Easton's Bible Dictionary

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R

Raamah — River of Gad

Raamah

thunder.

1. One of the sons of Cush ( Genesis 10:7 ).

2. A country which traded with Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:22 ).

Raamiah

thunder of the Lord, one of the princes who returned from the Exile ( Nehemiah 7:7 ); called also Reelaiah ( Ezra 2:2 ).

Raamses

( Exodus 1:11 ). (See RAMESES .)

Rabbah

or Rab'bath, great.

1. "Rabbath of the children of Ammon," the chief city of the Ammonites, among the eastern hills, some 20 miles east of the Jordan, on the southern of the two streams which united with the Jabbok. Here the bedstead of Og was preserved ( Deuteronomy 3:11 ), perhaps as a trophy of some victory gained by the Ammonites over the king of Bashan. After David had subdued all their allies in a great war, he sent Joab with a strong force to take their city. For two years it held out against its assailants. It was while his army was engaged in this protracted siege that David was guilty of that deed of shame which left a blot on his character and cast a gloom over the rest of his life. At length, having taken the "royal city" (or the "city of waters," 2 Samuel 12:27 , i.e., the lower city on the river, as distinguished from the citadel), Joab sent for David to direct the final assault ( 11:1 ; 12:26-31 ). The city was given up to plunder, and the people were ruthlessly put to death, and "thus did he with all the cities of the children of Ammon." The destruction of Rabbath was the last of David's conquests. His kingdom now reached its farthest limits ( 2 Samuel 8:1-15 ; 1 Chronicles 18:1-15 ). The capture of this city is referred to by ( Amos 1:14 ), ( Jeremiah 49:2 Jeremiah 49:3 ), and ( Ezekiel 21:20 ; 25:5 ).

2. A city in the hill country of Judah ( Joshua 15:60 ), possibly the ruin Rubba, six miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.

Rabbi

my master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors of the law and their distinguished teachers. It is sometimes applied to Christ ( Matthew 23:7 Matthew 23:8 ; Mark 9:5 (RSV); John 1:38 John 1:49 ; 3:2 ; 6:25 , etc.); also to ( John 3:26 ).

Rabboni

(id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament ( Mark 10:51 , A.V., "Lord," RSV, "Rabboni;" John 20:16 ). It was the most honourable of all the titles.

Rabmag

Assyrian Rab-mugi, "chief physician," "who was attached to the king ( Jeremiah 39:3 Jeremiah 39:13 ), the title of one of Sennacherib's officers sent with messages to Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem ( 2 Kings 18:17-19:13; ; Isaiah 36:12-37:13) ) demanding the surrender of the city. He was accompanied by a "great army;" but his mission was unsuccessful.

Rabsaris

chief of the Heads, one of the three officers whom Sennacherib sent from Lachish with a threatening message to Jerusalem ( 2 Kings 18:17 ; Jeremiah 39:3 Jeremiah 39:13 ).

Rabshakeh

chief of the princes, the name given to the chief cup-bearer or the vizier of the Assyrian court; one of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah. See the speech he delivered, in the Hebrew language, in the hearing of all the people, as he stood near the wall on the north side of the city ( 2 Kings 18:17-37 ). He and the other envoys returned to their master and reported that Hezekiah and his people were obdurate, and would not submit.

Raca

vain, empty, worthless, only found in Matthew 5:22 . The Jews used it as a word of contempt. It is derived from a root meaning "to spit."

Rachab

=Rahab, a name found in the genealogy of our Lord ( Matthew 1:5 ).

Rachal

traffic, a town in the tribe of Judah, to which David sent presents from the spoils of his enemies ( 1 Samuel 30:29 ).

Rachel

ewe, "the daughter", "the somewhat petulant, peevish, and self-willed though beautiful younger daughter" of Laban, and one of Jacob's wives ( Genesis 29:6 Genesis 29:28 ). He served Laban fourteen years for her, so deep was Jacob's affection for her. She was the mother of Joseph ( Genesis 30:22-24 ). Afterwards, on Jacob's departure from Mesopotamia, she took with her her father's teraphim ( Genesis 31:34 Genesis 31:35 ). As they journeyed on from Bethel, Rachel died in giving birth to Benjamin ( Genesis 35:18 Genesis 35:19 ), and was buried "in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave". Her sepulchre is still regarded with great veneration by the Jews. Its traditional site is about half a mile from Jerusalem.

This name is used poetically by ( Jeremiah 31:15-17 ) to denote God's people mourning under their calamities. This passage is also quoted by Matthew as fulfilled in the lamentation at Bethlehem on account of the slaughter of the infants there at the command of Herod ( Matthew 2:17 Matthew 2:18 ).

Raguel

friend of God, (Nu 10:29)=Reuel (q.v.), Exodus 2:18 , the father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro (q.v.).

Rahab

insolence; pride, a poetical name applied to Egypt in Psalms 87:4 ; 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 , as "the proud one."

Rahab, (Heb. Rahab; i.e., "broad," "large"). When the Hebrews were encamped at Shittim, in the "Arabah" or Jordan valley opposite Jericho, ready to cross the river, Joshua, as a final preparation, sent out two spies to "spy the land." After five days they returned, having swum across the river, which at this season, the month Abib, overflowed its banks from the melting of the snow on Lebanon. The spies reported how it had fared with them ( Joshua 2:1-7 ). They had been exposed to danger in Jericho, and had been saved by the fidelity of Rahab the harlot, to whose house they had gone for protection. When the city of Jericho fell ( 6:17-25 ), Rahab and her whole family were preserved according to the promise of the spies, and were incorporated among the Jewish people. She afterwards became the wife of Salmon, a prince of the tribe of Judah ( Ruth 4:21 ; 1 Chronicles 2:11 ; Matthew 1:5 ). "Rahab's being asked to bring out the spies to the soldiers ( Joshua 2:3 ) sent for them, is in strict keeping with Eastern manners, which would not permit any man to enter a woman's house without her permission. The fact of her covering the spies with bundles of flax which lay on her house-roof ( 2:6 ) is an 'undesigned coincidence' which strictly corroborates the narrative. It was the time of the barley harvest, and flax and barley are ripe at the same time in the Jordan valley, so that the bundles of flax stalks might have been expected to be drying just then" (Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 390).

Raham

merciful, one of the descendants of Caleb, the son of Hezron ( 1 Chronicles 2:44 ).

Rain

There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of different seasons,

1. Yoreh ( Hosea 6:3 ), or moreh ( Joel 2:23 ), denoting the former or the early rain.

2. Melqosh, the "latter rain" ( Proverbs 16:15 ).

3. Geshem, the winter rain, "the rains." The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Genesis 7:12 ; Ezra 10:9 ; Cant 2:11 . The "early" or "former" rains commence in autumn in the latter part of October or beginning of November ( Deuteronomy 11:14 ; Joel 2:23 ; Compare Jeremiah 3:3 ), and continue to fall heavily for two months. Then the heavy "winter rains" fall from the middle of December to March. There is no prolonged fair weather in Palestine between October and March. The "latter" or spring rains fall in March and April, and serve to swell the grain then coming to maturity ( Deuteronomy 11:14 ; Hosea 6:3 ). After this there is ordinarily no rain, the sky being bright and cloudless till October or November. Rain is referred to symbolically in Deuteronomy 32:2 ; Psalms 72:6 ; Isaiah 44:3 Isaiah 44:4 ; Hosea 10:12 .

