Easton's Bible Dictionary
Oak — Ozni
There are six Hebrew words rendered "oak."
1. 'El occurs only in the word El-paran ( Genesis 14:6 ). The LXX. renders by "terebinth." In the plural form this word occurs in Isaiah 1:29 ; 57:5 (A.V. marg. and RSV, "among the oaks"); 61:3 ("trees"). The word properly means strongly, mighty, and hence a strong tree.
2. 'Elah, Genesis 35:4 , "under the oak which was by Shechem" (RSV marg., "terebinth"). Isaiah 6:13 , A.V., "teil-tree;" RSV, "terebinth." Isaiah 1:30 , RSV marg., "terebinth." Absalom in his flight was caught in the branches of a "great oak" ( 2 Samuel 18:9 ; RSV marg., "terebinth").
6. 'Allon, always rendered "oak." Probably the evergreen oak (called also ilex and holm oak) is intended. The oak woods of Bashan are frequently alluded to ( Isaiah 2:13 ; Ezekiel 27:6 ). Three species of oaks are found in Palestine, of which the "prickly evergreen oak" (Quercus coccifera) is the most abundant. "It covers the rocky hills of Palestine with a dense brushwood of trees from 8 to 12 feet high, branching from the base, thickly covered with small evergreen rigid leaves, and bearing acorns copiously." The so-called Abraham's oak at Hebron is of this species. Tristram says that this oak near Hebron "has for several centuries taken the place of the once renowned terebinth which marked the site of Mamre on the other side of the city. The terebinth existed at Mamre in the time of Vespasian, and under it the captive Jews were sold as slaves. It disappeared about A.D. 330, and no tree now marks the grove of Mamre. The present oak is the noblest tree in Southern Palestine, being 23 feet in girth, and the diameter of the foliage, which is unsymmetrical, being about 90 feet." (See HEBRON; TEIL-TREE.)
a solemn appeal to God, permitted on fitting occasions ( Deuteronomy 6:13 ; Jeremiah 4:2 ), in various forms ( Genesis 16:5 ; 2 Sam 12:5 ; Ruth 1:17 ; Hosea 4:15 ; Romans 1:9 ), and taken in different ways ( Genesis 14:22 ; 24:2 ; 2 Chr 6:22 ). God is represented as taking an oath ( Hebrews 6:16-18 ), so also Christ ( Matthew 26:64 ), and Paul ( Romans 9:1 ; Galatians 1:20 ; Phil 1:8 ). The precept, "Swear not at all," refers probably to ordinary conversation between man and man ( Matthew 5:34 Matthew 5:37 ). But if the words are taken as referring to oaths, then their intention may have been to show "that the proper state of Christians is to require no oaths; that when evil is expelled from among them every yea and nay will be as decisive as an oath, every promise as binding as a vow."
servant of the Lord.
1. An Israelite who was chief in the household of King Ahab ( 1 Kings 18:3 ). Amid great spiritual degeneracy he maintained his fidelity to God, and interposed to protect The Lord's prophets, an hundred of whom he hid at great personal risk in a cave (4,13). Ahab seems to have held Obadiah in great honour, although he had no sympathy with his piety (5,6,7). The last notice of him is his bringing back tidings to Ahab that Elijah, whom he had so long sought for, was at hand (9-16). "Go," said Elijah to him, when he met him in the way, "go tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here."
2. A chief of the tribe of Issachar ( 1 Chronicles 7:3 ).
3. A descendant of Saul ( 1 Chronicles 8:38 ).
4. A Levite, after the Captivity ( 1 Chronicles 9:16 ).
5. A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:9 ).
6. A prince of Zebulun in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:19 ).
7. One of the princes sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in the law ( 2 Chronicles 17:7 ).
8. A Levite who superintended the repairs of the temple under Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 34:12 ).
9. One who accompanied Ezra on the return from Babylon ( Ezra 8:9 ).
10. A prophet, fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew canon, and fifth in the LXX. He was probably contemporary with Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Of his personal history nothing is known.
consists of one chapter, "concerning Edom," its impending doom ( 1:1-16 ), and the restoration of Israel ( 1:17-21 ). This is the shortest book of the Old Testament.
There are on record the account of four captures of Jerusalem, (1) by Shishak in the reign of Rehoboam ( 1 Kings 14:25 ); (2) by the Philistines and Arabians in the reign of Jehoram ( 2 Chronicles 21:16 ); (3) by Joash, the king of Israel, in the reign of Amaziah ( 2 Kings 14:13 ); and (4) by the Babylonians, when Jerusalem was taken and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586). ( Obadiah 1:11-14 ) speaks of this capture as a thing past. He sees the calamity as having already come on Jerusalem, and the Edomites as joining their forces with those of the Chaldeans in bringing about the degradation and ruin of Israel. We do not indeed read that the Edomites actually took part with the Chaldeans, but the probabilities are that they did so, and this explains the words of Obadiah in denouncing against Edom the judgments of God. The date of his prophecies was thus in or about the year of the destruction of Jerusalem.
