Easton's Bible Dictionary
Paarai — Phalti
a plain, occurring only in Genesis 48:7 , where it designates Padan-aram.
God allots, a prince of the tribe of Asher ( Numbers 1:13 ), in the wilderness.
Jezebel "painted her face" ( 2 Kings 9:30 ); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common ( Jeremiah 4:30 ; Ezekiel 23:40 ). An allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter ( 42:14 ) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.
Used now only of royal dwellings, although originally meaning simply (as the Latin word palatium, from which it is derived, shows) a building surrounded by a fence or a paling. In the Authorized Version there are many different words so rendered, presenting different ideas, such as that of citadel or lofty fortress or royal residence ( Nehemiah 1:1 ; Daniel 8:2 ). It is the name given to the temple fortress ( Nehemiah 2:8 ) and to the temple itself ( 1 Chronicles 29:1 ). It denotes also a spacious building or a great house ( Daniel 1:4 ; Daniel 4:4 Daniel 4:29 : Esther 1:5 ; 7:7 ), and a fortified place or an enclosure ( Ezekiel 25:4 ). Solomon's palace is described in 1 Kings 7:1-12 as a series of buildings rather than a single great structure. Thirteen years were spent in their erection. This palace stood on the eastern hill, adjoining the temple on the south.
In the New Testament it designates the official residence of Pilate or that of the high priest ( Matthew 26:3 Matthew 26:58 Matthew 26:69 ; Mark 14:54 Mark 14:66 ; John 18:15 ). In Phil 1:13 this word is the rendering of the Greek praitorion, meaning the praetorian cohorts at Rome (the life-guard of the Caesars). Paul was continually chained to a soldier of that corps ( Acts 28:16 ), and hence his name and sufferings became known in all the praetorium. The "soldiers that kept" him would, on relieving one another on guard, naturally spread the tidings regarding him among their comrades. Some, however, regard the praetroium (q.v.) as the barrack within the palace (the palatium) of the Caesars in Rome where a detachment of these praetorian guards was stationed, or as the camp of the guards placed outside the eastern walls of Rome.
"In the chambers which were occupied as guard-rooms," says Dr. Manning, "by the praetorian troops on duty in the palace, a number of rude caricatures are found roughly scratched upon the walls, just such as may be seen upon barrack walls in every part of the world. Amongst these is one of a human figure nailed upon a cross. To add to the 'offence of the cross,' the crucified one is represented with the head of an animal, probably that of an ass. Before it stands the figure of a Roman legionary with one hand upraised in the attitude of worship. Underneath is the rude, misspelt, ungrammatical inscription, Alexamenos worships his god. It can scarcely be doubted that we have here a contemporary caricature, executed by one of the praetorian guard, ridiculing the faith of a Christian comrade."
originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines ( Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29 Isaiah 14:31 ; Joel 3:4 ), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Psalms 60:8 ; 83:7 ; 87:4 ; 108:9 ) occurs in the Old Testament.
Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general ( Genesis 40:15 ). It is also called "the holy land" ( Zechariah 2:12 ), the "land of Jehovah" ( Hosea 9:3 ; Psalms 85:1 ), the "land of promise" ( Hebrews 11:9 ), because promised to Abraham ( Genesis 12:7 ; 24:7 ), the "land of Canaan" ( Genesis 12:5 ), the "land of Israel" ( 1 Samuel 13:19 ), and the "land of Judah" ( Isaiah 19:17 ).
The territory promised as an inheritance to the seed of Abraham ( Genesis 15:18-21 ; Numbers 34:1-12 ) was bounded on the east by the river Euphrates, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the north by the "entrance of Hamath," and on the south by the "river of Egypt." This extent of territory, about 60,000 square miles, was at length conquered by David, and was ruled over also by his son Solomon ( 2 Samuel 8 ; 1 Chronicles 18 ; 1 Kings 4:1 1 Kings 4:21 ). This vast empire was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it, terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus extending in all to about 144 miles in length. Its average breadth was about 60 miles from the Mediterranean on the west to beyond the Jordan. It has fittingly been designated "the least of all lands." Western Palestine, on the south of Gaza, is only about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, narrowing gradually toward the north, where it is only 20 miles from the sea-coast to the Jordan.
Palestine, "set in the midst" ( Ezekiel 5:5 ) of all other lands, is the most remarkable country on the face of the earth. No single country of such an extent has so great a variety of climate, and hence also of plant and animal life. Moses describes it as "a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt not eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass" ( Deuteronomy 8:7-9 ).
"In the time of Christ the country looked, in all probability, much as now. The whole land consists of rounded limestone hills, fretted into countless stony valleys, offering but rarely level tracts, of which Esdraelon alone, below Nazareth, is large enough to be seen on the map. The original woods had for ages disappeared, though the slopes were dotted, as now, with figs, olives, and other fruit-trees where there was any soil. Permanent streams were even then unknown, the passing rush of winter torrents being all that was seen among the hills. The autumn and spring rains, caught in deep cisterns hewn out like huge underground jars in the soft limestone, with artificial mud-banked ponds still found near all villages, furnished water. Hills now bare, or at best rough with stunted growth, were then terraced, so as to grow vines, olives, and grain. To-day almost desolate, the country then teemed with population. Wine-presses cut in the rocks, endless terraces, and the ruins of old vineyard towers are now found amidst solitudes overgrown for ages with thorns and thistles, or with wild shrubs and poor gnarled scrub" (Geikie's Life of Christ).
From an early period the land was inhabited by the descendants of Canaan, who retained possession of the whole land "from Sidon to Gaza" till the time of the conquest by Joshua, when it was occupied by the twelve tribes. Two tribes and a half had their allotments given them by Moses on the east of the Jordan ( Deuteronomy 3:12-20 ; Compare Numbers 1:17-46 ; Joshua 4:12-13 ). The remaining tribes had their portion on the west of Jordan.
From the conquest till the time of Saul, about four hundred years, the people were governed by judges. For a period of one hundred and twenty years the kingdom retained its unity while it was ruled by Saul and David and Solomon. On the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam ascended the throne; but his conduct was such that ten of the tribes revolted, and formed an independent monarchy, called the kingdom of Israel, or the northern kingdom, the capital of which was first Shechem and afterwards Samaria. This kingdom was destroyed. The Israelites were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, B.C. 722, after an independent existence of two hundred and fifty-three years. The place of the captives carried away was supplied by tribes brought from the east, and thus was formed the Samaritan nation ( 2 Kings 17:24-29 ).
Nebuchadnezzar came up against the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom of Judah, the capital of which was Jerusalem, one hundred and thirty-four years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel. He overthrew the city, plundered the temple, and carried the people into captivity to Babylon (B.C. 587), where they remained seventy years. At the close of the period of the Captivity, they returned to their own land, under the edict of Cyrus ( Ezra 1:1-4 ). They rebuilt the city and temple, and restored the old Jewish commonwealth.
For a while after the Restoration the Jews were ruled by Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and afterwards by the high priests, assisted by the Sanhedrin. After the death of Alexander the Great at Babylon (B.C. 323), his vast empire was divided between his four generals. Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took possession of Palestine in B.C. 320, and carried nearly one hundred thousand of the inhabitants of Jerusalem into Egypt. He made Alexandria the capital of his kingdom, and treated the Jews with consideration, confirming them in the enjoyment of many privileges.
After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty and opression of the successors of Antiochus at length led to the revolt under the Maccabees (B.C. 163), when they threw off the Syrian yoke.
In the year B.C. 68, Palestine was reduced by Pompey the Great to a Roman province. He laid the walls of the city in ruins, and massacred some twelve thousand of the inhabitants. He left the temple, however, unijured. About twenty-five years after this the Jews revolted and cast off the Roman yoke. They were however, subdued by Herod the Great (q.v.). The city and the temple were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were put to death. About B.C. 20, Herod proceeded to rebuild the city and restore the ruined temple, which in about nine years and a half was so far completed that the sacred services could be resumed in it (Compare John 2:20 ). He was succeeded by his son Archelaus, who was deprived of his power, however, by Augustus, A.D. 6, when Palestine became a Roman province, ruled by Roman governors or procurators. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these procurators. He was appointed to his office A.D. 25.
Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great comprehended the whole of the country originally divided among the twelve tribes, which he divided into four provinces or districts. This division was recognized so long as Palestine was under the Roman dominion. These four provinces were, (1) Judea, the southern portion of the country; (2) Samaria, the middle province, the northern boundary of which ran along the hills to the south of the plain of Esdraelon; (3) Galilee, the northern province; and (4) Peraea (a Greek name meaning the "opposite country"), the country lying east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. This province was subdivided into these districts, (1) Peraea proper, lying between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok; (2) Galaaditis (Gilead); (3) Batanaea; (4) Gaulonitis (Jaulan); (5) Ituraea or Auranitis, the ancient Bashan; (6) Trachonitis; (7) Abilene; (8) Decapolis, i.e., the region of the ten cities. The whole territory of Palestine, including the portions alloted to the trans-Jordan tribes, extended to about eleven thousand square miles. Recent exploration has shown the territory on the west of Jordan alone to be six thousand square miles in extent, the size of the principality of Wales.