Rainbow

caused by the reflection and refraction of the rays of the sun shining on falling rain. It was appointed as a witness of the divine faithfulness ( Genesis 9:12-17 ). It existed indeed before, but it was then constituted as a sign of the covenant. Others, however (as Delitzsch, Commentary on Pentateuch), think that it "appeared then for the first time in the vault and clouds of heaven." It is argued by those holding this opinion that the atmosphere was differently constituted before the Flood. It is referred to three other times in Scripture ( Ezekiel 1:27 Ezekiel 1:28 ; Revelation 4:1-3 ; 10:1 ).

Raisins

dried grapes; mentioned 1 Samuel 25:18 ; 30:12 ; 2 Sam 16:1 ; 1 Chronicles 12:40 .

Rakkath

shore-town, a "fenced city" of the tribe of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:35 ). The old name of Tiberias, according to the Rabbins.

Rakkon

a place upon the shore, a town belonging to Dan ( Joshua 19:46 ). It is now Tell er-Rakkeit, 6 miles north of Joppa, on the sea-shore, near the mouth of the river 'Aujeh, i.e., "yellow water." (See KANAH .)

Ram

exalted.

1. The son of Hezron, and one of the ancestors of the royal line ( Ruth 4:19 ). The margin of 1 Chronicles 2:9 , also Matt. 1:3,4and Luke 3:33 , have "Aram."

2. One of the sons of Jerahmeel ( 1 Chronicles 2:25 1 Chronicles 2:27 ).

3. A person mentioned in Job 32:2 as founder of a clan to which Elihu belonged. The same as Aram of Genesis 22:21 .

Rama

( Matthew 2:18 ), the Greek form of Ramah.

1. A city first mentioned in Joshua 18:25 , near Gibeah of Benjamin. It was fortified by Baasha, king of Israel ( 1 Kings 15:17-22 ; 2 Chr. 16:1-6 ). Asa, king of Judah, employed Benhadad the Syrian king to drive Baasha from this city ( 1 Kings 15:18 1 Kings 15:20 ). ( Isaiah 10:29 ) refers to it, and also Jeremiah, who was once a prisoner there among the other captives of Jerusalem when it was taken by Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 39:8-12 ; 40:1 ). Rachel, whose tomb lies close to Bethlehem, is represented as weeping in Ramah ( Jeremiah 31:15 ) for her slaughtered children. This prophecy is illustrated and fulfilled in the re-awakening of Rachel's grief at the slaughter of the infants in Bethlehem ( Matthew 2:18 ). It is identified with the modern village of er-Ram, between Gibeon and Beeroth, about 5 miles due north of Jerusalem. (See SAMUEL .)

2. A town identified with Rameh, on the border of Asher, about 13 miles south-east of Tyre, "on a solitary hill in the midst of a basin of green fields" ( Joshua 19:29 ).

3. One of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:36 ), on a mountain slope, about seven and a half miles west-south-west of Safed, and 15 miles west of the north end of the Sea of Galilee, the present large and well-built village of Rameh.

4. The same as Ramathaim-zophim (q.v.), a town of Mount Ephraim ( 1 Samuel 1:1 1 Samuel 1:19 ).

5. The same as Ramoth-gilead (q.v.), 2 Kings 8:29 ; 2 Chr. 22:6 .

Ramath of the south

(Heb. Ramath-negeb). The Heb. negeb is the general designation for south or south-west of Judah. This was one of the towns of Simeon ( Joshua 19:8 ). It is the same as "south Ramoth" ( 1 Samuel 30:27 ; RSV, "Ramoth of the south"). Its site is doubtful. Some have thought it another name for Baalath-beer.

Ramathaim-zophim

the two heights of the Zophites or of the watchers (only in 1 Samuel 1:1 ), "in the land of Zuph" ( 9:5 ). Ramathaim is another name for Ramah (4).

One of the Levitical families descended from Kohath, that of Zuph or Zophai ( 1 Chronicles 6:26 1 Chronicles 6:35 ), had a district assigned to them in Ephraim, which from this circumstance was called "the land of Zuph," and hence the name of the town, "Zophim." It was the birth-place of Samuel and the seat of his authority ( 1 Samuel 2:11 ; 7:17 ). It is frequently mentioned in the history of that prophet and of David ( 15:34 ; 16:13 ; 19:18-23 ). Here Samuel died and was buried ( 25:1 ).

This town has been identified with the modern Neby Samwil ("the prophet Samuel"), about 4 or 5 miles north-west of Jerusalem. But there is no certainty as to its precise locality. Some have supposed that it may be identical with Arimathea of the New Testament. (See MIZPAH).

Ramathite

the designation given to Shimei, the manager of David's vineyard ( 1 Chronicles 27:27 ).

Ramath-lehi

elevation of Lehi, or the jawbone height; i.e., the Ramah of Lehi ( Judges 15:15-17 ). The phrase "in the jaw," ver. 19, Authorized Version, is in the margin, also in the Revised Version, "in Lehi." Here Samson slew a thousand Philistines with a jawbone.

Ramath-mizpeh

the height of Mizpeh or of the watch-tower ( Joshua 13:26 ), a place mentioned as one of the limits of Gad. There were two Mizpehs on the east of the Jordan. This was the Mizpeh where Jacob and Laban made a covenant, "Mizpeh of Gilead," called also Galeed and Jegar-sahadutha. It has been identified with the modern es-Salt, where the roads from Jericho and from Shechem to Damascus unite, about 25 miles east of the Jordan and 13 south of the Jabbok.

Rameses

"the land of" ( Genesis 47:11 ), was probably "the land of Goshen" (q.v.) 45:10 . After the Hebrews had built Rameses, one of the "treasure cities," it came to be known as the "land" in which that city was built.

The city bearing this name ( Exodus 12:37 ) was probably identical with Zoan, which Rameses II. ("son of the sun") rebuilt. It became his special residence, and ranked next in importance and magnificance to Thebes. Huge masses of bricks, made of Nile mud, sun-dried, some of them mixed with stubble, possibly moulded by Jewish hands, still mark the site of Rameses. This was the general rendezvous of the Israelites before they began their march out of Egypt. Called also Raamses ( Exodus 1:11 ).

Ramoth

heights. A Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar ( 1 Samuel 30:27 ; 1 Chronicles 6:73 ), the same as Jarmuth ( Joshua 21:29 ) and Remeth (q.v.), 19:21 .

Ramoth-gilead

heights of Gilead, a city of refuge on the east of Jordan; called "Ramoth in Gilead" ( Deuteronomy 4:43 ; Joshua 20:8 ; 21:38 ). Here Ahab, who joined Jehoshaphat in an endeavour to rescue it from the hands of the king of Syria, was mortally wounded ( 1 Kings 22:1-36 ). A similar attempt was afterwards made by Ahaziah and Joram, when the latter was wounded ( 2 Kings 8:28 ). In this city Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, was anointed by one of the sons of the prophets ( 2 Kings 9:1 2 Kings 9:4 ).

It has with probability been identified with Reimun, on the northern slope of the Jabbok, about 5 miles west of Jerash or Gerasa, one of the cities of Decapolis. Others identify it with Gerosh, about 25 miles north-east of es-Salt, with which also many have identified it. (See RAMATH-MIZPEH.)

Ranges

1. Leviticus 11:35 . Probably a cooking furnace for two or more pots, as the Hebrew word here is in the dual number; or perhaps a fire-place fitted to receive a pair of ovens.

2. 2 Kings 11:8 . A Hebrew word is here used different from the preceding, meaning "ranks of soldiers." The Levites were appointed to guard the king's person within the temple ( 2 Chronicles 23:7 ), while the soldiers were his guard in the court, and in going from the temple to the palace. The soldiers are here commanded to slay any one who should break through the "ranks" (as rendered in the RSV) to come near the king. In 2 Kings 11:15 the expression, "Have her forth without the ranges," is in the Revised Version, "Have her forth between the ranks;" i.e., Jehoiada orders that Athaliah should be kept surrounded by his own guards, and at the same time conveyed beyond the precincts of the temple.

