Jehovah).
Adonikam, Or Adonikam
Adonikam, Or Adonikam — The sons of Adonikam, 666 in number, were among those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:13 Nehemiah 7:18) (B.C. 506-410.) The name is given as Adonijah in (Nehemiah 10:16)
Adoniram — (lord of heights), (1 Kings 4:6) by an unusual contraction Adoram, (2 Samuel 20:24) and 1 Kings 12:18 Also Hadoram, (2 Chronicles 10:18) chief receiver of the tribute during the reigns of David, (2 Samuel 20:24) Solomon, (1 Kings 4:6) and Rehoboam. (1 Kings 12:18) This last monarch sent him to collect the tribute from the rebellious Israelites, by whom he was stoned to death, (B.C. 1014-973.)
Adonizedek — (lord of justice), the Amorite king of Jerusalem who organized a league with four other Amorite princes against Joshua. The confederate kings having laid siege to Gibeon, Joshua marched to the relief of his new allies and put the besiegers to flight. The five kings took refuge in a cave at Makkedah, whence they were taken and slain, their bodies hung on trees, and then buried in the place of their concealment. (Joshua 10:1-27) (B.C. 1450.)
Adoption — an expression used by St. Paul in reference to the present and prospective privileges of Christians. (Romans 8:15,23 Galatians 4:5 Ephesians 1:5) He probably alludes to the Roman custom by which a person not having children of his own might adopt as his son one born of other parents. The relationship was to all intents and purposes the same as existed between a natural father and son. The term is used figuratively to show the close relationship to God of the Christian. (Galatians 4:4,5 Romans 8:14-17) He is received into God's family from the world, and becomes a child and heir of God.
Ador, Or Adora
Ador, Or Adora — [Adoraim]
Adoraim — (double mound), a fortified city built by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:9) in Judah. Adoraim is probably the same place with Adora, Unless that be Dor, on the seacoast below Carmel. Robinson identifies it with Dura, a 'large village' on a rising ground west of Hebron.
Adoram — [Adoniram; Hadoram]
Adoration — The acts and postures by which the Hebrews expressed adoration bear a great similarity to those still in use among Oriental nations. To rise up and suddenly prostrate the body was the most simple method; but, generally speaking, the prostration was conducted in a more formal manner, the person falling upon the knee and then gradually inclining the body until the forehead touched the ground. Such prostration was usual in the worship of Jehovah, (Genesis 17:3 Psalms 95:6) it was the formal mode of receiving visitors, (Genesis 18:2) of doing obeisance to one of superior station, (2 Samuel 14:4) and of showing respect to equals. (1 Kings 2:19) It was accompanied by such acts as a kiss, (Exodus 18:7) laying hold of the knees or feet of the person to whom the adoration was paid, (Matthew 28:9) and kissing the ground on which he stood. (Psalms 72:9 Micah 7:17) Similar adoration was paid to idols, (1 Kings 19:18) sometimes, however, the act consisted simply in kissing the hand to the object of reverence, (Job 31:27) and in kissing the statue itself. (Hosea 13:2)
Adrammelech — (splendor of the king).
Adramyttium — named form Adramys, brother of Croesus king of Lydia, a seaport in the province of Asia [Asia], situated on a bay of the Aegean Sea, about 70 miles north of Smyrna, in the district anciently called Aeolis, and also Mysia. See (Acts 16:7) [Mitylene] (Acts 27:2) The modern Adramyti is a poor village.
Adria — more properly A'drias, the Adriatic Sea. (Acts 27:27) The word seems to have been derived from the town of Adria, near the Po. In Paul's time it included the whole sea between Greece and Italy, reaching south from Crete to Sicily. [Melita]
Adriel — (flock of God), son of Barzillai, to whom Saul gave his daughter Merab, although he had previously promised her to David. (1 Samuel 18:19) (B.C. about 1062.) His five sons were amongst the seven descendants of Saul whom David surrendered to the Gibeonites. (2 Samuel 21:8)
Adullam — (justice of the people), Apocr. Odollam, a city of Judah int he lowland of the Shefelah, (Joshua 15:35) the seat of a Canaanite king, (Joshua 12:15) and evidently a place of great antiquity. (Genesis 38:1,12,20) Fortified by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:7) it was one of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:30) and still a city in the time of the Macabees. Adullam was probably near Deir Dubban, five or six miles north of Eleutheropolis. The limestone cliffs of the whole of that locality are pierced with extensive excavations, some one of which is doubtless the 'cave of Adullam,' the refuge of David. (1 Samuel 22:1 2 Samuel 23:13 1 Chronicles 11:15)
Adultery — (Exodus 20:14) The parties to this crime, according to Jewish law, were a married woman and a man who was not her husband. The Mosaic penalty was that both the guilty parties should be stoned, and it applied as well to the betrothed as to the married woman, provided she were free. (22:22-24) A bondwoman so offending was to be scourged, and the man was to make a trespass offering. (Leviticus 19:20-22) At a later time, and when owing, to Gentile example, the marriage tie became a looser bond of union, public feeling in regard to adultery changed, and the penalty of death was seldom or never inflicted. The famous trial by the waters of jealousy, (Numbers 5:11-29) was probably an ancient custom, which Moses found deeply seated--(But this ordeal was wholly in favor of the innocent, and exactly opposite to most ordeals. For the water which the accused drank was perfectly harmless, and only by a miracle could it produce a bad effect; while in most ordeals the accused must suffer what naturally produces death, and be proved innocent only by a miracle. Symbolically adultery is used to express unfaithfulness to covenant vows to God, who is represented as the husband of his people.)