(Heb. tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Palestine. It is described as "flourishing" ( Psalms 92:12 ), tall (Cant 7:7 ), "upright" ( Jeremiah 10:5 ). Its branches are a symbol of victory ( Revelation 7:9 ). "Rising with slender stem 40 or 50, at times even 80, feet aloft, its only branches, the feathery, snow-like, pale-green fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending from its top, the palm attracts the eye wherever it is seen." The whole land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i.e., "the land of palms." Tadmor in the desert was called by the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i.e., "the city of palms." The finest specimens of this tree grew at Jericho ( Deuteronomy 34:3 ) and Engedi and along the banks of the Jordan. Branches of the palm tree were carried at the feast of Tabernacles ( Leviticus 23:40 ). At our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem the crowds took palm branches, and went forth to meet him, crying, "Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord" ( Matthew 21:8 ; John 12:13 ). (See DATE .)
(Heb. gazam). The English word may denote either a caterpillar (as rendered by the LXX.), which wanders like a palmer or pilgrim, or which travels like pilgrims in bands ( Joel 1:4 ; 2:25 ), the wingless locusts, or the migratory locust in its larva state.
a shorter form of "paralysis." Many persons thus afflicted were cured by our Lord ( Matthew 4:24 ; 8:5-13 ; 9:2-7 ; Mark 2:3-11 ; Luke 7:2-10 ; John 5:5-7 ) and the apostles ( Acts 8:7 ; Acts 9:33 Acts 9:34 ).
deliverance from the Lord, one of the spies representing the tribe of Benjamin ( Numbers 13:9 ).
deliverance of God, the prince of Issachar who assisted "to divide the land by inheritance" ( Numbers 34:26 ).
Paul and his company, loosing from Paphos, sailed north-west and came to Perga, the capital of Pamphylia ( Acts 13:13 Acts 13:14 ), a province about the middle of the southern sea-board of Asia Minor. It lay between Lycia on the west and Cilicia on the east. There were strangers from Pamphylia at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost ( 2:10 ).
The "ash-pans" mentioned in Exodus 27:3 were made of copper, and were used in connection with the altar of burnt-offering. The "iron pan" mentioned in Ezekiel 4:3 (marg., "flat plate " or "slice") was probably a mere plate of iron used for baking. The "fire-pans" of Exodus 27:3 were fire-shovels used for taking up coals. The same Hebrew word is rendered "snuff-dishes" ( 25:38 ; 37:23 ) and "censers" ( Leviticus 10:1 ; 16:12 ; Numbers 4:14 , etc.). These were probably simply metal vessels employed for carrying burning embers from the brazen altar to the altar of incense.
( Ezekiel 27:17 ; marg. RSV, "perhaps a kind of confection") the Jews explain as the name of a kind of sweet pastry. Others take it as the name of some place, identifying it with Pingi, on the road between Damascus and Baalbec. "Pannaga" is the Sanscrit name of an aromatic plant (Compare Genesis 43:11 ).
The expression in the Authorized Version ( Isaiah 19:7 ), "the paper reeds by the brooks," is in the Revised Version more correctly "the meadows by the Nile." The words undoubtedly refer to a grassy place on the banks of the Nile fit for pasturage.
In 2 John 1:12 the word is used in its proper sense. The material so referred to was manufactured from the papyrus, and hence its name. The papyrus (Heb. gome) was a kind of bulrush (q.v.). It is mentioned by ( Job 8:11 ) and ( Isaiah 35:7 ). It was used for many purposes. This plant (Papyrus Nilotica) is now unknown in Egypt; no trace of it can be found. The unaccountable disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by ( Isaiah 19:6 Isaiah 19:7 ) as a part of the divine judgment on that land. The most extensive papyrus growths now known are in the marshes at the northern end of the lake of Merom.
the capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary tour ( Acts 13:6 ). It is new Paphos which is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8 miles north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.
(Gr. parabole), a placing beside; a comparison; equivalent to the Heb. mashal, a similitude. In the Old Testament this is used to denote (1) a proverb ( 1 Samuel 10:12 ; 24:13 ; 2 Chr 7:20 ), (2) a prophetic utterance ( Numbers 23:7 ; Ezekiel 20:49 ), (3) an enigmatic saying ( Psalms 78:2 ; Proverbs 1:6 ). In the New Testament, (1) a proverb ( Mark 7:17 ; Luke 4:23 ), (2) a typical emblem ( Hebrews 9:9 ; 11:19 ), (3) a similitude or allegory ( Matthew 15:15 ; 24:32 ; Mark 3:23 ; Luke 5:36 ; 14:7 ); (4) ordinarily, in a more restricted sense, a comparison of earthly with heavenly things, "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning," as in the parables of our Lord.
Instruction by parables has been in use from the earliest times. A large portion of our Lord's public teaching consisted of parables. He himself explains his reasons for this in his answer to the inquiry of the disciples, "Why speakest thou to them in parables?" ( Matthew 13:13-15 ; Mark 4:11 Mark 4:12 ; Luke 8:9 Luke 8:10 ). He followed in so doing the rule of the divine procedures, as recorded in Matthew 13:13 .
The parables uttered by our Lord are all recorded in the synoptical (i.e., the first three) Gospels. The fourth Gospel contains no parable properly so called, although the illustration of the good shepherd ( John 10:1-16 ) has all the essential features of a parable. (See List of Parables in Appendix.)
a Persian word (pardes), properly meaning a "pleasure-ground" or "park" or "king's garden." (See EDEN .) It came in course of time to be used as a name for the world of happiness and rest hereafter ( Luke 23:43 ; 2 co 12:4 ; Revelation 2:7 ). For "garden" in Genesis 2:8 the LXX. has "paradise."
the heifer, a town in Benjamin ( Joshua 18:23 ), supposed to be identical with the ruins called Far'ah, about 6 miles north-east of Jerusalem, in the Wady Far'ah, which is a branch of the Wady Kelt.
abounding in foliage, or abounding in caverns, ( Genesis 21:21 ), a desert tract forming the north-eastern division of the peninsula of Sinai, lying between the 'Arabah on the east and the wilderness of Shur on the west. It is intersected in a north-western direction by the Wady el-'Arish. It bears the modern name of Badiet et-Tih, i.e., "the desert of the wanderings." This district, through which the children of Israel wandered, lay three days' march from Sinai ( Numbers 10:12 Numbers 10:33 ). From Kadesh, in this wilderness, spies (q.v.) were sent to spy the land ( Numbers 13:3 Numbers 13:26 ). Here, long afterwards, David found refuge from Saul ( 1 Samuel 25:1 1 Samuel 25:4 ).
( 1 Chronicles 26:18 ), a place apparently connected with the temple, probably a "suburb" (q.v.), as the word is rendered in 2 Kings 23:11 ; a space between the temple wall and the wall of the court; an open portico into which the chambers of the official persons opened ( 1 Chronicles 26:18 ).
( Isaiah 35:7 ), Heb. sharab, a "mirage", a phenomenon caused by the refraction of the rays of the sun on the glowing sands of the desert, causing them suddenly to assume the appearance of a beautiful lake. It is called by the modern Arabs by the same Hebrew name serab .
a skin prepared for writing on; so called from Pergamos (q.v.), where this was first done ( 2 Timothy 4:13 ).
the forgiveness of sins granted freely ( Isaiah 43:25 ), readily ( Nehemiah 9:17 ; Psalms 86:5 ), abundantly ( Isaiah 55:7 ; Romans 5:20 ). Pardon is an act of a sovereign, in pure sovereignty, granting simply a remission of the penalty due to sin, but securing neither honour nor reward to the pardoned. Justification (q.v.), on the other hand, is the act of a judge, and not of a sovereign, and includes pardon and, at the same time, a title to all the rewards and blessings promised in the covenant of life.
(from the Fr. parler, "to speak") denotes an "audience chamber," but that is not the import of the Hebrew word so rendered. It corresponds to what the Turks call a kiosk, as in Judges 3:20 (the "summer parlour"), or as in the margin of the Revised Version ("the upper chamber of cooling"), a small room built on the roof of the house, with open windows to catch the breeze, and having a door communicating with the outside by which persons seeking an audience may be admitted. While Eglon was resting in such a parlour, Ehud, under pretence of having a message from God to him, was admitted into his presence, and murderously plunged his dagger into his body (21,22).
The "inner parlours" in 1 Chronicles 28:11 were the small rooms or chambers which Solomon built all round two sides and one end of the temple ( 1 Kings 6:5 ), "side chambers;" or they may have been, as some think, the porch and the holy place.