Ransom

the price or payment made for our redemption, as when it is said that the Son of man "gave his life a ransom for many" ( Matthew 20:28 ; Compare Acts 20:28 ; Romans 3:23 Romans 3:24 ; 1 Corinthians 6:19 1 Corinthians 6:20 ; Galatians 3:13 ; Galatians 4:4 Galatians 4:5 : Ephesians 1:7 ; Colossians 1:14 ; 1 Timothy 2:6 ; Titus 2:14 ; 1 Peter 1:18 1 Peter 1:19 . In all these passages the same idea is expressed). This word is derived from the Fr. rancon; Lat. redemptio. The debt is represented not as cancelled but as fully paid. The slave or captive is not liberated by a mere gratuitous favour, but a ransom price has been paid, in consideration of which he is set free. The original owner receives back his alienated and lost possession because he has bought it back "with a price." This price or ransom (Gr. lutron) is always said to be Christ, his blood, his death. He secures our redemption by the payment of a ransom. (See REDEMPTION .)

Rapha

tall.

1. A Benjamite, the son of Binea ( 1 Chronicles 8:2 1 Chronicles 8:37 ), a descendant of Saul.

2. Margin of 1 Chronicles 20:4 1 Chronicles 20:6 , where "giant" is given in the text.

Raphu

healed, a Benjamite, whose son Palti was one of the twelve spies ( Numbers 13:9 ).

Raven

Heb. 'orebh, from a root meaning "to be black" (Compare Cant. 5:11 ); first mentioned as "sent forth" by Noah from the ark ( Genesis 8:7 ). "Every raven after his kind" was forbidden as food ( Leviticus 11:15 ; Deuteronomy 14:14 ). Ravens feed mostly on carrion, and hence their food is procured with difficulty ( Job 38:41 ; Psalms 147:9 ). When they attack kids or lambs or weak animals, it is said that they first pick out the eyes of their victims ( Proverbs 30:17 ). When Elijah was concealed by the brook Cherith, God commanded the ravens to bring him "bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening" ( 1 Kings 17:3-6 ). (See ELIJAH .)

There are eight species of ravens in Palestine, and they are everywhere very numerous in that land.

Razor

The Nazarites were forbidden to make use of the razor ( Numbers 6:5 ; Judges 13:5 ). At their consecration the Levites were shaved all over with a razor ( Numbers 8:7 ; Compare Psalms 52:2 ; Ezekiel 5:1 ).

Reba

fourth, one of the Midianite chiefs slain by the Israelites in the wilderness ( Numbers 31:8 ; Joshua 13:21 ).

Rebekah

a noose, the daughter of Bethuel, and the wife of Isaac ( Genesis 22:23 ; 24:67 ). The circumstances under which Abraham's "steward" found her at the "city of Nahor," in Padan-aram, are narrated in Genesis 2427 -27. "She can hardly be regarded as an amiable woman. When we first see her she is ready to leave her father's house for ever at an hour's notice; and her future life showed not only a full share of her brother Laban's duplicity, but the grave fault of partiality in her relations to her children, and a strong will, which soon controlled the gentler nature of her husband." The time and circumstances of her death are not recorded, but it is said that she was buried in the cave of Machpelah ( Genesis 49:31 ).

Rechab

horseman, or chariot.

1. One of Ishbosheth's "captains of bands" or leaders of predatory troops ( 2 Samuel 4:2 ).

2. The father of Jehonadab, who was the father of the Rechabites ( 2 Kings 10:15 2 Kings 10:23 ; Jeremiah 35:6-19 ).

Rechabites

the descendants of Rechab through Jonadab or Jehonadab. They belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel into Palestine, and dwelt among them. Moses married a Kenite wife ( Judges 1:16 ), and Jael was the wife of "Heber the Kenite" ( 4:17 ). Saul also showed kindness to the Kenites ( 1 Samuel 15:6 ). The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities, and adopted settled habits of life ( 30:29 ); but Jehonadab forbade his descendants to drink wine or to live in cities. They were commanded to lead always a nomad life. They adhered to the law laid down by Jonadab, and were noted for their fidelity to the old-established custom of their family in the days of Jeremiah (35); and this feature of their character is referred to by the prophet for the purpose of giving point to his own exhortation. They are referred to in Nehemiah 3:14 and 1 Chronicles 2:55 . Dr. Wolff (1839) found in Arabia, near Mecca, a tribe claiming to be descendants of Jehonadab; and recently a Bedouin tribe has been found near the Dead Sea who also profess to be descendants of the same Kenite chief.

Reconcilation

a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity.

1. In Colossians 1:21 Colossians 1:22 , the word there used refers to a change wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full confidence and love. In 2 Corinthians 5:20 the apostle beseeches the Corinthians to be "reconciled to God", i.e., to lay aside their enmity.

2. Romans 5:10 refers not to any change in our disposition toward God, but to God himself, as the party reconciled. Romans 5:11 teaches the same truth. From God we have received "the reconciliation" (RSV), i.e., he has conferred on us the token of his friendship. So also 2co 5:18,19speaks of a reconciliation originating with God, and consisting in the removal of his merited wrath. In Ephesians 2:16 it is clear that the apostle does not refer to the winning back of the sinner in love and loyalty to God, but to the restoration of God's forfeited favour. This is effected by his justice being satisfied, so that he can, in consistency with his own nature, be favourable toward sinners. Justice demands the punishment of sinners. The death of Christ satisfies justice, and so reconciles God to us. This reconciliation makes God our friend, and enables him to pardon and save us. (See ATONEMENT .)

Recorder

(Heb. mazkir, i.e., "the mentioner," "rememberancer"), the office first held by Jehoshaphat in the court of David ( 2 Samuel 8:16 ), also in the court of Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:3 ). The next recorder mentioned is Joah, in the reign of Hezekiah ( 2 Kings 18:18 2 Kings 18:37 ; Isaiah 36:3 Isaiah 36:22 ). In the reign of Josiah another of the name of Joah filled this office ( 2 Chronicles 34:8 ). The "recorder" was the chancellor or vizier of the kingdom. He brought all weighty matters under the notice of the king, "such as complaints, petitions, and wishes of subjects or foreigners. He also drew up papers for the king's guidance, and prepared drafts of the royal will for the scribes. All treaties came under his oversight; and he had the care of the national archives or records, to which, as royal historiographer, like the same state officer in Assyria and Egypt, he added the current annals of the kingdom."

Red Sea

The sea so called extends along the west coast of Arabia for about 1,400 miles, and separates Asia from Africa. It is connected with the Indian Ocean, of which it is an arm, by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. At a point (Ras Mohammed) about 200 miles from its nothern extremity it is divided into two arms, that on the east called the AElanitic Gulf, now the Bahr el-'Akabah, about 100 miles long by 15 broad, and that on the west the Gulf of Suez, about 150 miles long by about 20 broad. This branch is now connected with the Mediterranean by the Suez Canal. Between these two arms lies the Sinaitic Peninsula.

The Hebrew name generally given to this sea is Yam Suph . This word suph means a woolly kind of sea-weed, which the sea casts up in great abundance on its shores. In these passages, Exodus 10:19 ; 13:18 ; Exodus 15:4 Exodus 15:22 ; 23:31 ; Numbers 14:25 , etc., the Hebrew name is always translated "Red Sea," which was the name given to it by the Greeks. The origin of this name (Red Sea) is uncertain. Some think it is derived from the red colour of the mountains on the western shore; others from the red coral found in the sea, or the red appearance sometimes given to the water by certain zoophytes floating in it. In the New Testament ( Acts 7:36 ; Hebrews 11:29 ) this name is given to the Gulf of Suez.