Adummim — (the going up to), a rising ground or pass over against Gilgal,' and 'on the south side of the 'torrent'' (Joshua 15:7 18:17) which is the position still occupied by the road leading up from Jericho and the Jordan valley to Jerusalem, on the south face of the gorge of the Wady Kelt. (Luke 10:30-36)
Advocate — or Paraclete, one that pleads the cause of another. (1 John 2:1) Used by Christ, (John 14:16 15:26 16:7) to describe the office and work of the Holy Spirit, and translated Comforter, i.e. (see margin of Revised Version) Advocate, Helper, Intercessor. This use of the word is derived from the fact that the Jews, being largely ignorant of the Roman law and the Roman language, had to employ Roman advocates in their trials before Roman courts. Applied to Christ, (1 John 2:1)
Aegypt — [Egypt]
Aeneas — (laudble), a paralytic at Lydda healed by St. Peter. (Acts 9:33,34)
Aenon — (springs) a place 'near to Salim,' at which John baptized. (John 3:23) It was evidently west of the Jordan, comp. (John 3:22) with John 3:26 and with John 1:28 And abounded in water. It is given in the Omomasticon as eight miles south of Scythopolis 'near Salem and the Jordan.'
Aera — [Chronology]
Aethiopia — [Ethiopia]
Affinity — [Marriage]
Agabus — (a locust), a Christian prophet in the apostolic age, mentioned in (Acts 11:28) and Acts 21:10 He predicted, (Acts 11:28) that a famine would take place in the reign of Claudius. Josephus mentions a famine which prevailed in Judea in the reign of Claudius, and swept away many of the inhabitants. (In (Acts 21:10) we learn that Agabus and Paul met at Caesarea some time after this.)
Agag — (flame), possibly the title of the kings of Amalek, like Pharaoh of Egypt. One king of this name is mentioned in (Numbers 24:7) and another in 1 Samuel 15:8,9,20,32 The latter was the king of the Amalekites, whom Saul spared contrary to Jehovah's well-known will. (Exodus 17:14 25:17) For this act of disobedience Samuel was commissioned to declare to Saul his rejection, and he himself sent for Agag and cut him in pieces. (B.C. about 1070.) [Samuel]. Haman is called the Agagite in (Esther 3:1,10 8:3,5) The Jews consider him a descendant of Agag the Amalekite.
Agagite — [Agag]
Agar — [Hagar]
Agate — a beautifully-veined semi-transparent precious stone, a variety of quartz. Its colors are delicately arranged in stripes or bands or blended in clouds. It is mentioned four times in the text of the Authorized Version, viz., in (Exodus 28:19 39:12 Isaiah 54:12 Ezekiel 27:16) In the two former passages; where it is represented by the Hebrew word shebo it is spoken of as forming the second stone in the third row of the high priest's breastplate; in each of the two latter places the original word is cadced, by which, no doubt, is intended a different stone. Our English agate derives its name from the Achates, on the banks of which it was first found.
Age, Old — The aged occupied a prominent place in the social and political system of the Jews. In private life they were looked up to as the depositaries of knowledge, (Job 15:10) the young were ordered to rise up in their presence, (Leviticus 19:32) they allowed them to give their opinion first, (Job 32:4) they were taught to regard gray hair as a 'crown of glory,' (Proverbs 16:31 20:29) The attainment of old age was regarded as a special blessing. (Job 5:26) In pubic main qualification of those who acted as the representatives of the people in all matter of difficulty and deliberation. [ELDERS]
Agee, Or Agee
Agee, Or Agee — (fugitive), a Hararite, father of Shammah, one of David's three mightiest heroes. (2 Samuel 23:11) (B.C. 1050.)