In 1 Samuel 9:22 the Revised Version reads "guest chamber," a chamber at the high place specially used for sacrificial feasts.
strong-fisted, a son of Haman, slain in Shushan ( Esther 9:9 ).
constant, one of the seven "deacons" ( Acts 6:5 ).
an interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan ( Esther 9:7 ).
were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost ( Acts 2:9 ). Parthia lay on the east of Media and south of Hyrcania, which separated it from the Caspian Sea. It corresponded with the western half of the modern Khorasan, and now forms a part of Persia.
(Heb. kore, i.e., "caller"). This bird, unlike our own partridge, is distinguished by "its ringing call-note, which in early morning echoes from cliff to cliff amidst the barrenness of the wilderness of Judea and the glens of the forest of Carmel" hence its Hebrew name. This name occurs only twice in Scripture.
In 1 Samuel 26:20 "David alludes to the mode of chase practised now, as of old, when the partridge, continuously chased, was at length, when fatigued, knocked down by sticks thrown along the ground." It endeavours to save itself "by running, in preference to flight, unless when suddenly started. It is not an inhabitant of the plain or the corn-field, but of rocky hill-sides" (Tristram's Nat. Hist.).
In Jeremiah 17:11 the prophet is illustrating the fact that riches unlawfully acquired are precarious and short-lived. The exact nature of the illustration cannot be precisely determined. Some interpret the words as meaning that the covetous man will be as surely disappointed as the partridge which gathers in eggs, not of her own laying, and is unable to hatch them; others (Tristram), with more probability, as denoting that the man who enriches himself by unjust means "will as surely be disappointed as the partridge which commences to sit, but is speedily robbed of her hopes of a brood" by her eggs being stolen away from her.
The commonest partridge in Palestine is the Caccabis saxatilis, the Greek partridge. The partridge of the wilderness (Ammo-perdix heyi) is a smaller species. Both are essentially mountain and rock birds, thus differing from the English partridge, which loves cultivated fields.
flourishing, the father of Jehoshaphat, appointed to provide monthly supplies for Solomon from the tribe of Issachar ( 1 Kings 4:17 ).
the name of a country from which Solomon obtained gold for the temple ( 2 Chronicles 3:6 ). Some have identified it with Ophir, but it is uncertain whether it is even the name of a place. It may simply, as some think, denote "Oriental regions."
clearing, one of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher ( 1 Chronicles 7:33 ).
1. The son of Immer (probably the same as Amariah, Nehemiah 10:3 ; 12:2 ), the head of one of the priestly courses, was "chief governor [Heb. paqid nagid, meaning "deputy governor"] of the temple" ( Jeremiah 20:1 Jeremiah 20:2 ). At this time the nagid , or "governor," of the temple was Seraiah the high priest ( 1 Chronicles 6:14 ), and Pashur was his paqid , or "deputy." Enraged at the plainness with which Jeremiah uttered his solemn warnings of coming judgements, because of the abounding iniquity of the times, Pashur ordered the temple police to seize him, and after inflicting on him corporal punishment (forty stripes save one, Deuteronomy 25:3 ; Compare 2 Corinthians 11:24 ), to put him in the stocks in the high gate of Benjamin, where he remained all night. On being set free in the morning, Jeremiah went to Pashur ( Jeremiah 20:3 Jeremiah 20:5 ), and announced to him that God had changed his name to Magor-missabib, i.e., "terror on every side." The punishment that fell upon him was probably remorse, when he saw the ruin he had brought upon his country by advising a close alliance with Egypt in opposition to the counsels of ( Jeremiah 20:4-6 ). He was carried captive to Babylon, and died there.
3. The father of Gedaliah. He was probably the same as (1).
denotes in Joshua 22:11 , as is generally understood, the place where the children of Israel passed over Jordan. The words "the passage of" are, however, more correctly rendered "by the side of," or "at the other side of," thus designating the position of the great altar erected by the eastern tribes on their return home. This word also designates the fords of the Jordan to the south of the Sea of Galilee ( Judges 12:5 Judges 12:6 ), and a pass or rocky defile ( 1 Samuel 13:23 ; 14:4 ). "Passages" in Jeremiah 22:20 is in the Revised Version more correctly "Abarim" (q.v.), a proper name.
Only once found, in Acts 1:3 , meaning suffering, referring to the sufferings of our Lord.
the name given to the chief of the three great historical annual festivals of the Jews. It was kept in remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the Israelites ( Exodus 12:13 ) when the first born of all the Egyptians were destroyed. It is called also the "feast of unleavened bread" ( Exodus 23:15 ; Mark 14:1 ; Acts 12:3 ), because during its celebration no leavened bread was to be eaten or even kept in the household ( Exodus 12:15 ). The word afterwards came to denote the lamb that was slain at the feast ( Mark 14:12-14 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 ).
A detailed account of the institution of this feast is given in Exodus 12 and 13. It was afterwards incorporated in the ceremonial law ( Leviticus 23:4-8 ) as one of the great festivals of the nation. In after times many changes seem to have taken place as to the mode of its celebration as compared with its first celebration (Compare Deuteronomy 16:2 Deuteronomy 16:5 Deuteronomy 16:6 ; 2 Chr 30:16 ; Leviticus 23:10-14 ; Numbers 9:10 Numbers 9:11 ; 28:16-24 ). Again, the use of wine ( Luke 22:17 Luke 22:20 ), of sauce with the bitter herbs ( John 13:26 ), and the service of praise were introduced.
There is recorded only one celebration of this feast between the Exodus and the entrance into Canaan, namely, that mentioned in Numbers 9:5 . (See JOSIAH .) It was primarily a commemorative ordinance, reminding the children of Israel of their deliverance out of Egypt; but it was, no doubt, also a type of the great deliverance wrought by the Messiah for all his people from the doom of death on account of sin, and from the bondage of sin itself, a worse than Egyptian bondage ( 1 Corinthians 5:7 ; John 1:29 ; 19:32-36 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ; Galatians 4:4 Galatians 4:5 ). The appearance of Jerusalem on the occasion of the Passover in the time of our Lord is thus fittingly described: "The city itself and the neighbourhood became more and more crowded as the feast approached, the narrow streets and dark arched bazaars showing the same throng of men of all nations as when Jesus had first visited Jerusalem as a boy. Even the temple offered a strange sight at this season, for in parts of the outer courts a wide space was covered with pens for sheep, goats, and cattle to be used for offerings. Sellers shouted the merits of their beasts, sheep bleated, oxen lowed. Sellers of doves also had a place set apart for them. Potters offered a choice from huge stacks of clay dishes and ovens for roasting and eating the Passover lamb. Booths for wine, oil, salt, and all else needed for sacrifices invited customers. Persons going to and from the city shortened their journey by crossing the temple grounds, often carrying burdens...Stalls to change foreign money into the shekel of the temple, which alone could be paid to the priests, were numerous, the whole confusion making the sanctuary like a noisy market" (Geikie's Life of Christ).
a city on the south-west coast of Lycia at which Paul landed on his return from his third missionary journey ( Acts 21:1 Acts 21:2 ). Here he found a larger vessel, which was about to sail across the open sea to the coast of Phoenicia. In this vessel he set forth, and reached the city of Tyre in perhaps two or three days.
the name generally given to Upper Egypt (the Thebaid of the Greeks), as distinguished from Matsor, or Lower Egypt ( Isaiah 11:11 ; Jeremiah 44:1 Jeremiah 44:15 ; Ezekiel 30:14 ), the two forming Mizraim. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled "in the country of Pathros" and other parts of Egypt.
a small rocky and barren island, one of the group called the "Sporades," in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned in Scripture only in Revelation 1:9 . It was on this island, to which John was banished by the emperor Domitian (A.D. 95), that he received from God the wondrous revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally invested it with the deepest interest for all time. It is now called Patmo. (See JOHN .)
a name employed in the New Testament with reference to Abraham ( Hebrews 7:4 ), the sons of Jacob ( Acts 7:8 Acts 7:9 ), and to David ( 2:29 ). This name is generally applied to the progenitors of families or "heads of the fathers" ( Joshua 14:1 ) mentioned in Scripture, and they are spoken of as antediluvian (from Adam to Noah) and post-diluvian (from Noah to Jacob) patriachs. But the expression "the patriarch," by way of eminence, is applied to the twelve sons of Jacob, or to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
"Patriachal longevity presents itself as one of the most striking of the facts concerning mankind which the early history of the Book of Genesis places before us...There is a large amount of consentient tradition to the effect that the life of man was originally far more prolonged than it is at present, extending to at least several hundred years. The Babylonians, Egyptians, and Chinese exaggerated these hundreds into thousands. The Greeks and Romans, with more moderation, limited human life within a thousand or eight hundred years. The Hindus still farther shortened the term. Their books taught that in the first age of the world man was free from diseases, and lived ordinarily four hundred years; in the second age the term of life was reduced from four hundred to three hundred; in the third it became two hundred; in the fourth and last it was brought down to one hundred" (Rawlinson's Historical Illustrations).
a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations ( Romans 16:14 ).