This sea was also called by the Hebrews Yam-mitstraim, i.e., "the Egyptian sea" ( Isaiah 11:15 ), and simply Ha-yam, "the sea" ( Exodus 14:2 Exodus 14:9 Exodus 14:16 Exodus 14:21 Exodus 14:28 ; Joshua 24:6 Joshua 24:7 ; Isaiah 10:26 , etc.).

The great historical event connected with the Red Sea is the passage of the children of Israel, and the overthrow of the Egyptians, to which there is frequent reference in Scripture ( Exodus 1415 ,15; Numbers 33:8 ; Deuteronomy 11:4 ; Joshua 2:10 ; Judges 11:16 ; 2 Sam 22:16 ; Nehemiah 9:9-11 ; Psalms 66:6 ; Isaiah 10:26 ; Acts 7:36 , etc.).

Red Sea, Passage of

The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea is given in Exodus 14:22-31 . There has been great diversity of opinion as to the precise place where this occurred. The difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf of Suez, which was the branch of the sea that was crossed, must have extended at the time of the Exodus probably 50 miles farther north than it does at present. Some have argued that the crossing took place opposite the Wady Tawarik, where the sea is at present some 7 miles broad. But the opinion that seems to be best supported is that which points to the neighbourhood of Suez. This position perfectly satisfies all the conditions of the stupendous miracle as recorded in the sacred narrative. (See EXODUS .)

Redeemer

Heb. goel; i.e., one charged with the duty of restoring the rights of another and avenging his wrongs ( Leviticus 25:48 Leviticus 25:49 ; Numbers 5:8 ; Ruth 4:1 ; Job 19:25 ; Psalms 19:14 ; 78:35 , etc.). This title is peculiarly applied to Christ. He redeems us from all evil by the payment of a ransom (q.v.). (See REDEMPTION .)

Redemption

the purchase back of something that had been lost, by the payment of a ransom. The Greek word so rendered is apolutrosis , a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, i.e., redemption by a lutron (see Matthew 20:28 ; Mark 10:45 ). There are instances in the LXX. Version of the Old Testament of the use of lutron in man's relation to man ( Leviticus 19:20 ; 25:51 ; Exodus 21:30 ; Numbers 35:31 Numbers 35:32 ; Isaiah 45:13 ; Proverbs 6:35 ), and in the same sense of man's relation to God ( Numbers 3:49 ; 18:15 ).

There are many passages in the New Testament which represent Christ's sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (Compare Acts 20:28 ; 1 Corinthians 6:19 1 Corinthians 6:20 ; Galatians 3:13 ; Galatians 4:4 Galatians 4:5 ; Ephesians 1:7 ; Colossians 1:14 ; 1 Timothy 2:5 1 Timothy 2:6 ; Titus 2:14 ; Hebrews 9:12 ; 1 Peter 1:18 1 Peter 1:19 ; Revelation 5:9 ). The idea running through all these texts, however various their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption. The debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully paid. Christ's blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is the "ransom" by which the deliverance of his people from the servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured. It is the plain doctrine of Scripture that "Christ saves us neither by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical, but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law, thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners" (Hodge's Systematic Theology).

Reed

1. "Paper reeds" ( Isaiah 19:7 ; RSV, "reeds"). Heb. 'aroth, properly green herbage growing in marshy places.

2. Heb. kaneh ( 1 Kings 14:15 ; Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ), whence the Gr. kanna, a "cane," a generic name for a reed of any kind. The reed of Egypt and Palestine is the Arundo donax, which grows to the height of 12 feet, its stalk jointed like the bamboo, "with a magnificent panicle of blossom at the top, and so slender and yielding that it will lie perfectly flat under a gust of wind, and immediately resume its upright position." It is used to illustrate weakness ( 2 Kings 18:21 ; Ezekiel 29:6 ), also fickleness or instability ( Matthew 11:7 ; Compare Ephesians 4:14 ). A "bruised reed" ( Isaiah 42:3 ; Matthew 12:20 ) is an emblem of a believer weak in grace. A reed was put into our Lord's hands in derision ( Matthew 27:29 ); and "they took the reed and smote him on the head" (30). The "reed" on which they put the sponge filled with vinegar ( Matthew 27:48 ) was, according to ( John 19:29 ), a hyssop stalk, which must have been of some length, or perhaps a bunch of hyssop twigs fastened to a rod with the sponge. (See CANE .)

Refiner

The process of refining metals is referred to by way of illustrations in Isaiah 1:25 ; Jeremiah 6:29 ; Zechariah 13:9 ; Malachi 3:2 Malachi 3:3 .

Refuge, Cities of

were six in number ( Numbers 35 ). 1. On the west of Jordan were (1) Kadesh, in Naphtali; (2) Shechem, in Mount Ephraim; (3) Hebron, in Judah. 2. On the east of Jordan were, (1) Golan, in Bashan; (2) Ramoth-Gilead, in Gad; and (3) Bezer, in Reuben. (See under each of these names.)

Regem-melech

friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius ( Zechariah 7:2 ) to make inquiries at the temple.

Regeneration

only found in Matthew 19:28 and Titus 3:5 . This word literally means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia) is used by classical writers with reference to the changes produced by the return of spring. In Matthew 19:28 the word is equivalent to the "restitution of all things" ( Acts 3:21 ). In Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as a passing from death to life ( 1 John 3:14 ); becoming a new creature in Christ Jesus ( 2 Corinthians 5:17 ); being born again ( John 3:5 ); a renewal of the mind ( Romans 12:2 ); a resurrection from the dead ( Ephesians 2:6 ); a being quickened ( Ephesians 2:1 Ephesians 2:5 ).

This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not with man but with God ( John 1:12 John 1:13 ; 1 John 2:29 ; 1 John 5:1 1 John 5:4 ).

As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses and sins."

The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in Scripture ( John 3:3 ; Romans 7:18 ; 8:7-9 ; 1 Corinthians 2:14 ; Ephesians 2:1 ; 4:21-24 ).

Rehabiah

enlargement of the Lord, the son of Eliezer, and grandson of Moses ( 1 Chronicles 23:17 ; 24:21 ).

Rehob

street; broad place.

1. The father of Hadadezer, king of Tobah ( 2 Samuel 8:3 2 Samuel 8:12 ).

2. Nehemiah 10:11 .

3. The same, probably, as Beth-rehob ( 2 Samuel 10:6 2 Samuel 10:8 ; Judg. 18:28 ), a place in the north of Palestine ( Numbers 13:21 ). It is now supposed to be represented by the castle of Hunin, south-west of Dan, on the road from Hamath into Coele-Syria.

4. A town of Asher ( Joshua 19:28 ), to the east of Zidon.

5. Another town of Asher ( Joshua 19:30 ), kept possession of by the Canaanites ( Judges 1:31 ).

Rehoboam

he enlarges the people, the successor of Solomon on the throne, and apparently his only son. He was the son of Naamah "the Ammonitess," some well-known Ammonitish princess ( 1 Kings 14:21 ; 2 Chr 12:13 ). He was forty-one years old when he ascended the throne, and he reigned seventeen years (B.C. 975-958). Although he was acknowledged at once as the rightful heir to the throne, yet there was a strongly-felt desire to modify the character of the government. The burden of taxation to which they had been subjected during Solomon's reign was very oppressive, and therefore the people assembled at Shechem and demanded from the king an alleviation of their burdens. He went to meet them at Shechem, and heard their demands for relief ( 1 Kings 12:4 ). After three days, having consulted with a younger generation of courtiers that had grown up around him, instead of following the advice of elders, he answered the people haughtily (6-15). "The king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the Lord" (comp 11:31 ). This brought matters speedily to a crisis. The terrible cry was heard (Compare 2 Samuel 20:1 ):

"What portion have we in David? Neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: To your tents, O Israel: Now see to thine own house, David" ( 1 Kings 12:16 ).