Agriculture — This was little cared for by the patriarchs. The pastoral life, however, was the means of keeping the sacred race, whilst yet a family, distinct from mixture and locally unattached, especially whilst in Egypt. When grown into a nation it supplied a similar check on the foreign intercourse, and became the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth. 'The land is mine,' (Leviticus 25:23) was a dictum which made agriculture likewise the basis of the theocratic relation. Thus every family felt its own life with intense keenness, and had its divine tenure which it was to guard from alienation. The prohibition of culture in the sabbatical year formed a kind of rent reserved by the divine Owner. Landmarks were deemed sacred, (19:14) and the inalienability of the heritage was insured by its reversion to the owner in the year of jubilee; so that only so many years of occupancy could be sold. (Leviticus 25:8-16 23-35) Rain.--Water was abundant in Palestine from natural sources. (8:7 11:8-12) Rain was commonly expected soon after the autumnal equinox. The period denoted by the common scriptural expressions of the 'early' and the 'latter rain,' (11:14 Jeremiah Hosea 6:3 Zechariah 10:1 James 5:7) generally reaching from November to April, constituted the 'rainy season,' and the remainder of the year the 'dry season.' Crops.--The cereal crops of constant mention are wheat and barley, and more rarely rye and millet(?). Of the two former, together with the vine, olive and fig, the use of irrigation, the plough and the harrow, mention is made ln the book of (Job 31:40 15:33 24:6 29:19 39:10) Two kinds of cumin (the black variety called fitches), (Isaiah 28:27) and such podded plants as beans and lentils may be named among the staple produce. Ploughing and Sowing.--The plough was probably very light, one yoke of oxen usually sufficing to draw it. Mountains and steep places were hoed. (Isaiah 7:25) New ground and fallows, (Jeremiah 4:3 Hosea 10:12) were cleared of stones and of thorns, (Isaiah 5:2) early in the year, sowing or gathering from 'among thorns' being a proverb for slovenly husbandry. (Job 5:5 Proverbs 24:30,31) Sowing also took place without previous ploughing, the seed being scattered broad cast and ploughed in afterwards. The soil was then brushed over with a light harrow, often of thorn bushes. In highly-irrigated spots the seed was trampled by cattle. (Isaiah 32:20) Seventy days before the passover was the time prescribed for sowing. The oxen were urged on by a goad like a spear. (Judges 3:31) The proportion of harvest gathered to seed sown was often vast; a hundred fold is mentioned, but in such a way as to signify that it was a limit rarely attained. (Genesis 26:12 Matthew 13:8) Sowing a field with divers seed was forbidden. (22:9) Reaping and Threshing.--The wheat etc., was reaped by the sickle or pulled by the roots. It was bound in sheaves. The sheaves or heaps were carted, (Amos 2:13) to the floor--a circular spot of hard ground, probably, as now, from 50 to 80 or 100 feet in diameter. (Genesis 1:10,11 2 Samuel 24:16,18) On these the oxen, etc., forbidden to be muzzled, trampled out the grain. At a later time the Jews used a threshing sledge called morag, (Isaiah 41:15 2 Samuel 24:22 1 Chronicles 21:23) probably resembling the noreg, still employed in Egypt--a stage with three rollers ridged with iron, which, aided by the driver's weight crushed out, often injuring, the grain, as well as cut or tore the straw, which thus became fit for fodder. Lighter grains were beaten out with a stick. (Isaiah 28:27) The use of animal manure was frequent. (Psalms 83:10 2 Kings 9:37 Jeremiah 8:2) etc. Winnowing.--The shovel and fan, (Isaiah 30:24) indicate the process of winnowing--a conspicuous part of ancient husbandry. (Psalms 35:5 Job 21:18 Isaiah 17:13) Evening was the favorite time, (Ruth 3:2) when there was mostly a breeze. The fan, (Matthew 3:12) was perhaps a broad shovel which threw the grain up against the wind. The last process was the shaking in a sieve to separate dirt and refuse. (Amos 9:9) Fields and floors were not commonly enclosed; vineyard mostly were, with a tower and other buildings. (Numbers 22:24 Psalms 80:13 Isaiah 5:5 Matthew 21:33) comp. Judges 6:11 The gardens also and orchards were enclosed, frequently by banks of mud from ditches. With regard to occupancy, a tenant might pay a fixed money rent, (Song of Solomon 8:11) or a stipulated share of the fruits. (2 Samuel 9:10 Matthew 21:34) A passer by might eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but not reap or carry off fruit. (23:24,25 Matthew 12:1) The rights of the corner to be left, and of gleaning [Corner; Gleaning], formed the poor man's claim on the soil for support. For his benefit, too, a sheaf forgotten in carrying to the floor was to be left; so also with regard to the vineyard' and the olive grove. (Leviticus 19:9,10 24:19)
Agrippa — [Herod]
Agur — (a gatherer, i.e. together of wise men), The son of Jakeh, an unknown Hebrew sage who uttered or collected the sayings of wisdom recorded in Prov 30.
Ahab — (uncle).
Aharah — (after the brother), third son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:1) [Aher; Ahiram]
Aharhel — (behind the breastwork), a name occurring in an obscure fragment of the genealogies of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)
Ahasbai — (blooming), father of Eli-phelet, one of David's thirty-seven captains. (2 Samuel 23:34) In the corrupt list in (1 Chronicles 11:35) Eliphelet appears as 'Eliphal the son of Ur.' (B.C. about 1050.)
Ahashverosh — Another (the Hebrew) form of AHASUERIUS. (Ezra 4:6) in margin.
Ahasuerus — (lion-king), the name of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned in the Old Testament.
Ahava — (water), a place, (Ezra 8:15) or a river, Ezra 8:21 On the banks of which Ezra collected the second expedition which returned with him from Babylon to Jerusalem. Perhaps it is the modern Hit, on the Euphrates due east of Damascus.
Ahaz — (possessor), eleventh king of Judah, son of Jotham, reigned 741-726, about sixteen years. At the time of his accession, Rezin king of Damascus and Pekah king of Israel had recently formed a league against Judah, and they proceeded to lay siege to Jerusalem. Upon this Isaiah hastened to give advice and encouragement to Ahaz, and the allies failed in their attack on Jerusalem. Isai 7,8,9. But, the allies inflicted a most severe injury on Judah by the capture of Elath, a flourishing port on the Red Sea, while the Philistines invaded the west and south. 2Kin 16; 2Chr 28. Ahaz, having forfeited God's favor by his wickedness, sought deliverance from these numerous troubles by appealing to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, who forced him from his most formidable enemies. But Ahaz had to purchase this help at a costly price; he became tributary to Tiglath-pileser. He was weak, a gross idolater, and sought safety in heathen ceremonies, making his son pass through the fire to Molech, consulting wizards and necromancers. (Isaiah 8:19) and other idolatrous practices. (2 Kings 23:12) His only service of permanent value was the introduction of the sun-dial. He died at the age of 36, but was refused a burial with the kings his ancestors. (2 Chronicles 28:27)
Ahaziah — (sustained by the Lord).