=Saul (q.v.) was born about the same time as our Lord. His circumcision-name was Saul, and probably the name Paul was also given to him in infancy "for use in the Gentile world," as "Saul" would be his Hebrew home-name. He was a native of Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia, a Roman province in the south-east of Asia Minor. That city stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, which was navigable thus far; hence it became a centre of extensive commercial traffic with many countries along the shores of the Mediterranean, as well as with the countries of central Asia Minor. It thus became a city distinguished for the wealth of its inhabitants.
Tarsus was also the seat of a famous university, higher in reputation even than the universities of Athens and Alexandria, the only others that then existed. Here Saul was born, and here he spent his youth, doubtless enjoying the best education his native city could afford. His father was of the straitest sect of the Jews, a Pharisee, of the tribe of Benjamin, of pure and unmixed Jewish blood ( Acts 23:6 ; Phil 3:5 ). We learn nothing regarding his mother; but there is reason to conclude that she was a pious woman, and that, like-minded with her husband, she exercised all a mother influence in moulding the character of her son, so that he could afterwards speak of himself as being, from his youth up, "touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless" (Phil 3:6 ).
We read of his sister and his sister's son ( Acts 23:16 ), and of other relatives ( Romans 16:7 Romans 16:11 Romans 16:12 ). Though a Jew, his father was a Roman citizen. How he obtained this privilege we are not informed. "It might be bought, or won by distinguished service to the state, or acquired in several other ways; at all events, his son was freeborn. It was a valuable privilege, and one that was to prove of great use to Paul, although not in the way in which his father might have been expected to desire him to make use of it." Perhaps the most natural career for the youth to follow was that of a merchant. "But it was decided that...he should go to college and become a rabbi, that is, a minister, a teacher, and a lawyer all in one."
According to Jewish custom, however, he learned a trade before entering on the more direct preparation for the sacred profession. The trade he acquired was the making of tents from goats' hair cloth, a trade which was one of the commonest in Tarsus.
His preliminary education having been completed, Saul was sent, when about thirteen years of age probably, to the great Jewish school of sacred learning at Jerusalem as a student of the law. Here he became a pupil of the celebrated rabbi Gamaliel, and here he spent many years in an elaborate study of the Scriptures and of the many questions concerning them with which the rabbis exercised themselves. During these years of diligent study he lived "in all good conscience," unstained by the vices of that great city.
After the period of his student-life expired, he probably left Jerusalem for Tarsus, where he may have been engaged in connection with some synagogue for some years. But we find him back again at Jerusalem very soon after the death of our Lord. Here he now learned the particulars regarding the crucifixion, and the rise of the new sect of the "Nazarenes."
For some two years after Pentecost, Christianity was quietly spreading its influence in Jerusalem. At length Stephen, one of the seven deacons, gave forth more public and aggressive testimony that Jesus was the Messiah, and this led to much excitement among the Jews and much disputation in their synagogues. Persecution arose against Stephen and the followers of Christ generally, in which Saul of Tarsus took a prominent part. He was at this time probably a member of the great Sanhedrin, and became the active leader in the furious persecution by which the rulers then sought to exterminate Christianity.
But the object of this persecution also failed. "They that were scattered abroad went everywhere preaching the word." The anger of the persecutor was thereby kindled into a fiercer flame. Hearing that fugitives had taken refuge in Damascus, he obtained from the chief priest letters authorizing him to proceed thither on his persecuting career. This was a long journey of about 130 miles, which would occupy perhaps six days, during which, with his few attendants, he steadily went onward, "breathing out threatenings and slaughter." But the crisis of his life was at hand. He had reached the last stage of his journey, and was within sight of Damascus. As he and his companions rode on, suddenly at mid-day a brilliant light shone round them, and Saul was laid prostrate in terror on the ground, a voice sounding in his ears, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" The risen Saviour was there, clothed in the vesture of his glorified humanity. In answer to the anxious inquiry of the stricken persecutor, "Who art thou, Lord?" he said, "I am Jesus whom thou persecutest" ( Acts 9:5 ; 22:8 ; 26:15 ).
This was the moment of his conversion, the most solemn in all his life. Blinded by the dazzling light ( Acts 9:8 ), his companions led him into the city, where, absorbed in deep thought for three days, he neither ate nor drank ( 9:11 ). Ananias, a disciple living in Damascus, was informed by a vision of the change that had happened to Saul, and was sent to him to open his eyes and admit him by baptism into the Christian church ( 9:11-16 ). The whole purpose of his life was now permanently changed.
Immediately after his conversion he retired into the solitudes of Arabia ( Galatians 1:17 ), perhaps of "Sinai in Arabia," for the purpose, probably, of devout study and meditation on the marvellous revelation that had been made to him. "A veil of thick darkness hangs over this visit to Arabia. Of the scenes among which he moved, of the thoughts and occupations which engaged him while there, of all the circumstances of a crisis which must have shaped the whole tenor of his after-life, absolutely nothing is known. 'Immediately,' says St. Paul, 'I went away into Arabia.' The historian passes over the incident [Compare Acts 9:23 and 1 Kings 11:38 1 Kings 11:39 ]. It is a mysterious pause, a moment of suspense, in the apostle's history, a breathless calm, which ushers in the tumultuous storm of his active missionary life." Coming back, after three years, to Damascus, he began to preach the gospel "boldly in the name of Jesus" ( Acts 9:27 ), but was soon obliged to flee ( 9:25 ; 2 co. 11:33 ) from the Jews and betake himself to Jerusalem. Here he tarried for three weeks, but was again forced to flee ( Acts 9:28 Acts 9:29 ) from persecution. He now returned to his native Tarsus ( Galatians 1:21 ), where, for probably about three years, we lose sight of him. The time had not yet come for his entering on his great life-work of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles.
At length the city of Antioch, the capital of Syria, became the scene of great Christian activity. There the gospel gained a firm footing, and the cause of Christ prospered. Barnabas (q.v.), who had been sent from Jerusalem to superintend the work at Antioch, found it too much for him, and remembering Saul, he set out to Tarsus to seek for him. He readily responded to the call thus addressed to him, and came down to Antioch, which for "a whole year" became the scene of his labours, which were crowned with great success. The disciples now, for the first time, were called "Christians" ( Acts 11:26 ).
The church at Antioch now proposed to send out missionaries to the Gentiles, and Saul and Barnabas, with John Mark as their attendant, were chosen for this work. This was a great epoch in the history of the church. Now the disciples began to give effect to the Master's command: "Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature."
The three missionaries went forth on the first missionary tour. They sailed from Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch, across to Cyprus, some 80 miles to the south-west. Here at Paphos, Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul, was converted, and now Saul took the lead, and was ever afterwards called Paul. The missionaries now crossed to the mainland, and then proceeded 6 or 7 miles up the river Cestrus to Perga ( Acts 13:13 ), where John Mark deserted the work and returned to Jerusalem. The two then proceeded about 100 miles inland, passing through Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia. The towns mentioned in this tour are the Pisidian Antioch, where Paul delivered his first address of which we have any record ( 13:16-51 ; comp 10:30-43 ), Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. They returned by the same route to see and encourage the converts they had made, and ordain elders in every city to watch over the churches which had been gathered. From Perga they sailed direct for Antioch, from which they had set out.
After remaining "a long time", probably till A.D. 50 or 51, in Antioch, a great controversy broke out in the church there regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the Mosaic law. For the purpose of obtaining a settlement of this question, Paul and Barnabas were sent as deputies to consult the church at Jerusalem. The council or synod which was there held ( Acts 15 ) decided against the Judaizing party; and the deputies, accompanied by Judas and Silas, returned to Antioch, bringing with them the decree of the council.
After a short rest at Antioch, Paul said to Barnabas: "Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do." Mark proposed again to accompany them; but Paul refused to allow him to go. Barnabas was resolved to take Mark, and thus he and Paul had a sharp contention. They separated, and never again met. Paul, however, afterwards speaks with honour of Barnabas, and sends for Mark to come to him at Rome ( Colossians 4:10 ; 2 Tim 4:11 ).
Paul took with him Silas, instead of Barnabas, and began his second missionary journey about A.D. 51. This time he went by land, revisiting the churches he had already founded in Asia. But he longed to enter into "regions beyond," and still went forward through Phrygia and Galatia ( 16:6 ). Contrary to his intention, he was constrained to linger in Galatia (q.v.), on account of some bodily affliction ( Galatians 4:13 Galatians 4:14 ). Bithynia, a populous province on the shore of the Black Sea, lay now before him, and he wished to enter it; but the way was shut, the Spirit in some manner guiding him in another direction, till he came down to the shores of the AEgean and arrived at Troas, on the north-western coast of Asia Minor ( Acts 16:8 ). Of this long journey from Antioch to Troas we have no account except some references to it in his Epistle to the ( Galatians 4:13 ).