And now at once the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam was appalled, and tried concessions, but it was too late (18). The tribe of Judah, Rehoboam's own tribe, alone remained faithful to him. Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah, and these two tribes formed the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem as its capital; while the northern ten tribes formed themselves into a separate kingdom, choosing Jeroboam as their king. Rehoboam tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by making war against them, but he was prevented by the prophet Shemaiah (21-24; 2 Chronicles 11:1-4 ) from fulfilling his purpose. (See JEROBOAM .)

In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak (q.v.), one of the kings of Egypt of the Assyrian dynasty, stirred up, no doubt, by Jeroboam his son-in-law, made war against him. Jerusalem submitted to the invader, who plundered the temple and virtually reduced the kingdom to the position of a vassal of Egypt ( 1 Kings 14:25 1 Kings 14:26 ; 2 Chr 12:5-9 ). A remarkable memorial of this invasion has been discovered at Karnac, in Upper Egypt, in certain sculptures on the walls of a small temple there. These sculptures represent the king, Shishak, holding in his hand a train of prisoners and other figures, with the names of the captured towns of Judah, the towns which Rehoboam had fortified ( 2 Chronicles 11:5-12 ).

The kingdom of Judah, under Rehoboam, sank more and more in moral and spiritual decay. "There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days." At length, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, Rehoboam "slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David" ( 1 Kings 14:31 ). He was succeeded by his son Abijah. (See EGYPT .)

Rehoboth

broad places.

1. A well in Gerar dug by Isaac ( Genesis 26:22 ), supposed to be in Wady er-Ruheibeh, about 20 miles south of Beersheba.

2. An ancient city on the Euphrates ( Genesis 36:37 ; 1 Chronicles 1:48 ), "Rehoboth by the river."

3. Named among the cities of Asshur ( Genesis 10:11 ). Probably, however, the words "rehoboth'ir" are to be translated as in the Vulgate and the margin of A.V., "the streets of the city," or rather "the public square of the city", i.e., of Nineveh.

Rehum

merciful.

1. One of "the children of the province" who returned from the Captivity ( Ezra 2:2 ); the same as "Nehum" ( Nehemiah 7:7 ).

2. The "chancellor" of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up against the Jews ( Ezra 4:8-24 ) and prevent the rebuilding of the walls and the temple of Jerusalem.

3. A Levite ( Nehemiah 3:17 ).

4. Nehemiah 10:25 .

5. A priest ( Nehemiah 12:3 ).

Rei

friendly, one who maintained true allegiance to king David ( 1 Kings 1:8 ) when Adonijah rebelled.

Reins

the kidneys, the supposed seat of the desires and affections; used metaphorically for "heart." The "reins" and the "heart" are often mentioned together, as denoting the whole moral constitution of man ( Psalms 7:9 ; 16:7 ; 26:2 ; 139:13 ; Jeremiah 17:10 , etc.).

Rekem

embroidered; variegated.

1. One of the five Midianite kings whom the Israelites destroyed ( Numbers 31:8 ).

2. One of the sons of Hebron ( 1 Chronicles 2:43 1 Chronicles 2:44 ).

3. A town of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:27 ).

Remaliah

adorned by the Lord, the father of Pekah, who conspired successfully against Pekahiah ( 2 Kings 15:25 2 Kings 15:27 2 Kings 15:30 2 Kings 15:32 2 Kings 15:37 ; Isaiah 7:1 Isaiah 7:4 Isaiah 7:5 Isaiah 7:9 ; 8:6 ).

Remeth

another form of Ramah (q.v.) or Ramoth ( 1 Chronicles 6:73 ; Joshua 19:21 ), and probably also of Jarmuth ( Joshua 21:29 ).

Remmon-methoar

( Joshua 19:13 ), rendered correctly in the Revised Version, "Rimmon, which stretcheth unto Neah," a landmark of Zebulun; called also Rimmon ( 1 Chronicles 6:77 ).

Remphan

( Acts 7:43 ; RSV, "Rephan"). In Amos 5:26 the Heb. Chiun (q.v.) is rendered by the LXX. "Rephan," and this name is adopted by Luke in his narrative of the Acts. These names represent the star-god Saturn or Moloch.

Rent

( Isaiah 3:24 ), probably a rope, as rendered in the LXX. and Vulgate and Revised Version, or as some prefer interpreting the phrase, "girdle and robe are torn [i.e., are 'a rent'] by the hand of violence."

Repentance

There are three Greek words used in the New Testament to denote repentance.

1. The verb metamelomai is used of a change of mind, such as to produce regret or even remorse on account of sin, but not necessarily a change of heart. This word is used with reference to the repentance of Judas ( Matthew 27:3 ).

2. Metanoeo, meaning to change one's mind and purpose, as the result of after knowledge. This verb, with (3) the cognate noun metanoia , is used of true repentance, a change of mind and purpose and life, to which remission of sin is promised. Evangelical repentance consists of (1) a true sense of one's own guilt and sinfulness; (2) an apprehension of God's mercy in Christ; (3) an actual hatred of sin ( Psalms 119:128 ; Job 42:5 Job 42:6 ; 2 co 7:10 ) and turning from it to God; and (4) a persistent endeavour after a holy life in a walking with God in the way of his commandments. The true penitent is conscious of guilt ( Psalms 51:4 Psalms 51:9 ), of pollution ( Psalms 51:5 Psalms 51:7 Psalms 51:10 ), and of helplessness ( 51:11 ; Psalms 109:21 Psalms 109:22 ). Thus he apprehends himself to be just what God has always seen him to be and declares him to be. But repentance comprehends not only such a sense of sin, but also an apprehension of mercy, without which there can be no true repentance ( Psalms 51:1 ; 130:4 ).

Rephael

healed of God, one of Shemaiah's sons. He and his brethren, on account of their "strength for service," formed one of the divisions of the temple porters ( 1 Chronicles 26:7 1 Chronicles 26:8 ).

Rephaim

lofty men; giants, ( Genesis 14:5 ; 2 Sam Genesis 21:16 Genesis 21:18 , marg. A.V., Rapha, marg. RSV, Raphah; Deuteronomy 3:13 , RSV; A.V., "giants"). The aborigines of Palestine, afterwards conquered and dispossessed by the Canaanite tribes, are classed under this general title. They were known to the Moabites as Emim, i.e., "fearful", ( Deuteronomy 2:11 ), and to the Ammonites as Zamzummim. Some of them found refuge among the Philistines, and were still existing in the days of David. We know nothing of their origin. They were not necessarily connected with the "giants" (RSV, "Nephilim") of Genesis 6:4 . (See GIANTS .)

Rephaim, Valley of

( Joshua 15:8 ; 18:16 , RSV). When David became king over all Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron, compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in "the hold" at Adullam ( 2 Samuel 5:17-22 ), and the Philistines took up their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communication between Bethlehem and Jerusalem was intercepted. While David and his army were encamped here, there occurred that incident narrated in 2 Samuel 23:15-17 . Having obtained divine direction, David led his army against the Philistines, and gained a complete victory over them. The scene of this victory was afterwards called Baalperazim (q.v.).