Ahban — (brother of the wise, discreet), son of Abishur by his wife Abihail. (1 Chronicles 2:29) He was of the tribe of Judah.
Ahi — (a brother).
Ahiah, Or Ahijah
Ahiah, Or Ahijah — (friend of Jehovah).
Ahian — a Manassite of the family of Shemidah. (1 Chronicles 7:19)
Ahiezer — (brother of help).
Ahihud — (brother of renown).
Ahijah — [Ahiah, Or Ahijah]
Ahikam — (a brother who raises up), son of Shaphan the scribe, an influential officer at the court of Josiah, was one of the delegates sent by Hilkaih to consult Huldah. (2 Kings 22:12-14) In the reign of Jehoiakim he successfully used his influence to protect the prophet Jeremiah. (Jeremiah He was the father of Gedaliah. [Gedaliah] (B.C. 641).
Ahilud — (a brother of one born, i.e. before him).
Ahimaaz — (brother of anger).
Ahiman — (brother of the right hand).
Ahimelech — (brother of the king).
Ahinadab — (brother the noble, i.e. a noble brother), Son of Iddo, one of Solomon's twelve commissaries who supplied provisions for the royal household. (1 Kings 4:14) (B.C. 1014-975.)
Ahinoam — (brother of grace, i.e. gracious).
Ahio — (brotherly).
Ahiram — (brother of height, lofty), one of the sons of Benjamin, and ancestor of the AHIRAMITES (Numbers 26:38) In (Genesis 46:21) the name appears as 'Ehi and Rosh.' It is uncertain whether Ahiram is the same as Aher, (1 Chronicles 7:12) or Aharah, (1 Chronicles 8:1)
Ahishahar — (brother of the dawn), one of the sons of Bilhan, the grandson of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:10)
Ahishar — the controller of Solomon's household. (1 Kings 4:6)
Ahithophel — (brother of foolishness), a native of Giloh, was a privy councillor of David, whose wisdom was highly esteemed, though his name had an exactly opposite signification. (2 Samuel 16:23) (B.C. 1055-1023.) He was the grandfather of Bathsheba. Comp. (2 Samuel 11:3) with 2 Samuel 23:34 Ahithophel joined the conspiracy of Absalom against David, and persuaded him to take possession of the royal harem, (2 Samuel 16:21) and recommended an immediate pursuit of David. His advice was wise; but Hushai advised otherwise. When Ahithophel saw that Hushai's advice prevailed, he despaired of success, and returning to his own home 'put his household in order and hanged himself.' (2 Samuel 17:1-23)
Ahitub — (brother of goodness).
Ahlab — (fertile), a city of Asher from which the Canaanites were not driven out. (Judges 1:31)
Ahlai, Or Ahlai
Ahlai, Or Ahlai — (ornamental) daughter of Sheshan, whom, having no issue, he gave in marriage to his Egyptian slave Jarha. (1 Chronicles 2:31,35) From her were descended Zabad, one of David's mighty men, (1 Chronicles 11:41) and Aza-riah, one of the captains of hundreds in the reign of Joash. (2 Chronicles 23:1)
Ahoah — (brothely), son of Bela the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:4) In (1 Chronicles 8:7) he is called Ahiah, Or Ahijah. The patronymic, Ahohite, is found in (2 Samuel 23:9,28 1 Chronicles 11:12,29 27:4)
Ahohite — [Ahoah]
Aholah And Aholibah
Aholah And Aholibah — (my tabernacle) two symbolical names, are described as harlots, the former representing Samaria and the latter Judah. Ezek. 23.
Aholiab — a Danite of great skill as a weaver and embroiderer, whom Moses appointed with Bezaleel to erect the tabernacle. (Exodus 35:30-35) (B.C. 1490.)
Aholibamah Or Abolibamah
Aholibamah Or Abolibamah — (my tabernacle is exulted), One of the three wives of Esau. (B.C. 1797.) She was the daughter of Anah. (Genesis 36:2,26) In the earlier narrative, (Genesis 26:34) Aholi-bamah is called Judith, which may have been her original name.
Ahumai — (brother of water, i.e. cowardly), Son of Jabath, a descendant of Judah, and head of one of the families of the Zorathites. (1 Chronicles 4:2)
Ahuzam — (possession), properly Ahuzzam son of Ashur, the father or founder of Tekoa, by his wife Naarah. (1 Chronicles 4:6)
Ahuzzath — (possesions) one of the friends of the Philistine king Abimelech, who accompanied him at his interview with Isaac. (Genesis 26:26) (B.C. about 1877.)
Ai — (heap of ruins).
Aiah — (clamor).
Aiath — (feminine of Ai), a place named by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:28) in connection with Migron and Michmash probably the same as Ai.
Aija — like Aiath probably a variation of the name Ai, mentioned with Michmash and Bethel. (Nehemiah 11:31)
Aijalon, Or Ajalon
Aijalon, Or Ajalon — (place of gazelles).