As he waited at Troas for indications of the will of God as to his future movements, he saw, in the vision of the night, a man from the opposite shores of Macedonia standing before him, and heard him cry, "Come over, and help us" ( Acts 16:9 ). Paul recognized in this vision a message from the Lord, and the very next day set sail across the Hellespont, which separated him from Europe, and carried the tidings of the gospel into the Western world. In Macedonia, churches were planted in Philippi, Thessalonica, and Berea. Leaving this province, Paul passed into Achaia, "the paradise of genius and renown." He reached Athens, but quitted it after, probably, a brief sojourn ( 17:17-31 ). The Athenians had received him with cold disdain, and he never visited that city again. He passed over to Corinth, the seat of the Roman government of Achaia, and remained there a year and a half, labouring with much success. While at Corinth, he wrote his two epistles to the church of Thessalonica, his earliest apostolic letters, and then sailed for Syria, that he might be in time to keep the feast of Pentecost at Jerusalem. He was accompanied by Aquila and Priscilla, whom he left at Ephesus, at which he touched, after a voyage of thirteen or fifteen days. He landed at Caesarea, and went up to Jerusalem, and having "saluted the church" there, and kept the feast, he left for Antioch, where he abode "some time" ( Acts 18:20-23 ).
He then began his third missionary tour. He journeyed by land in the "upper coasts" (the more eastern parts) of Asia Minor, and at length made his way to Ephesus, where he tarried for no less than three years, engaged in ceaseless Christian labour. "This city was at the time the Liverpool of the Mediterranean. It possessed a splendid harbour, in which was concentrated the traffic of the sea which was then the highway of the nations; and as Liverpool has behind her the great towns of Lancashire, so had Ephesus behind and around her such cities as those mentioned along with her in the epistles to the churches in the book of Revelation, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. It was a city of vast wealth, and it was given over to every kind of pleasure, the fame of its theatres and race-course being world-wide" (Stalker's Life of St. Paul). Here a "great door and effectual" was opened to the apostle. His fellow-labourers aided him in his work, carrying the gospel to Colosse and Laodicea and other places which they could reach.
Very shortly before his departure from Ephesus, the apostle wrote his First Epistle to the Corinthians (q.v.). The silversmiths, whose traffic in the little images which they made was in danger (see DEMETRIUS), organized a riot against Paul, and he left the city, and proceeded to Troas ( 2 Corinthians 2:12 ), whence after some time he went to meet Titus in Macedonia. Here, in consequence of the report Titus brought from Corinth, he wrote his second epistle to that church. Having spent probably most of the summer and autumn in Macedonia, visiting the churches there, specially the churches of Philippi, Thessalonica, and Berea, probably penetrating into the interior, to the shores of the Adriatic ( Romans 15:19 ), he then came into Greece, where he abode three month, spending probably the greater part of this time in Corinth ( Acts 20:2 ). During his stay in this city he wrote his Epistle to the Galatians, and also the great Epistle to the Romans. At the end of the three months he left Achaia for Macedonia, thence crossed into Asia Minor, and touching at Miletus, there addressed the Ephesian presbyters, whom he had sent for to meet him ( Acts 20:17 ), and then sailed for Tyre, finally reaching Jerusalem, probably in the spring of A.D. 58.
While at Jerusalem, at the feast of Pentecost, he was almost murdered by a Jewish mob in the temple. (See TEMPLE, HEROD'S.) Rescued from their violence by the Roman commandant, he was conveyed as a prisoner to Caesarea, where, from various causes, he was detained a prisoner for two years in Herod's praetorium ( Acts 23:35 ). "Paul was not kept in close confinement; he had at least the range of the barracks in which he was detained. There we can imagine him pacing the ramparts on the edge of the Mediterranean, and gazing wistfully across the blue waters in the direction of Macedonia, Achaia, and Ephesus, where his spiritual children were pining for him, or perhaps encountering dangers in which they sorely needed his presence. It was a mysterious providence which thus arrested his energies and condemned the ardent worker to inactivity; yet we can now see the reason for it. Paul was needing rest. After twenty years of incessant evangelization, he required leisure to garner the harvest of experience...During these two years he wrote nothing; it was a time of internal mental activity and silent progress" (Stalker's Life of St. Paul).
At the end of these two years Felix (q.v.) was succeeded in the governorship of Palestine by Porcius Festus, before whom the apostle was again heard. But judging it right at this crisis to claim the privilege of a Roman citizen, he appealed to the emperor ( Acts 25:11 ). Such an appeal could not be disregarded, and Paul was at once sent on to Rome under the charge of one Julius, a centurion of the "Augustan cohort." After a long and perilous voyage, he at length reached the imperial city in the early spring, probably, of A.D. 61. Here he was permitted to occupy his own hired house, under constant military custody. This privilege was accorded to him, no doubt, because he was a Roman citizen, and as such could not be put into prison without a trial. The soldiers who kept guard over Paul were of course changed at frequent intervals, and thus he had the opportunity of preaching the gospel to many of them during these "two whole years," and with the blessed result of spreading among the imperial guards, and even in Caesar's household, an interest in the truth (Phil 1:13 ). His rooms were resorted to by many anxious inquirers, both Jews and Gentiles ( Acts 28:23 Acts 28:30 Acts 28:31 ), and thus his imprisonment "turned rather to the furtherance of the gospel," and his "hired house" became the centre of a gracious influence which spread over the whole city. According to a Jewish tradition, it was situated on the borders of the modern Ghetto, which has been the Jewish quarters in Rome from the time of Pompey to the present day. During this period the apostle wrote his epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and to Philemon, and probably also to the Hebrews.
This first imprisonment came at length to a close, Paul having been acquitted, probably because no witnesses appeared against him. Once more he set out on his missionary labours, probably visiting western and eastern Europe and Asia Minor. During this period of freedom he wrote his First Epistle to Timothy and his Epistle to Titus. The year of his release was signalized by the burning of Rome, which Nero saw fit to attribute to the Christians. A fierce persecution now broke out against the Christians. Paul was siezed, and once more conveyed to Rome a prisoner. During this imprisonment he probably wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy, the last he ever wrote. "There can be little doubt that he appered again at Nero's bar, and this time the charge did not break down. In all history there is not a more startling illustration of the irony of human life than this scene of Paul at the bar of Nero. On the judgment-seat, clad in the imperial purple, sat a man who, in a bad world, had attained the eminence of being the very worst and meanest being in it, a man stained with every crime, a man whose whole being was so steeped in every nameable and unnameable vice, that body and soul of him were, as some one said at the time, nothing but a compound of mud and blood; and in the prisoner's dock stood the best man the world possessed, his hair whitened with labours for the good of men and the glory of God. The trial ended: Paul was condemned, and delivered over to the executioner. He was led out of the city, with a crowd of the lowest rabble at his heels. The fatal spot was reached; he knelt beside the block; the headsman's axe gleamed in the sun and fell; and the head of the apostle of the world rolled down in the dust" (probably A.D. 66), four years before the fall of Jerusalem.
It was the custom of the Roman governors to erect their tribunals in open places, as the market-place, the circus, or even the highway. Pilate caused his seat of judgment to be set down in a place called "the Pavement" ( John 19:13 ) i.e., a place paved with a mosaic of coloured stones. It was probably a place thus prepared in front of the "judgment hall." (See GABBATHA .)
(Heb. shelamim), detailed regulations regarding given in Leviticus 3 ; Leviticus 7:11-21 Leviticus 7:29-34 . They were of three kinds, (1) eucharistic or thanksgiving offerings, expressive of gratitude for blessings received; (2) in fulfilment of a vow, but expressive also of thanks for benefits recieved; and (3) free-will offerings, something spontaneously devoted to God.
(Heb. tuk, apparently borrowed from the Tamil tokei). This bird is indigenous to India. It was brought to Solomon by his ships from Tarshish ( 1 Kings 10:22 ; 2 Chr 9:21 ), which in this case was probably a district on the Malabar coast of India, or in Ceylon. The word so rendered in Job 39:13 literally means wild, tumultuous crying, and properly denotes the female ostrich (q.v.).
(Heb. gabish, Job 28:18 ; Gr. margarites, Matthew 7:6 ; 13:46 ; Revelation 21:21 ). The pearl oyster is found in the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Its shell is the "mother of pearl," which is of great value for ornamental purposes ( 1 Timothy 2:9 ; Revelation 17:4 ). Each shell contains eight or ten pearls of various sizes.
as used in the phrase "peculiar people" in 1 Peter 2:9 , is derived from the Lat. peculium, and denotes, as rendered in the Revised Version ("a people for God's own possession"), a special possession or property. The church is the "property" of God, his "purchased possession" ( Ephesians 1:14 ; RSV, "God's own possession").
redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud, a prince of Naphtali ( Numbers 34:28 ).
redemption of the Lord.