A second time, however, the Philistines rallied their forces in this valley ( 2 Samuel 5:22 ). Again warned by a divine oracle, David led his army to Gibeon, and attacked the Philistines from the south, inflicting on them another severe defeat, and chasing them with great slaughter to Gezer (q.v.). There David kept in check these enemies of Israel. This valley is now called el-Bukei'a.

Rephidim

supports, one of the stations of the Israelites, situated in the Wady Feiran, near its junction with the Wady esh-Sheikh. Here no water could be found for the people to drink, and in their impatience they were ready to stone Moses, as if he were the cause of their distress. At the command of God Moses smote "the rock in Horeb," and a copious stream flowed forth, enough for all the people. After this the Amalekites attacked the Israelites while they were here encamped, but they were utterly defeated ( Exodus 17:1 Exodus 17:8-16 ). They were the "first of the nations" to make war against Israel ( Numbers 24:20 ).

Leaving Rephidim, the Israelites advanced into the wilderness of Sinai ( Exodus 19:1 Exodus 19:2 ; Numbers 33:14 Numbers 33:15 ), marching probably through the two passes of the Wady Solaf and the Wady esh-Sheikh, which converge at the entrance to the plain er-Rahah, the "desert of Sinai," which is two miles long and about half a mile broad. (See SINAI; MERIBAH .)

Reprobate

that which is rejected on account of its own worthlessness ( Jeremiah 6:30 ; Hebrews 6:8 ; Gr. adokimos, "rejected"). This word is also used with reference to persons cast away or rejected because they have failed to make use of opportunities offered them ( 1 Corinthians 9:27 ; 2 co 13:5-7 ).

Rereward

( Joshua 6:9 ), the troops in the rear of an army on the march, the rear-guard. This word is a corruption of the French arriere-garde. During the wilderness march the tribe of Dan formed the rear-guard ( Numbers 10:25 ; Compare 1 Samuel 29:2 ; Isaiah 52:12 ; 58:8 ).

Resen

head of the stream; bridle, one of Nimrod's cities ( Genesis 10:12 ), "between Nineveh and Calah." It has been supposed that the four cities named in this verse were afterwards combined into one under the name of Nineveh (q.v.). Resen was on the east side of the Tigris. It is probably identified with the mound of ruins called Karamless.

Rest

1. Gr. katapausis, equivalent to the Hebrew word noah ( Hebrews 4:1 ).

2. Gr. anapausis, "rest from weariness" ( Matthew 11:28 ).

3. Gr. anesis, "relaxation" ( 2 Thessalonians 1:7 ).

4. Gr. sabbatismos, a Sabbath rest, a rest from all work ( Hebrews 4:9 ; RSV, "sabbath"), a rest like that of God when he had finished the work of creation.

Resurrection of Christ

one of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel. If Christ be not risen, our faith is vain ( 1 Corinthians 15:14 ). The whole of the New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact. On the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ's resurrection from the prediction in Psalms 16 ( Acts 2:24-28 ). In his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his resurrection ( Matthew 20:19 ; Mark 9:9 ; 14:28 ; Luke 18:33 ; John 2:19-22 ).

The evangelists give circumstantial accounts of the facts connected with that event, and the apostles, also, in their public teaching largely insist upon it. Ten different appearances of our risen Lord are recorded in the New Testament. They may be arranged as follows:

1. To Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre alone. This is recorded at length only by ( John 20:11-18 ), and alluded to by ( Mark 16:9-11 ).

2. To certain women, "the other Mary," Salome, Joanna, and others, as they returned from the sepulchre. ( Matthew 28:1-10 ) alone gives an account of this. (Compare Mark 16:1-8 , and Luke 24:1-11 .)

3. To Simon Peter alone on the day of the resurrection. (See Luke 24:34 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 .)

4. To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection, recorded fully only by ( Luke 24:13-35 . Compare Mark 16:12 Mark 16:13 ).

5. To the ten disciples (Thomas being absent) and others "with them," at Jerusalem on the evening of the resurrection day. One of the evangelists gives an account of this appearance, ( John 20:19-24 ).

6. To the disciples again (Thomas being present) at Jerusalem ( Mark 16:14-18 ; Luke 24:33-40 ; John 20:26-28 . See also 1 Corinthians 15:5 ).

7. To the disciples when fishing at the Sea of Galilee. Of this appearance also ( John 21:1-23 ) alone gives an account.

8. To the eleven, and above 500 brethren at once, at an appointed place in Galilee ( 1 Corinthians 15:6 ; Compare Matthew 28:16-20 ).

9. To James, but under what circumstances we are not informed ( 1 Corinthians 15:7 ).

10. To the apostles immediately before the ascension. They accompanied him from Jerusalem to Mount Olivet, and there they saw him ascend "till a cloud received him out of their sight" ( Mark 16:19 ; Luke 24:50-52 ; Acts 1:4-10 ). It is worthy of note that it is distinctly related that on most of these occasions our Lord afforded his disciples the amplest opportunity of testing the fact of his resurrection. He conversed with them face to face. They touched him ( Matthew 28:9 ; Luke 24:39 ; John 20:27 ), and he ate bread with them ( Luke 24:42 Luke 24:43 ; John 21:12 John 21:13 ).

11. In addition to the above, mention might be made of Christ's manifestation of himself to Paul at Damascus, who speaks of it as an appearance of the risen Saviour ( Acts 9:3-9 Acts 9:17 ; 1 Corinthians 15:8 ; 9:1 ). It is implied in the words of Luke ( Acts 1:3 ) that there may have been other appearances of which we have no record. The resurrection is spoken of as the act (1) of God the Father ( Psalms 16:10 ; Acts 2:24 ; 3:15 ; Romans 8:11 ; Ephesians 1:20 ; Colossians 2:12 ; Hebrews 13:20 ); (2) of Christ himself ( John 2:19 ; 10:18 ); and (3) of the Holy Spirit ( 1 Peter 3:18 ). The resurrection is a public testimony of Christ's release from his undertaking as surety, and an evidence of the Father's acceptance of his work of redemption. It is a victory over death and the grave for all his followers. The importance of Christ's resurrection will be seen when we consider that if he rose the gospel is true, and if he rose not it is false. His resurrection from the dead makes it manifest that his sacrifice was accepted. Our justification was secured by his obedience to the death, and therefore he was raised from the dead ( Romans 4:25 ). His resurrection is a proof that he made a full atonement for our sins, that his sacrifice was accepted as a satisfaction to divine justice, and his blood a ransom for sinners. It is also a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection of all believers ( Romans 8:11 ; 1 Corinthians 6:14 ; 15:47-49 ; Phil 3:21 ; 1 John 3:2 ). As he lives, they shall live also. It proved him to be the Son of God, inasmuch as it authenticated all his claims ( John 2:19 ; 10:17 ). "If Christ did not rise, the whole scheme of redemption is a failure, and all the predictions and anticipations of its glorious results for time and for eternity, for men and for angels of every rank and order, are proved to be chimeras. 'But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.' Therefore the Bible is true from Genesis to Revelation. The kingdom of darkness has been overthrown, Satan has fallen as lightning from heaven, and the triumph of truth over error, of good over evil, of happiness over misery is for ever secured." Hodge. With reference to the report which the Roman soldiers were bribed ( Matthew 28:12-14 ) to circulate concerning Christ's resurrection, "his disciples came by night and stole him away while we slept," Matthew Henry in his "Commentary," under John 20:1-10 , fittingly remarks, "The grave-clothes in which Christ had been buried were found in very good order, which serves for an evidence that his body was not 'stolen away while men slept.' Robbers of tombs have been known to take away 'the clothes' and leave the body; but none ever took away 'the body' and left the clothes, especially when they were 'fine linen' and new ( Mark 15:46 ). Any one would rather choose to carry a dead body in its clothes than naked. Or if they that were supposed to have stolen it would have left the grave-clothes behind, yet it cannot be supposed they would find leisure to 'fold up the linen.'"