Aijeleth Shahar — (the hind of the morning dawn), found once only in the Bible, in the title of (Psalms 22:1) It probably describes to the musician the melody to which the psalm was to be played.
Ain — (spring, well).
Aj Alon — [Aijalon, Or Ajalon]
Ajah = A Iah
Ajah = A Iah —
Akeldama — Revised Version of (Acts 1:19) for Aceldama.
Akkub — (insidious).
Akrabbim — (the ascent of, or the going up to); also MAALEH-ACRABBIM (the scorpion pass), A pass between the south end of the Dead Sea and Zin, forming one of the landmarks on the south boundary at once of Judah, (Joshua 15:3) and of the Holy Land. (Numbers 34:4) Also the boundary of the Amorites. (Judges 1:36) As to the name, scorpions abound in the whole of this district.
Alabaster — from the Arabic al bastraton, a whitish stone or from Alabastron, the place in Egypt where it is found. It occurs only in (Matthew 26:7 Mark 14:3 Luke 7:37) The ancients considered alabaster to be the best material in which to preserve their ointments. The Oriental alabaster (referred to in the Bible) is a translucent carbonate of lime, formed on the floors of limestone caves by the percolation of water. It is of the same material as our marbles, but differently formed. It is usually clouded or banded like agate, hence sometimes called onyx marble. Our common alabaster is different from this, being a variety of gypsum or sulphate of lime, used In its finer forms for vases, etc.; in the coarser it is ground up for plaster of Paris. The noted sculptured slabs from Nineveh are made of this material.
Alameth — properly Al'emeth (covering), one of the sons of Beecher,the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)
Alammelech — (king's oak), a place within the limits of Asher, named between Achshaph and Amad. (Joshua 19:26) only.
Alexander Iii — (helper of men--brave) king of Macedon, surnamed the Great, the son of Philip and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356, and succeeded his father B.C. 336. Two years afterwards he crossed the Hellespont (B.C. 334) to carry out the plans of his fathers and execute the mission of (Greece to the civilized world. He subjugated Syria and Palestine B.C. 334-332. Egypt next submitted to him B.C. 332, and in this year he founded Alexandria. In the same year he finally defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who in B.C. 330 was murdered. The next two years were occupied by Alexander in the consolidation of his Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria. In B.C. 327 he crossed the Indus; turning westward he reached Susa B.C. 325, and proceeded to Babylon B.C. 324, which he chose as the capital of his empire. In the next year (B.C. 323) he died there of intemperance, at the early age of 32, in the midst of his gigantic plans; and those who inherited his conquests left his designs unachieved and unattempted. cf. (Daniel 7:6 8:5 11:3) Alexander is intended in (Daniel 2:39) and also Daniel 7:6 8:5-7 11:3,4 The latter indicating the rapidity of his conquests and his power. He ruled with great dominion, and did according to his will, (Daniel 11:3) 'and there was none that could deliver .... out of his hand.' (Daniel 8:7)
Alexandria, Or Alexandria
Alexandria, Or Alexandria — (from Alexander), Acts 18:24 6:9) the Hellenic, Roman and Christian capital of Egypt. Situation .-- (Alexandria was situated on the Mediterranean Sea directly opposite the island of Pharos, 12 miles west of the Canopic branch of the Nile and 120 miles from the present city of Cairo.) It was founded by Alexander the Great, B.C. 332, who himself traced the ground plan of the city. The work thus begun was continued after the death of Alexander by the Ptolemies. Description .-- Under the despotism of the later Ptolemies the trade of Alexandria declined, but its population and wealth were enormous. Its importance as one of the chief corn-ports of Rome secured for it the general favor of the first emperors. Its population was mixed from the first. According to Josephus Alexander himself assigned to the Jews a place in his new city. Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five districts of Alexandria were called 'Jewish districts,' and that many Jews lived scattered in the remaining three. 'For a long period Alexandria was the greatest of known cities.' After Rome became the chief city of the world, Alexandria ranked second to Rome in wealth and importance, and second to Athens only in literature and science. Its collection of books grew to be the greatest library of ancient times, and contained at one time 700,000 rolls or volumes. Here was made the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament into Greek, begun about B.C. 285, especially in grain, was very great. According to the common legend, St. Mark first 'preached the gospel in Egypt, and founded the first church in Alexandria.' At the beginning of the second century the number of Christians at Alexandria must have been very large, and the great leaders of Gnosticism who arose there (Basilides, Valentinus) exhibit an exaggeration of the tendency of the Church. PRESENT CONDITION. The city still bears the same name and is a thriving metropolis, with inhabitants from nearly every European and Oriental nation. Cleopatra's needle, set up by Thotmes in 1500 B.C., was found in Alexandria. (
Alexandrians — the Jewish colonists of Alexandria, who were admitted to the privileges of citizenship and had a synagogue at Jerusalem. (Acts 6:9)
Algum Or Almug Trees
Algum Or Almug Trees — the former occurring in (2 Chronicles 2:8 9:10,11) the latter in (1 Kings 10:11,12) These words are identical. From (1 Kings 10:11,12 2 Chronicles 9:10,11) we learn that the almug was brought in great plenty from Ophir for Solomon's temple and house, and for the construction of musical instruments. It is probable that this tree is the red sandle wood, which is a native of India and Ceylon. The wood is very heavy, hard and fine grained, and of a beautiful garnet color.