2. 1 Chronicles 2:34-38 .
3. 1 Chronicles 26:7 .
4. 2 Chronicles 23:1 .
servant of Edom.
1. "The Gittite" (probably so called because he was a native of Gath-rimmon), a Levite of the family of the Korhites ( 1 Chronicles 26:1 1 Chronicles 26:4-8 ), to whom was specially intrusted the custody of the ark ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 ). When David was bringing up the ark "from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah" (probably some hill or eminence near Kirjath-jearim), and had reached Nachon's threshing-floor, he became afraid because of the "breach upon Uzzah," and carried it aside into the house of Obededom ( 2 Samuel 6:1-12 ). There it remained for six months, and was to him and his house the occasion of great blessing. David then removed it with great rejoicing to Jerusalem, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle he had pitched for it.
3. One who had charge of the temple treasures ( 2 Chronicles 25:24 ).
a keeper of camels, an Ishmaelite who was "over the camels" in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:30 ).
bottles, an encampment of the Israelites during the wanderings in the wilderness ( Numbers 33:43 ), the first after the setting up of the brazen serpent.
restoring, or setting up.
2. A prophet in the time of Ahaz and Pekah ( 2 Chronicles 28:9-15 ).
2. A stumbling-block or cause of temptation ( Isaiah 8:14 ; Matthew 16:23 ; 18:7 ). Greek skandalon, properly that at which one stumbles or takes offence. The "offence of the cross" ( Galatians 5:11 ) is the offence the Jews took at the teaching that salvation was by the crucified One, and by him alone. Salvation by the cross was a stumbling-block to their national pride.
an oblation, dedicated to God. Thus Cain consecrated to God of the first-fruits of the earth, and Abel of the firstlings of the flock ( Genesis 4:3 Genesis 4:4 ). Under the Levitical system different kinds of offerings are specified, and laws laid down as to their presentation. These are described under their distinctive names.
gigantic, the king of Bashan, who was defeated by Moses in a pitched battle at Edrei, and was slain along with his sons ( Deuteronomy 1:4 ), and whose kingdom was given to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh ( Numbers 21:32-35 ; Deuteronomy 3:1-13 ). His bedstead (or rather sarcophagus) was of iron (or ironstone), 9 cubits in length and 4 cubits in breadth. His overthrow was afterwards celebrated in song ( Psalms 135:11 ; 136:20 ). (See SIHON .)
united, or power, the third son of Simeon ( Genesis 46:10 ).
a house; tent, the fourth son of Zerubbabel ( 1 Chronicles 3:20 ).
Only olive oil seems to have been used among the Hebrews. It was used for many purposes: for anointing the body or the hair ( Exodus 29:7 ; 2 Sam 14:2 ; Psalms 23:5 ; 92:10 ; 104:15 ; Luke 7:46 ); in some of the offerings ( Exodus 29:40 ; Leviticus 7:12 ; Numbers 6:15 ; 15:4 ), but was excluded from the sin-offering ( Leviticus 5:11 ) and the jealousy-offering ( Numbers 5:15 ); for burning in lamps ( Exodus 25:6 ; 27:20 ; Matthew 25:3 ); for medicinal purposes ( Isaiah 1:6 ; Luke 10:34 ; James 5:14 ); and for anointing the dead ( Matthew 26:12 ; Luke 23:56 ).
( Isaiah 41:19 ; RSV marg., "oleaster"), Heb. 'etz shemen, rendered "olive tree" in 1Kings 6:23,31,32,33(RSV, "olive wood") and "pine branches" in Nehemiah 8:15 (RSV, "branches of wild olive"), was some tree distinct from the olive. It was probably the oleaster (Eleagnus angustifolius), which grows abundantly in almost all parts of Palestine, especially about Hebron and Samaria. "It has a fine hard wood," says Tristram, "and yields an inferior oil, but it has no relationship to the olive, which, however, it resembles in general appearance."
the fruit of the olive-tree. This tree yielded oil which was highly valued. The best oil was from olives that were plucked before being fully ripe, and then beaten or squeezed ( Deuteronomy 24:20 ; Isaiah 17:6 ; 24:13 ). It was called "beaten," or "fresh oil" ( Exodus 27:20 ). There were also oil-presses, in which the oil was trodden out by the feet ( Micah 6:15 ). ( James 3:12 ) calls the fruit "olive berries." The phrase "vineyards and olives" (Judg. 15:5 , A.V.) should be simply "olive-yard," or "olive-garden," as in the Revised Version. (See OIL .)