Resurrection of the dead

will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust ( Daniel 12:2 ; John 5:28 John 5:29 ; Romans 2:6-16 ; 2 th 1:6-10 ). The qualities of the resurrection body will be different from those of the body laid in the grave ( 1 Corinthians 15:53 1 Corinthians 15:54 ; Phil 3:21 ); but its identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the same body ( 1 Corinthians 15:42-44 ) which rises again.

As to the nature of the resurrection body, (1) it will be spiritual ( 1 Corinthians 15:44 ), i.e., a body adapted to the use of the soul in its glorified state, and to all the conditions of the heavenly state; (2) glorious, incorruptible, and powerful (54); (3) like unto the glorified body of Christ (Phil 3:21 ); and (4) immortal ( Revelation 21:4 ).

Christ's resurrection secures and illustrates that of his people. "

1. Because his resurrection seals and consummates his redemptive power; and the redemption of our persons involves the redemption of our bodies ( Romans 8:23 ).

2. Because of our federal and vital union with Christ ( 1 Corinthians 15:21 1 Corinthians 15:22 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:14 ).

3. Because of his Spirit which dwells in us making our bodies his members ( 1 Corinthians 6:15 ; Romans 8:11 ).

4. Because Christ by covenant is Lord both of the living and the dead ( Romans 14:9 ). This same federal and vital union of the Christian with Christ likewise causes the resurrection of the believer to be similar to as well as consequent upon that of Christ ( 1 Corinthians 15:49 ; Phil 3:21 ; 1 John 3:2 )." Hodge's Outlines of Theology.

Reuben

behold a son!, the eldest son of Jacob and Leah ( Genesis 29:32 ). His sinful conduct, referred to in Genesis 35:22 , brought down upon him his dying father's malediction ( 48:4 ). He showed kindness to Joseph, and was the means of saving his life when his other brothers would have put him to death ( Genesis 37:21 Genesis 37:22 ). It was he also who pledged his life and the life of his sons when Jacob was unwilling to let Benjamin go down into Egypt. After Jacob and his family went down into Egypt ( 46:8 ) no further mention is made of Reuben beyond what is recorded in ch Genesis 49:3 Genesis 49:4 .

Reuben, Tribe of

at the Exodus numbered 46,500 male adults, from twenty years old and upwards ( Numbers 1:20 Numbers 1:21 ), and at the close of the wilderness wanderings they numbered only 43,730 ( 26:7 ). This tribe united with that of Gad in asking permission to settle in the "land of Gilead," "on the other side of Jordan" ( 32:1-5 ). The lot assigned to Reuben was the smallest of the lots given to the trans-Jordanic tribes. It extended from the Arnon, in the south along the coast of the Dead Sea to its northern end, where the Jordan flows into it ( Joshua 13:15-21 Joshua 13:23 ). It thus embraced the original kingdom of Sihon. Reuben is "to the eastern tribes what Simeon is to the western. 'Unstable as water,' he vanishes away into a mere Arabian tribe. 'His men are few;' it is all he can do 'to live and not die.' We hear of nothing beyond the multiplication of their cattle in the land of Gilead, their spoils of 'camels fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand' ( 1 Chronicles 5:9 1 Chronicles 5:10 1 Chronicles 5:20 1 Chronicles 5:21 ). In the great struggles of the nation he never took part. The complaint against him in the song of Deborah is the summary of his whole history. 'By the streams of Reuben,' i.e., by the fresh streams which descend from the eastern hills into the Jordan and the Dead Sea, on whose banks the Bedouin chiefs met then as now to debate, in the 'streams' of Reuben great were the 'desires'", i.e., resolutions which were never carried out, the people idly resting among their flocks as if it were a time of peace ( Judges 5:15 Judges 5:16 ). Stanley's Sinai and Palestine.

All the three tribes on the east of Jordan at length fell into complete apostasy, and the time of retribution came. God "stirred up the spirit of Pul, king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria," to carry them away, the first of the tribes, into captivity ( 1 Chronicles 5:25 1 Chronicles 5:26 ).

Reuel

friend of God.

1. A son of Esau and Bashemath ( Genesis 36:4 Genesis 36:10 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35 ).

2. "The priest of Midian," Moses' father-in-law (Ex 2:18)=Raguel ( Numbers 10:29 ). If he be identified with Jethro (q.v.), then this may be regarded as his proper name, and Jether or Jethro (i.e., "excellency") as his official title.

3. Numbers 2:14 , called also Deuel ( 1:14 ; 7:42 ).

Revelation

an uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen. God has been pleased in various ways and at different times ( Hebrews 1:1 ) to make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been committed to writing. (See WORD OF GOD .) The Scriptures are not merely the "record" of revelation; they are the revelation itself in a written form, in order to the accurate preservation and propagation of the truth.

Revelation and inspiration differ. Revelation is the supernatural communication of truth to the mind; inspiration (q.v.) secures to the teacher or writer infallibility in communicating that truth to others. It renders its subject the spokesman or prophet of God in such a sense that everything he asserts to be true, whether fact or doctrine or moral principle, is true, infallibly true.

Revelation of Christ

the second advent of Christ. Three different Greek words are used by the apostles to express this, (1) apokalupsis (1co. ( 1 Corinthians 2 th 1:7 ; 1 Peter 1:7 1 Peter 1:13 ); (2) parousia ( Matthew 24:3 Matthew 24:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:19 ; James 5:7 James 5:8 ); (3) epiphaneia ( 1 Timothy 6:14 ; 2 Tim 1:10 ; 4:1-8 ; Titus 2:13 ). There existed among Christians a wide expectation, founded on Matthew 24:29 Matthew 24:30 Matthew 24:34 , of the speedy return of Christ. (See MILLENNIUM .)

Revelation, Book of

=The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon. The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle. His name occurs four times in the book itself ( Hebrews 1:1 Hebrews 1:4 Hebrews 1:9 ; 22:8 ), and there is every reason to conclude that the "John" here mentioned was the apostle. In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called "John the divine," but no reason can be assigned for this appellation.

The date of the writing of this book has generally been fixed at A.D. 96, in the reign of Domitian. There are some, however, who contend for an earlier date, A.D. 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero. Those who are in favour of the later date appeal to the testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus, who received information relative to this book from those who had seen John face to face. He says that the Apocalypse "was seen no long time ago."

As to the relation between this book and the Gospel of John, it has been well observed that "the leading ideas of both are the same. The one gives us in a magnificent vision, the other in a great historic drama, the supreme conflict between good and evil and its issue. In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict. In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language saturated with the Old Testament. The difference of date will go a long way toward explaining the difference of style." Plummer's Gospel of St. John, Introd.

Rezeph

solid; a stone, ( 2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12 ), a fortress near Haran, probably on the west of the Euphrates, conquered by Sennacherib.

Rezin

firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (q.v.) in an invasion of the kingdom of Judah ( 2 Kings 15:37 ; 16:5-9 ; Isaiah 7:1-8 ). Ahaz induced Tiglath-pileser III. to attack Damascus, and this caused Rezin to withdraw for the purpose of defending his own kingdom. Damascus was taken, and Rezin was slain in battle by the Assyrian king, and his people carried into captivity, B.C. 732 ( 2 Kings 16:9 ).