Aliah — [Alvah]
Alian — [Alvan]
Allegory — a figure of speech, which has been defined by Bishop Marsh, in accordance with its etymology as, 'a representation of one thing which is intended to excite the representation of another thing.' ('A figurative representation containing a meaning other than and in addition to the literal.' 'A fable or parable; is a short allegory with one definite moral.'--Encyc. Brit.) In every allegory there is a twofold sense--the immediate or historic, which is understood from the words, and the ultimate, which is concerned with the things signified by the words. The allegorical interpretation is not of the words, but of the thing signified by them, and not only may, but actually does, coexist with the literal interpretation in every allegory, whether the narrative in which it is conveyed be of things possible or real. An illustration of this may be seen in (Galatians 4:24) where the apostle gives an allegorical interpretation to the historical narrative of Hagar and Sarah, not treating that narrative as an allegory in itself; as our Authorized Version would lead us to suppose, but drawing from it a deeper sense than is conveyed by the immediate representation. (Addison's Vision of Mirza and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress are among the best allegories in all literature.)
Alleluia — so written in (Revelation 19:6) foll., or more properly Hallelujah, praise ye Jehovah, as it is found in the margin of (Psalms 104:35 105:45 106; 111:1 112:1 113:1) comp. Psalms 113:9 115:18 116:19, 117:2 The literal meaning of 'hallelujah' sufficiently indicates the character of the Psalms in which it occurs as hymns of praise and thanksgiving.
Alliances — On the first establishment of the Hebrews in Palestine no connections were formed between them and the surrounding nations. But with the extension of their power under the kings alliances became essential to the security of their commerce. Solomon concluded two important treaties exclusively for commercial purposes the first with Hiram king of Tyre (1 Kings 5:2-12 9:27) the second with a Pharaoh, king of Egypt. (1 Kings 10:28,29) When war broke out between Amaziah I and Jeroboam II, a coalition was formed between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah on the one side, and Ahaz and Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, on the other. (2 Kings 16:5-9) The formation of an alliance was attended with various religious rites. A victim was slain and divided into two parts, between which the contracting parties passed. (Genesis 15:10) Generally speaking the oath alone is mentioned in the contracting of alliances, either between nations, (Joshua 9:15) or individuals. (Genesis 25:28 31:53 1 Samuel 20:17 2 Kings 11:4) The event was celebrated by a feast. Genesis l.c.; (Exodus 24:11 2 Samuel 3:12,20) Salt, as symbolical of fidelity, was used on these occasions. Occasionally a pillar or a heap of stones was set up as a memorial of the alliance. (Genesis 31:52) Presents were also sent by the parties soliciting the alliance. (1 Kings 15:18 Isaiah 30:6) 1 Macc The fidelity of the Jews to their engagements was conspicuous at all periods of their history, (Joshua 9:18) and any breach of covenant was visited with very severe punishment. (2 Samuel 21:1 Ezekiel 17:16)
Allon — a large strong tree of some description probably an oak.
Almon — (concealed) a city within the tribe of Benjamin, with 'suburbs' given to the priests. (Joshua 21:18) [Alemeth]
Almond Tree; Almond
Almond Tree; Almond — This word is found in (Genesis 43:11 Exodus 25:33,34 37:19,20 Numbers 17:8 Ecclesiastes 12:5 Jeremiah 1:11) in the text of the Authorized Version. It is invariably represented by the same Hebrew word, shaked meaning hasten. (Jeremiah 1:11,12) The almond tree is a native of Asia and North Africa, but it is cultivated in the milder parts of Europe.' It resembles the peach tree in form, blossom and fruit. It is in fact only another species of the same genus.' The height of the tree is about 12 or 14 feet; the flowers are pink, and arranged for the most part in pairs, the leaves are long, ovate, with a serrated margin and an acute point. The covering of the fruit is down and succulent, enclosing the hard shell which contains the kernel. It is this but for which the tree is chiefly valued. It is curious to observe, in connection with the almond bowls of the golden candlestick, that, in the language of lapidaries, almonds are pieces of rock crystal, even now used in adorning branch candlesticks.
Almondiblathaim — (concealing the two cakes), one of the latest stations of the Israelites between Dibon-gad and the mountains of Abarim (Numbers 33:46,47) It is probably identical with Beth-diblathaim.
Alms — The duty of alms-giving, especially in kind, consisting chiefly in portions to be left designedly from produce of the field, the vineyard and the oliveyard, (Leviticus 19:9,10 23:22 15:11 24:19 26:2-13 Ruth 2:2) is strictly enjoined by the law. Every third year also, each proprietor was directed to share the tithe of his produce with 'the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless and the widow.' The theological estimate of alms-giving among the Jews is indicated in the following passages: (Job 31:17 Proverbs 10:2 11:4 Esther 9:22 Psalms 112:9 Acts 9:36) the case of Dorcas; (Acts 10:2) of Cornelius; to which may be added 14:10,11, and Ecclus. The Pharisees were zealous in almsgiving, but too ostentatious their mode of performance, for which our Lord finds fault with them. (Matthew 6:2) The duty of relieving the poor was not neglected by the Christians. (Matthew 6:1-4 Luke 14:13 Acts 20:35 Galatians 2:10) Regular proportionate giving was expected. (Acts 11:30 Romans 15:25-27 1 Corinthians 16:1-4)
Almug Trees — [Algum Or Almug Trees TREES]
Aloes, Lign Aloes
Aloes, Lign Aloes — (in Heb. Ahalim, Ahaloth), The name of a costly and sweet-smelling wood which is mentioned in (Numbers 24:6 Psalms 45:8 Proverbs 7:17 Song of Solomon 4:14 John 19:39) It is usually identified with the Aquilaria agollochum, an aromatic wood much valued in India. This tree sometimes grows to the height of 120 feet, being 12 feet in girth.