1. The father of Zebudah, who was the wife of Josiah and mother of king Jehoiakim ( 2 Kings 23:36 ).
2. The father of Zerubbabel ( 1 Chronicles 3:17-19 ).
3. . The father of Joel, ruler of the half-tribe of Manasseh ( 1 Chronicles 27:20 ).
4. Nehemiah 3:25 .
5. A Levite ( 8:4 ).
6. A Benjamite ( 11:7 ).
7. A Levite ( 13:13 ).
open-eyed, the son of Remaliah a captain in the army of Pekahiah, king of Israel, whom he slew, with the aid of a band of Gileadites, and succeeded (B.C. 758) on the throne ( 2 Kings 15:25 ). Seventeen years after this he entered into an alliance with Rezin, king of Syria, and took part with him in besieging Jerusalem ( 2 Kings 15:37 ; 16:5 ). But Tiglath-pilser, who was in alliance with Ahaz, king of Judah, came up against Pekah, and carried away captive many of the inhabitants of his kingdom ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). This was the beginning of the "Captivity." Soon after this Pekah was put to death by Hoshea, the son of Elah, who usurped the throne ( 2 Kings 15:30 ; 16:1-9 . Compare Isaiah 7:16 ; 8:4 ; 9:12 ). He is supposed by some to have been the "shephard" mentioned in Zechariah 11:16 .
the Lord opened his eyes, the son and successor of Menahem on the throne of Israel. He was murdered in the royal palace of Samaria by Pekah, one of the captains of his army ( 2 Kings 15:23-26 ), after a reign of two years (B.C. 761-759). He "did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord."
probably a place in Babylonia ( Jeremiah 50:21 ; Ezekiel 23:23 ). It is the opinion, however, of some that this word signifies "visitation," "punishment," and allegorically "designates Babylon as the city which was to be destroyed."
distinguished of the Lord.
1. One of David's posterity ( 1 Chronicles 3:24 ).
2. A Levite who expounded the law ( Nehemiah 8:7 ).
deliverance of the Lord.
1. A son of Hananiah and grandson of Zerubbabel ( 1 Chronicles 3:21 ).
2. A captain of "the sons of Simeon" ( 4:42 ).
3. Nehemiah 10:22 .
4. One of the twenty-five princes of the people against whom Ezekiel prophesied on account of their wicked counsel (Ezek. 11:1-13 ).
division, one of the sons of Eber; so called because "in his days was the earth divided" ( Genesis 10:25 ). Possibly he may have lived at the time of the dispersion from Babel. But more probably the reference is to the dispersion of the two races which sprang from Eber, the one spreading towards Mesopotamia and Syria, and the other southward into Arabia.
1. A descendant of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 2:47 ).
2. A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:3 ).
1. A Reubenite whose son was one of the conspirators against Moses and Aaron ( Numbers 16:1 ).
2. One of the sons of Jonathan ( 1 Chronicles 2:33 ).
mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the time of David. The word probably means "runners" or "couriers," and may denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard, they were also sometimes employed as couriers ( 2 Samuel 8:18 ; ( 2 Samuel 1:38 2 Samuel 1:44 ; 1 Chronicles 18:17 ). Some, however, think that these are the names simply of two Philistine tribes from which David selected his body-guard. They are mentioned along with the Gittites ( 2 Samuel 15:18 ), another body of foreign troops whom David gathered round him.
are frequently met with at the waters of Merom and the Sea of Galilee. The pelican is ranked among unclean birds ( Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:17 ). It is of an enormous size, being about 6 feet long, with wings stretching out over 12 feet. The Hebrew name (kaath, i.e., "vomiter") of this bird is incorrectly rendered "cormorant" in the Authorized Version of Isaiah 34:11 and Zephaniah 2:14 , but correctly in the Revised Version. It receives its Hebrew name from its habit of storing in its pouch large quantities of fish, which it disgorges when it feeds its young. Two species are found on the Syrian coast, the Pelicanus onocrotalus, or white pelican, and the Pelicanus crispus, or Dalmatian pelican.
(Gr. denarion), a silver coin of the value of about 7 1/2d. or 8d. of our present money. It is thus rendered in the New Testament, and is more frequently mentioned than any other coin ( Matthew 18:28 ; Matthew 20:2 Matthew 20:9 Matthew 20:13 ; Mark 6:37 ; 14:5 , etc.). It was the daily pay of a Roman soldier in the time of Christ. In the reign of Edward III. an English penny was a labourer's day's wages. This was the "tribute money" with reference to which our Lord said, "Whose image and superscription is this?" When they answered, "Caesar's," he replied, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's; and to God the things that are God's" ( Matthew 22:19 ; Mark 12:15 ).
the five-fold volume, consisting of the first five books of the Old Testament. This word does not occur in Scripture, nor is it certainly known when the roll was thus divided into five portions Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Probably that was done by the LXX. translators. Some modern critics speak of a Hexateuch, introducing the Book of Joshua as one of the group. But this book is of an entirely different character from the other books, and has a different author. It stands by itself as the first of a series of historical books beginning with the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan. (See JOSHUA .)
The books composing the Pentateuch are properly but one book, the "Law of Moses," the "Book of the Law of Moses," the "Book of Moses," or, as the Jews designate it, the "Torah" or "Law." That in its present form it "proceeds from a single author is proved by its plan and aim, according to which its whole contents refer to the covenant concluded between Jehovah and his people, by the instrumentality of Moses, in such a way that everything before his time is perceived to be preparatory to this fact, and all the rest to be the development of it. Nevertheless, this unity has not been stamped upon it as a matter of necessity by the latest redactor: it has been there from the beginning, and is visible in the first plan and in the whole execution of the work.", Keil, Einl. i.d. A. T.
A certain school of critics have set themselves to reconstruct the books of the Old Testament. By a process of "scientific study" they have discovered that the so-called historical books of the Old Testament are not history at all, but a miscellaneous collection of stories, the inventions of many different writers, patched together by a variety of editors! As regards the Pentateuch, they are not ashamed to attribute fraud, and even conspiracy, to its authors, who sought to find acceptance to their work which was composed partly in the age of Josiah, and partly in that of Ezra and Nehemiah, by giving it out to be the work of Moses! This is not the place to enter into the details of this controversy. We may say frankly, however, that we have no faith in this "higher criticism." It degrades the books of the Old Testament below the level of fallible human writings, and the arguments on which its speculations are built are altogether untenable.
The evidences in favour of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch are conclusive. We may thus state some of them briefly:
1. These books profess to have been written by Moses in the name of God ( Exodus 17:14 ; Exodus 24:3 Exodus 24:4 Exodus 24:7 ; Exodus 32:7-10 Exodus 32:30-34 ; 34:27 ; Leviticus 26:46 ; 27:34 ; Deuteronomy 31:9 Deuteronomy 31:24 Deuteronomy 31:25 ).
2. This also is the uniform and persistent testimony of the Jews of all sects in all ages and countries (Compare Joshua 8:31 Joshua 8:32 ; 1 Kings 2:3 ; Jeremiah 7:22 ; Ezra 6:18 ; Nehemiah 8:1 ; Malachi 4:4 ; Matthew 22:24 ; Acts 15:21 ).
3. Our Lord plainly taught the Mosaic authorship of these books ( Matthew 5:17 Matthew 5:18 ; 19:8 ; Matthew 22:31 Matthew 22:32 ; 23:2 ; Mark 10:9 ; 12:26 ; Luke 16:31 ; 20:37 ; Luke 24:26 Luke 24:27 Luke 24:44 ; John 3:14 ; John 5:45 John 5:46 John 5:47 ; John 6:32 John 6:49 ; John 7:19 John 7:22 ). In the face of this fact, will any one venture to allege either that Christ was ignorant of the composition of the Bible, or that, knowing the true state of the case, he yet encouraged the people in the delusion they clung to?