Rezon

prince, son of Eliadah. Abandoning the service of Hadadezer, the king of Zobah, on the occasion of his being defeated by David, he became the "captain over a band" of marauders, and took Damascus, and became king of Syria ( 1 Kings 11:23-25 ; 2 Sam. 8:3-8 ). For centuries after this the Syrians were the foes of Israel. He "became an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon."

Rhegium

breach, a town in the south of Italy, on the Strait of Messina, at which Paul touched on his way to Rome ( Acts 28:13 ). It is now called Rheggio.

Rhesa

affection, son of Zorobabel, mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord ( Luke 3:27 ).

Rhoda

a rose, the damsel in the house of Mary, the mother of John Mark. She came to hearken when Peter knocked at the door of the gate ( Acts 12:12-15 ).

Rhodes

a rose, an island to the south of the western extremity of Asia Minor, between Coos and Patara, about 46 miles long and 18 miles broad. Here the apostle probably landed on his way from Greece to Syria ( Acts 21:1 ), on returning from his third missionary journey.

Riblah

fruitful, an ancient town on the northern frontier of Palestine, 35 miles north-east of Baalbec, and 10 or 12 south of Lake Homs, on the eastern bank of the Orontes, in a wide and fertile plain. Here Nebuchadnezzar had his head-quarters in his campaign against Jerusalem, and here also Necho fixed his camp after he had routed Josiah's army at Megiddo ( 2 Kings 23:29-35 ; 2 Kings 25:6 2 Kings 25:20 2 Kings 25:21 ; Jeremiah 39:5 ; 52:10 ). It was on the great caravan road from Palestine to Carchemish, on the Euphrates. It is described ( Numbers 34:11 ) as "on the eastern side of Ain." A place still called el Ain, i.e., "the fountain", is found in such a position about 10 miles distant. (See JERUSALEM .)

Riddle

(Heb. hodah). The oldest and, strictly speaking, the only example of a riddle was that propounded by Samson (Judg. 14:12-18 ). The parabolic prophecy in Ezekiel 17:2-18 is there called a "riddle." It was rather, however, an allegory. The word "darkly" in 1 Corinthians 13:12 is the rendering of the Greek enigma; marg., "in a riddle."

Righteousness

See JUSTIFICATION .

Rimmon

pomegranate.

1. A man of Beeroth ( 2 Samuel 4:2 ), one of the four Gibeonite cities. (See Joshua 9:17 .)

2. A Syrian idol, mentioned only in 2 Kings 5:18 .

3. One of the "uttermost cities" of Judah, afterwards given to Simeon ( Joshua 15:21 Joshua 15:32 ; 19:7 ; 1 Chronicles 4:32 ). In Josh 15:32Ain and Rimmon are mentioned separately, but in 19:7 and 1 Chronicles 4:32 (Compare Nehemiah 11:29 ) the two words are probably to be combined, as forming together the name of one place, Ain-Rimmon=the spring of the pomegranate. It has been identified with Um er-Rumamin, about 13 miles south-west of Hebron.

4. "Rock of," to which the Benjamites fled ( Judges 20:45 Judges 20:47 ; 21:13 ), and where they maintained themselves for four months after the fearful battle at Gibeah, in which they were almost exterminated, 600 only surviving out of about 27,000. It is the present village of Rummon, "on the very edge of the hill country, with a precipitous descent toward the Jordan valley," supposed to be the site of Ai.

Rimmon-parez

a pomegranate breach, or Rimmon of the breach, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness ( Numbers 33:19 Numbers 33:20 ).

Ring

Used as an ornament to decorate the fingers, arms, wrists, and also the ears and the nose. Rings were used as a signet ( Genesis 38:18 ). They were given as a token of investment with authority ( Genesis 41:42 ; Esther 3:8-10 ; 8:2 ), and of favour and dignity ( Luke 15:22 ). They were generally worn by rich men ( James 2:2 ). They are mentioned by Isiah ( 3:21 ) among the adornments of Hebrew women.

Riphath

a crusher, Gomer's second son ( Genesis 10:3 ), supposed to have been the ancestor of the Paphlagonians.

Rissah

heap of ruins; dew, a station of the Israelites in the wilderness ( Numbers 33:21 Numbers 33:22 ).

Rithmah

wild broom, a station in the wilderness ( Numbers 33:18 Numbers 33:19 ), the "broom valley," or "valley of broombushes," the place apparently of the original encampment of Israel, near Kadesh.

River

1. Heb. 'aphik, properly the channel or ravine that holds water ( 2 Samuel 22:16 ), translated "brook," "river," "stream," but not necessarily a perennial stream ( Ezekiel 6:3 ; 31:12 ; 32:6 ; 34:13 ).

2. Heb. nahal, in winter a "torrent," in summer a "wady" or valley ( Genesis 32:23 ; Deuteronomy 2:24 ; 3:16 ; Isaiah 30:28 ; Lamentations 2:18 ; Ezekiel 47:9 ). These winter torrents sometimes come down with great suddenness and with desolating force. A distinguished traveller thus describes his experience in this matter:, "I was encamped in Wady Feiran, near the base of Jebel Serbal, when a tremendous thunderstorm burst upon us. After little more than an hour's rain, the water rose so rapidly in the previously dry wady that I had to run for my life, and with great difficulty succeeded in saving my tent and goods; my boots, which I had not time to pick up, were washed away. In less than two hours a dry desert wady upwards of 300 yards broad was turned into a foaming torrent from 8 to 10 feet deep, roaring and tearing down and bearing everything upon it, tangled masses of tamarisks, hundreds of beautiful palmtrees, scores of sheep and goats, camels and donkeys, and even men, women, and children, for a whole encampment of Arabs was washed away a few miles above me. The storm commenced at five in the evening; at half-past nine the waters were rapidly subsiding, and it was evident that the flood had spent its force." (Compare Matthew 7:27 ; Luke 6:49 .)

3. Nahar, a "river" continuous and full, a perennial stream, as the Jordan, the Euphrates ( Genesis 2:10 ; 15:18 ; Deuteronomy 1:7 ; Psalms 66:6 ; Ezekiel 10:15 ).

4. Tel'alah, a conduit, or water-course ( 1 Kings 18:32 ; 2 Kings 18:17 ; 20:20 ; Job 38:25 ; Ezekiel 31:4 ).

5. Peleg, properly "waters divided", i.e., streams divided, throughout the land ( Psalms 1:3 ); "the rivers [i.e., 'divisions'] of waters" ( Job 20:17 ; 29:6 ; Proverbs 5:16 ).

6. Ye'or, i.e., "great river", probably from an Egyptian word (Aur), commonly applied to the Nile ( Genesis 41:1-3 ), but also to other rivers ( Job 28:10 ; Isaiah 33:21 ).

7. Yubhal, "a river" ( Jeremiah 17:8 ), a full flowing stream.

8. 'Ubhal, "a river" ( Daniel 8:2 ).

River of Egypt

1. Heb. nahar mitsraim, denotes in Genesis 15:18 the Nile, or its eastern branch ( 2 Chronicles 9:26 ).

2. In Numbers 34:5 (RSV, "brook of Egypt") the Hebrew word is nahal , denoting a stream flowing rapidly in winter, or in the rainy season. This is a desert stream on the borders of Egypt. It is now called the Wady el-'Arish. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between this wady and Gaza. (See Numbers 34:5 ; Joshua 15:4 Joshua 15:47 ; 1 Kings 8:65 ; 2 Kings 24:7 ; Isaiah 27:12 ; Ezekiel 47:19 . In all these passages the RSV has "brook" and the A.V. "river.")

River of Gad

probably the Arno ( 2 Samuel 24:5 ).