Aloth — a place or district, forming with Asher the jurisdiction of the ninth of Solomon's commissariat officers. (1 Kings 4:16)
Alpha — (A), the first letter of the Greek alphabet. With Omega, the last letter, it is used in the Old Testament and in the New to express the eternity of God, as including both the beginning and the end. (Revelation 1:8,11 21:6 22:13 Isaiah 41:4 44:6) hence these letters became a favorite symbol of the eternal divinity of our Lord, and were used for this purpose in connection with the cross, or the monogram of Christ (i.e. the first two letters, ch and r, of Christ's name in Greek). Both Greeks and Hebrews employed the letters of the alphabet as numerals.
Alphabet — [Writing]
Alphaeus — (changing) the father of the apostle James the Less, (Matthew 10:3 Mark 3:18 Luke 6:15 Acts 1:13) and husband of Mary. (John 19:25) [Mary] In this latter place he is called Clopas (not, as in the Authorized Version, Cleophas).
Altar — The first altar of which we have any account is that built by Noah when he left the ark. (Genesis 8:20) In the early times altars were usually built in certain spots hallowed by religious associations, e.g., where God appeared. (Genesis 12:7 13:18 26:25 35:1) Though generally erected for the offering of sacrifice, in some instances they appear to have been only memorials. (Genesis 12:7 Exodus 17:15,16) Altars were most probably originally made of earth. The law of Moses allowed them to be made of either earth or unhewn stones. (Exodus 20:24,25) I. The Altar of Burnt Offering . It differed in construction at different times. (1) In the tabernacle, (Exodus 27:1) ff.; Exodus 38:1 ff., it was comparatively small and portable. In shape it was square. It as five cubits in length, the same in breadth, and three cubits high. It was made of planks of shittim (or acacia) wood overlaid with brass. The interior was hollow. (Exodus 27:8) At the four corners were four projections called horns made, like the altar itself, of shittim wood overlaid with brass, (Exodus 27:2) and to them the victim was bound when about to be sacrificed. (Psalms 118:27) Round the altar, midway between the top and bottom, ran a projecting ledge, on which perhaps the priest stood when officiating. To the outer edge of this, again, a grating or network of brass was affixed, and reached to the bottom of the altar. At the four corners of the network were four brazen rings, into which were inserted the staves by which the altar was carried. These staves were of the same material as the altar itself. As the priests were forbidden to ascend the altar by steps, (Exodus 20:26) it has been conjectured that a slope of earth led gradually up to the ledge from which they officiated. The place of the altar was at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.)' (Exodus 40:29) (2) In Solomon's temple the altar was considerably larger in its dimensions. It differed too in the material of which it was made, being entirely of brass. (1 Kings 8:64 2 Chronicles 7:7) It had no grating, and instead of a single gradual slope, the ascent to it was probably made by three successive platforms, to each of which it has been supposed that steps led. The altar erected by Herod in front of the temple was 15 cubits in height and 50 cubits in length and breadth. According to (Leviticus 6:12,13) a perpetual fire was to be kept burning on the altar. II. The Altar of Incense, called also the golden altar to distinguish it from the altar of burnt offering which was called the brazen altar. (Exodus 38:30) (a) That in the tabernacle was made of acacia wood, overlaid with pure gold. In shape it was square, being a cubit in length and breadth and two cubits in height. Like the altar of burnt offering it had horns at the four corners, which were of one piece with the rest of the altar. This altar stood in the holy place, 'before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony.' (Exodus 30:6 40:5) (b) The altar of Solomon's temple was similar, (1 Kings 7:48 1 Chronicles 28:18) but was made of cedar overlaid with gold. III. Other Altars . In (Acts 17:23) reference is made to an alter to an unknown God. There were several altars in Athens with this inscription, erected during the time of a plague. Since they knew not what god was offended and required to be propitiated.
Altaschith — (destroy not), found in the introductory verse to Psalms 57,58,59,75. It was probably the beginning of some song or poem to the tune of which those psalms were to be chanted.
Alush — (a crowd of men) one of the stations of the Israelites on their journey to Sinai, the last before Rephidim. (Numbers 33:13,14)
Amad — (enduring), an unknown place in Asher, between Alammelech and Misheal. (Joshua 19:26) only.