4. From the time of Joshua down to the time of Ezra there is, in the intermediate historical books, a constant reference to the Pentateuch as the "Book of the Law of Moses." This is a point of much importance, inasmuch as the critics deny that there is any such reference; and hence they deny the historical character of the Pentateuch. As regards the Passover, e.g., we find it frequently spoken of or alluded to in the historical books following the Pentateuch, showing that the "Law of Moses" was then certainly known. It was celebrated in the time of Joshua ( Joshua 5:10 , cf 4:19 ), Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 30 ), Josiah ( 2 Kings 23 ; 2 Chr. 35 ), and Zerubbabel ( Ezra 6:19-22 ), and is referred to in such passages as 2 Kings 23:22 ; 2 Chr 35:18 ; 1 Kings 9:25 ("three times in a year"); 2 Chronicles 8:13 . Similarly we might show frequent references to the Feast of Tabernacles and other Jewish institutions, although we do not admit that any valid argument can be drawn from the silence of Scripture in such a case. An examination of the following texts, 1 Kings 2:9 ; 2 Kings 14:6 ; 2 Chr 23:18 ; 25:4 ; 34:14 ; Ezra 3:2 ; 7:6 ; Daniel 9:11 Daniel 9:13 , will also plainly show that the "Law of Moses" was known during all these centuries. Granting that in the time of Moses there existed certain oral traditions or written records and documents which he was divinely led to make use of in his history, and that his writing was revised by inspired successors, this will fully account for certain peculiarities of expression which critics have called "anachronisms" and "contradictions," but in no way militates against the doctrine that Moses was the original author of the whole of the Pentateuch. It is not necessary for us to affirm that the whole is an original composition; but we affirm that the evidences clearly demonstrate that Moses was the author of those books which have come down to us bearing his name. The Pentateuch is certainly the basis and necessary preliminary of the whole of the Old Testament history and literature. (See DEUTERONOMY .)
i.e., "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament ( Acts 2:1 ; 20:16 ; 1 Corinthians 16:8 ). The festival so named is first spoken of in Exodus 23:16 as "the feast of harvest," and again in Exodus 34:22 as "the day of the firstfruits" ( Numbers 28:26 ). From the sixteenth of the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven complete weeks, i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and this feast was held on the fiftieth day. The manner in which it was to be kept is described in Leviticus 23:15-19 ; Numbers 28:27-29 . Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion, every one was to bring to the Lord his "tribute of a free-will offering" ( Deuteronomy 16:9-11 ). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature was the offering of "two leavened loaves" made from the new corn of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved before the Lord as a thank offering.
The day of Pentecost is noted in the Christian Church as the day on which the Spirit descended upon the apostles, and on which, under Peter's preaching, so many thousands were converted in Jerusalem ( Acts 2 ).
face of God, a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the Jordan and north of the river Jabbok. It is also called "Peniel." Here Jacob wrestled ( Genesis 32:24-32 ) "with a man" ("the angel", Hosea 12:4 . Jacob says of him, "I have seen God face to face") "till the break of day."
A town was afterwards built there ( Judges 8:8 ; 1 Kings 12:25 ). The men of this place refused to succour Gideon and his little army when they were in pursuit of the Midianites ( Judges 8:1-21 ). On his return, Gideon slew the men of this city and razed its lofty watch-tower to the ground.
1. A mountain peak ( Numbers 23:28 ) to which Balak led Balaam as a last effort to induce him to pronounce a curse upon Israel. When he looked on the tribes encamped in the acacia groves below him, he could not refrain from giving utterance to a remarkable benediction ( 24:1-9 ). Balak was more than ever enraged at Balaam, and bade him flee for his life. But before he went he gave expression to that wonderful prediction regarding the future of this mysterious people, whose "goodly tents" were spread out before him, and the coming of a "Star" out of Jacob and a "Sceptre" out of Israel ( 24:14-17 ).
=Pharez, (q.v.), breach, the son of Judah ( Nehemiah 11:4 ). "The chief of all the captains of the host for the first month" in the reign of David was taken from his family ( 1 Chronicles 27:3 ). Four hundred and sixty-eight of his "sons" came back from captivity with Zerubbabel, who himself was one of them ( 1 Chronicles 9:4 ; Nehemiah 11:6 ).
the breach of Uzzah, a place where God "burst forth upon Uzzah, so that he died," when he rashly "took hold" of the ark ( 2 Samuel 6:6-8 ). It was not far from Kirjath-jearim (q.v.).
See SANCTIFICATION .
were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic enjoyment ( Exodus 30:35-37 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Cant 3:6 ; Isaiah 57:9 ); and also in embalming the dead, and in other funeral ceremonies ( Mark 14:8 ; Luke 24:1 ; John 19:39 ).
the capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. Paul and his companions landed at this place from Cyprus on their first missionary journey ( Acts 13:13 Acts 13:14 ), and here Mark forsook the party and returned to Jerusalem. Some time afterwards Paul and Barnabas again visited this city and "preached the word" ( 14:25 ). It stood on the banks of the river Cestrus, some 7 miles from its mouth, and was a place of some commercial importance. It is now a ruin, called Eski Kalessi.
the chief city of Mysia, in Asia Minor. One of the "seven churches" was planted here ( Revelation 1:11 ; 2:17 ). It was noted for its wickedness, insomuch that our Lord says "Satan's seat" was there. The church of Pergamos was rebuked for swerving from the truth and embracing the doctrines of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes. Antipas, Christ's "faithful martyr," here sealed his testimony with his blood.
This city stood on the banks of the river Caicus, about 20 miles from the sea. It is now called Bergama, and has a population of some twenty thousand, of whom about two thousand profess to be Christians. Parchment (q.v.) was first made here, and was called by the Greeks pergamene, from the name of the city.
villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Canaanitish nation inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel. "They were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time." They were to be driven out of the land by the descendants of Abraham ( Genesis 15:20 ; Exodus 3:8 Exodus 3:17 ; 23:23 ; 33:2 ; 34:11 ). They are afterwards named among the conquered tribes ( Joshua 24:11 ). Still lingering in the land, however, they were reduced to servitude by Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:20 ).
The first great persecution for religious opinion of which we have any record was that which broke out against the worshippers of God among the Jews in the days of Ahab, when that king, at the instigation of his wife Jezebel, "a woman in whom, with the reckless and licentious habits of an Oriental queen, were united the fiercest and sternest qualities inherent in the old Semitic race", sought in the most relentless manner to extirpate the worship of Jehovah and substitute in its place the worship of Ashtoreth and Baal. Ahab's example in this respect was followed by Manasseh, who "shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another" ( 2 Kings 21:16 ; Compare 24:4 ). In all ages, in one form or another, the people of God have had to suffer persecution. In its earliest history the Christian church passed through many bloody persecutions. Of subsequent centuries in our own and in other lands the same sad record may be made.
Christians are forbidden to seek the propagation of the gospel by force ( Matthew 7:1 ; Luke 9:54-56 ; Romans 14:4 ; James 4:11 James 4:12 ). The words of Psalms 7:13 , "He ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors," ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version, "He maketh his arrows fiery [shafts]."
their certain continuance in a state of grace. Once justified and regenerated, the believer can neither totally nor finally fall away from grace, but will certainly persevere therein and attain everlasting life.
This doctrine is clearly taught in these passages, John 10:28 John 10:29 ; Romans 11:29 ; Phil 1:6 ; 1 Peter 1:5 . It, moreover, follows from a consideration of (1) the immutability of the divine decrees ( Jeremiah 31:3 ; Matthew 24:22-24 ; Acts 13:48 ; Romans 8:30 ); (2) the provisions of the covenant of grace ( Jeremiah 32:40 ; John 10:29 ; 17:2-6 ); (3) the atonement and intercession of Christ ( Isaiah 53:6 Isaiah 53:11 ; Matthew 20:28 ; 1 Peter 2:24 ; John 11:42 ; John 17:11 John 17:15 John 17:20 ; Romans 8:34 ); and (4) the indwelling of the Holy Ghost ( John 14:16 ; 2 co John 1:21 John 1:22 ; 5:5 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; 1 John 3:9 ).
This doctrine is not inconsistent with the truth that the believer may nevertheless fall into grievous sin, and continue therein for some time. (See BACKSLIDE .)
an ancient empire, extending from the Indus to Thrace, and from the Caspian Sea to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Persians were originally a Medic tribe which settled in Persia, on the eastern side of the Persian Gulf. They were Aryans, their language belonging to the eastern division of the Indo-European group. One of their chiefs, Teispes, conquered Elam in the time of the decay of the Assyrian Empire, and established himself in the district of Anzan. His descendants branched off into two lines, one line ruling in Anzan, while the other remained in Persia. Cyrus II., king of Anzan, finally united the divided power, conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylonia, and carried his arms into the far East. His son, Cambyses, added Egypt to the empire, which, however, fell to pieces after his death. It was reconquered and thoroughly organized by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, whose dominions extended from India to the Danube.
a female Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes ( Romans 16:12 ). She is spoken of as "beloved," and as having "laboured much in the Lord."
originally called Simon (=Simeon ,i.e., "hearing"), a very common Jewish name in the New Testament. He was the son of Jona ( Matthew 16:17 ). His mother is nowhere named in Scripture. He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus ( John 1:40-42 ). His native town was Bethsaida, on the western coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged. Here he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was trained to the occupation of a fisher. His father had probably died while he was still young, and he and his brother were brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome ( Matthew 27:56 ; Mark 15:40 ; 16:1 ). There the four youths, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in constant fellowship. Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. They did not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study of the law under any of the rabbis. When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" ( Acts 4:13 ).