Amadatha — (Esther and Amad'athus . (Esther [Hammedatha]
Amal — (labor), an Asherite, son of Helem. (1 Chronicles 7:35)
Amalekites — a nomadic tribe of uncertain origin, which occupied the peninsula of Sinai and the wilderness intervening between the southern hill-ranges of Palestine and the border of Egypt. (Numbers 13:29 1 Samuel 15:7 27:8) Their wealth consisted in flocks and herds. Mention is made of a 'town' (1 Samuel 15:5) but their towns could have been little more than stations or nomadic enclosures. The Amalekites first came in contact with the Israelites at Rephidim, but were signally defeated. (Exodus 17:8-16) In union with the Canaanites they again attacked the Israelites on the borders of Palestine, and defeated them near Hormah. (Numbers 14:45) Saul undertook an expedition against them. (1 Samuel 14:48) Their power was thenceforth broken, and they degenerated into a horde of banditti. Their destruction was completed by David. (1 Samuel 30:1-17)
Amalekites, Mount Of
Amalekites, Mount Of — a mountain in Ephraim, (Judges 12:15) probably so named because the Amalekites once held possession of it.
Amam — (gathering place), a city in the south of Judah named with Shema and Moladah in (Joshua 15:26) only.
Aman — [Haman] (Esther
Amariah — (the Lord says, i.e. promises).
Amasa — (a burden).
Amasai, Or Amasai
Amasai, Or Amasai — (burdensome)
Amashai Or Amashai
Amasiah — (whom Jehovah bears), son of Zichri and captain of 200,000 warriors of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:16) (B.C. 910.)
Amath — [Hamath]
Amaziah — (the strength of the Lord).
Ambassador — a person of high rank employed by a government to represent it and transact its business at the seat of government of some other power. The earliest examples of ambassadors employed occur in (Numbers 20:14 21:21 Judges 11:7-19) afterwards in that of the fraudulent Gibeonites, (Joshua 9:4) etc., and in the instances of civic strife mentioned (Judges 11:12) and Judges 20:12 Ambassadors are found to have been employed not only on occasions of hostile challenge or insolent menace, (1 Kings 20:2,6 2 Kings 14:8) but of friendly compliment, of request for alliance or other aid, of submissive deprecation and of curious inquiry. (2 Kings 14:8 16:7 18:14 2 Chronicles 32:31) Ministers are called ambassadors of Christ.
Ambassage — embassy, a message of a public nature brought by ambassadors. The word also sometimes includes the ambassadors themselves. (Luke 14:32)
Amen — literally 'true' and used as a substantive, 'that which is true,' 'truth,' (Isaiah 65:16) a word used in strong asseverations, fixing, as it were, the stamp of truth upon the assertion which it accompanied, and making it binding as an oath. Comp. (Numbers 5:22) In the synagogues and private houses it was customary for the people or members of the family who were present to say 'amen' to the prayers which were offered. (Matthew 6:13 1 Corinthians 14:16) And not only public prayers, but those offered in private, and doxologies, were appropriately concluded with 'amen.' (Romans 9:5 11:36 15:33 16:27 2 Corinthians 13:14) etc.
Amethyst — (Heb. achlamah) a subspecies of quartz of a bluish-violet color. Mention is made of this precious stone, which formed the third in the third row of the high priestly breastplate, in (Exodus 28:19 39:12) It occurs also in (Revelation 21:20)
Ammah — (head), The hill of, A hill facing Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon, named as the point to which Joab pursued Abner (2 Samuel 2:24)
Ammi — i.e., as explained in the margin of the Authorized Version, my people . (Hosea 2:1)
Ammiel — (people of God).
Ammihud — (people of praise).
Amminadab — (one of the prince's people).
Amminadib — Probably another form of Amminadab. He was noted for the swiftness of his chariot. (Song of Solomon 6:12) It is uncertain whether we ought to read here AMMINADIB, with the Authorized Version, or my willing people, as in the margin. Ammishad'da-i (people of the Almighty), the father of Ahiezer, prince of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus. (Numbers 1:12 2:25 7:66,71 10:25) (B.C. 1491.)
Ammizabad — (people of the Giver, i.e. God), the son of Benaiah, who commanded the third division of David's army. (1 Chronicles 27:6) (B.C. 1050.)
Ammon — (sons of renown, mountaineers), Am'monites, Children of Ammon, A people descended from Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his younger daughter. (Genesis 19:38) comp Psalms 83:7,8 The Ammonites are frequently mentioned with the Moabites (descendants of Ben-ammi's half-brother), and sometimes under the same name. Comp. (Judges 10:6 2 Chronicles 20:1 Zephaniah 2:8) etc. The precise position of the territory of the Ammonites is not ascertainable. In the earliest mention of them, they are said to have dwelt in their place, Jabbok being their border. (Numbers 21:24 3:16) (i.e. Land or country is, however, but rarely ascribed to them. Their capital city was Rabbath, called also Rabbath Ammon on the Jabbok. We find everywhere traces of the fierce habits of maranders in their incursions.) (1 Samuel 11:2 Amos 1:13) and a very high degree of crafty cruelty to their toes. (Jeremiah Judges 17:11,12) Moab was the settled and civilized half of the nation of Lot, and Ammon formed its predatory and Bedouin section. On the west of Jordan they never obtained a footing. The hatred in which the Ammonites were held by Israel is stated to have arisen partly from their denial of assistance, to the Israelites on their approach to Canaan. But whatever its origin the animosity continued in force to the latest date. The tribe was governed by a king, (Judges 11:12) etc.; (1 Samuel 12:12 2 Samuel 10:1 Jeremiah and by 'princes.' (2 Samuel 10:3 1 Chronicles 19:3) The divinity of the tribe was Molech [Molech], and they were gross idolaters.