"Simon was a Galilean, and he was that out and out...The Galileans had a marked character of their own. They had a reputation for an independence and energy which often ran out into turbulence. They were at the same time of a franker and more transparent disposition than their brethren in the south. In all these respects, in bluntness, impetuosity, headiness, and simplicity, Simon was a genuine Galilean. They spoke a peculiar dialect. They had a difficulty with the guttural sounds and some others, and their pronunciation was reckoned harsh in Judea. The Galilean accent stuck to Simon all through his career. It betrayed him as a follower of Christ when he stood within the judgment-hall ( Mark 14:70 ). It betrayed his own nationality and that of those conjoined with him on the day of Pentecost ( Acts 2:7 )." It would seem that Simon was married before he became an apostle. His wife's mother is referred to ( Matthew 8:14 ; Mark 1:30 ; Luke 4:38 ). He was in all probability accompanied by his wife on his missionary journeys ( 1 Corinthians 9:5 ; Compare 1 Peter 5:13 ).
He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the age of thirty. His house was large enough to give a home to his brother Andrew, his wife's mother, and also to Christ, who seems to have lived with him ( Mark 1:29 Mark 1:36 ; 2:1 ), as well as to his own family. It was apparently two stories high ( 2:4 ).
At Bethabara (RSV, John 1:28 , "Bethany"), beyond Jordan, John the Baptist had borne testimony concerning Jesus as the "Lamb of God" ( John 1:29-36 ). Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus, and abode with him where he was. They were convinced, by his gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he was the Messiah ( Luke 4:22 ; Matthew 7:29 ); and Andrew went forth and found Simon and brought him to Jesus ( John 1:41 ).
Jesus at once recognized Simon, and declared that hereafter he would be called Cephas, an Aramaic name corresponding to the Greek Petros, which means "a mass of rock detached from the living rock." The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him ( Matthew 17:25 ; Mark 14:37 ; Luke 22:31 , comp 21:15-17 ). We are not told what impression the first interview with Jesus produced on the mind of Simon. When we next meet him it is by the Sea of Galilee ( Matthew 4:18-22 ). There the four (Simon and Andrew, James and John) had had an unsuccessful night's fishing. Jesus appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him launch forth and let down the nets. He did so, and enclosed a great multitude of fishes. This was plainly a miracle wrought before Simon's eyes. The awe-stricken disciple cast himself at the feet of Jesus, crying, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord" ( Luke 5:8 ). Jesus addressed him with the assuring words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work. Simon responded at once to the call to become a disciple, and after this we find him in constant attendance on our Lord.
He is next called into the rank of the apostleship, and becomes a "fisher of men" ( Matthew 4:19 ) in the stormy seas of the world of human life ( Matthew 10:2-4 ; Mark 3:13-19 ; Luke 6:13-16 ), and takes a more and more prominent part in all the leading events of our Lord's life. It is he who utters that notable profession of faith at Capernaum ( John 6:66-69 ), and again at Caesarea Philippi ( Matthew 16:13-20 ; Mark 8:27-30 ; Luke 9:18-20 ). This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church."
"From that time forth" Jesus began to speak of his sufferings. For this Peter rebuked him. But our Lord in return rebuked Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any other of his disciples ( Matthew 16:21-23 ; Mark 8:31-33 ). At the close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was transfigured before them. Peter on that occasion, under the impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it is good for us to be here: let us make three tabernacles" ( Matthew 17:1-9 ).
On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of twenty years old and upwards had to pay ( Exodus 30:15 ), came to Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it ( Matthew 17:24-27 ). Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the tax, viz., a stater, or two half-shekels. "That take," said our Lord, "and give unto them for me and thee."
As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John ( Luke 22:7-13 ) into the city to prepare a place where he should keep the feast with his disciples. There he was forewarned of the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell ( 22:31-34 ). He accompanied our Lord from the guest-chamber to the garden of Gethsemane ( Luke 22:39-46 ), which he and the other two who had been witnesses of the transfiguration were permitted to enter with our Lord, while the rest were left without. Here he passed through a strange experience. Under a sudden impulse he cut off the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth to take Jesus. Then follow the scenes of the judgment-hall (54-61) and his bitter grief (62).
He is found in John's company early on the morning of the resurrection. He boldly entered into the empty grave ( John 20:1-10 ), and saw the "linen clothes laid by themselves" ( Luke 24:9-12 ). To him, the first of the apostles, our risen Lord revealed himself, thus conferring on him a signal honour, and showing how fully he was restored to his favour ( Luke 24:34 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 ). We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?" ( John 21:1-19 ). (See LOVE .)
After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he again appears with the others at the ascension ( Acts 1:15-26 ). It was he who proposed that the vacancy caused by the apostasy of Judas should be filled up. He is prominent on the day of Pentecost ( 2:14-40 ). The events of that day "completed the change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall and all the lengthened process of previous training had been slowly making. He is now no more the unreliable, changeful, self-confident man, ever swaying between rash courage and weak timidity, but the stead-fast, trusted guide and director of the fellowship of believers, the intrepid preacher of Christ in Jerusalem and abroad. And now that he is become Cephas indeed, we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5 Acts 10:32 ; 15:14 ), and he is known to us finally as Peter."
After the miracle at the temple gate ( Acts 3 ) persecution arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. He boldly defended himself and his companions at the bar of the council ( Acts 4:19 Acts 4:20 ). A fresh outburst of violence against the Christians ( 5:17-21 ) led to the whole body of the apostles being cast into prison; but during the night they were wonderfully delivered, and were found in the morning teaching in the temple. A second time Peter defended them before the council ( Acts 5:29-32 ), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go."
The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem. After labouring for some time in Samaria, he returned to Jerusalem, and reported to the church there the results of his work ( Acts 8:14-25 ). Here he remained for a period, during which he met Paul for the first time since his conversion ( 9:26-30 ; Galatians 1:18 ). Leaving Jerusalem again, he went forth on a missionary journey to Lydda and Joppa ( Acts 9:32-43 ). He is next called on to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch. 10).
After remaining for some time at Caesarea, he returned to Jerusalem ( Acts 11:1-18 ), where he defended his conduct with reference to the Gentiles. Next we hear of his being cast into prison by Herod Agrippa ( 12:1-19 ); but in the night an angel of the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found refuge in the house of Mary.
He took part in the deliberations of the council in Jerusalem ( Acts 15:1-31 ; Galatians 2:1-10 ) regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the church. This subject had awakened new interest at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem. Here Paul and Peter met again.
We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the Apostles. He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul ( Galatians 2:11-16 ), who "rebuked him to his face."
After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east, and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates ( 1 Peter 5:13 ). There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever at Rome. Where or when he died is not certainly known. Probably he died between A.D. 64 and 67.
This epistle is addressed to "the strangers scattered abroad", i.e., to the Jews of the Dispersion (the Diaspora).
Its object is to confirm its readers in the doctrines they had been already taught. Peter has been called "the apostle of hope," because this epistle abounds with words of comfort and encouragement fitted to sustain a "lively hope." It contains about thirty-five references to the Old Testament.
It was written from Babylon, on the Euphrates, which was at this time one of the chief seats of Jewish learning, and a fitting centre for labour among the Jews. It has been noticed that in the beginning of his epistle Peter names the provinces of Asia Minor in the order in which they would naturally occur to one writing from Babylon. He counsels (1) to steadfastness and perseverance under persecution ( (1-2:10); ); (2) to the practical duties of a holy life ( (2:11-3:13); ); (3) he adduces the example of Christ and other motives to patience and holiness ( (3:14-4:19); ); and (4) concludes with counsels to pastors and people (ch. 5).
The question of the authenticity of this epistle has been much discussed, but the weight of evidence is wholly in favour of its claim to be the production of the apostle whose name it bears. It appears to have been written shortly before the apostle's death ( 1:14 ). This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament. It also contains ( 1 Peter 3:15 1 Peter 3:16 ) a remarkable reference to Paul's epistles. Some think this reference is to 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:11. . A few years ago, among other documents, a parchment fragment, called the "Gospel of Peter," was discovered in a Christian tomb at Akhmim in Upper Egypt. Origen (obiit A.D. 254), Eusebius (obiit 340), and Jerome (obiit 420) refer to such a work, and hence it has been concluded that it was probably written about the middle of the second century. It professes to give a history of our Lord's resurrection and ascension. While differing in not a few particulars from the canonical Gospels, the writer shows plainly that he was acquinted both with the synoptics and with the Gospel of John. Though apocryphal, it is of considerable value as showing that the main facts of the history of our Lord were then widely known.
loosed of the Lord.
1. The chief of one of the priestly courses (the nineteenth) in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 24:16 ).
2. A Levite ( Ezra 10:23 ).
3. Nehemiah 9:5 .
4. A descendant of Judah who had some office at the court of Persia ( Nehemiah 11:24 ).
interpretation of dreams, identified with Pitru, on the west bank of the Euphrates, a few miles south of the Hittite capital of Carchemish ( Numbers 22:5 , "which is by the river of the land of the children of [the god] Ammo"). (See BALAAM .)
vision of God, the father of Joel the prophet ( Joel 1:1 ).
wages of the Lord, one of the sons of Obed-edom, a Levite porter ( 1 Chronicles 26:5 ).
(Luke 3:35)=Peleg (q.v.), Genesis 11:16 .
separated, the second son of Reuben ( Genesis 46:9 ).