is frequently mentioned in Scripture. The dove from the ark brought an olive-branch to Noah ( Genesis 8:11 ). It is mentioned among the most notable trees of Palestine, where it was cultivated long before the time of the Hebrews ( Deuteronomy 6:11 ; 8:8 ). It is mentioned in the first Old Testament parable, that of Jotham ( Judges 9:9 ), and is named among the blessings of the "good land," and is at the present day the one characteristic tree of Palestine. The oldest olive-trees in the country are those which are enclosed in the Garden of Gethsemane. It is referred to as an emblem of prosperity and beauty and religious privilege ( Psalms 52:8 ; Jeremiah 11:16 ; Hosea 14:6 ). The two "witnesses" mentioned in Revelation 11:4 are spoken of as "two olive trees standing before the God of the earth." (Compare Zechariah 4:3 Zechariah 4:11-14 .)
The "olive-tree, wild by nature" ( Romans 11:24 ), is the shoot or cutting of the good olive-tree which, left ungrafted, grows up to be a "wild olive." In Romans 11:17 Paul refers to the practice of grafting shoots of the wild olive into a "good" olive which has become unfruitful. By such a process the sap of the good olive, by pervading the branch which is "graffed in," makes it a good branch, bearing good olives. Thus the Gentiles, being a "wild olive," but now "graffed in," yield fruit, but only through the sap of the tree into which they have been graffed. This is a process "contrary to nature" ( 11:24 ).
so called from the olive trees with which its sides are clothed, is a mountain ridge on the east of Jerusalem ( 1 Kings 11:7 ; Ezekiel 11:23 ; Zechariah 14:4 ), from which it is separated by the valley of Kidron. It is first mentioned in connection with David's flight from Jerusalem through the rebellion of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 15:30 ), and is only once again mentioned in the Old Testament, in Zechariah 14:4 . It is, however, frequently alluded to ( 1 Kings 11:7 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ; Nehemiah 8:15 ; Ezekiel 11:23 ).
It is frequently mentioned in the New Testament ( Matthew 21:1 ; 26:30 , etc.). It now bears the name of Jebel et-Tur, i.e., "Mount of the Summit;" also sometimes called Jebel ez-Zeitun, i.e., "Mount of Olives." It is about 200 feet above the level of the city. The road from Jerusalem to Bethany runs as of old over this mount. It was on this mount that Jesus stood when he wept over Jerusalem. "No name in Scripture," says Dr. Porter, "calls up associations at once so sacred and so pleasing as that of Olivet. The 'mount' is so intimately connected with the private, the devotional life of the Saviour, that we read of it and look at it with feelings of deepest interest and affection. Here he often sat with his disciples, telling them of wondrous events yet to come, of the destruction of the Holy City; of the sufferings, the persecution, and the final triumph of his followers ( Matthew 24 ). Here he gave them the beautiful parables of the ten virgins and the five talents (25); here he was wont to retire on each evening for meditation, and prayer, and rest of body, when weary and harassed by the labours and trials of the day ( Luke 21:37 ); and here he came on the night of his betrayal to utter that wonderful prayer, 'O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt' ( Matthew 26:39 ). And when the cup of God's wrath had been drunk, and death and the grave conquered, he led his disciples out again over Olivet as far as to Bethany, and after a parting blessing ascended to heaven ( Luke 24:50 Luke 24:51 ; Acts 1:12 )."
This mount, or rather mountain range, has four summits or peaks: (1) the "Galilee" peak, so called from a tradition that the angels stood here when they spoke to the disciples ( Acts 1:11 ); (2) the "Mount of Ascension," the supposed site of that event, which was, however, somewhere probably nearer Bethany ( Luke 24:51 Luke 24:52 ); (3) the "Prophets," from the catacombs on its side, called "the prophets' tombs;" and (4) the "Mount of Corruption," so called because of the "high places" erected there by Solomon for the idolatrous worship of his foreign wives ( 1 Kings 11:7 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ; Vulg., "Mount of Offence").
a Roman Christian whom Paul salutes ( Romans 16:15 ).
eloquent, the son of Eliphaz, who was Esau's eldest son ( Genesis 36:11-15 ).
( Revelation 1:8 ), the last letter in the Greek alphabet. (See A .)
a handful, one-tenth of an ephah=half a gallon dry measure (Ex 16:22,32,33,36)="tenth deal."
servant of Jehovah. When Elah was murdered by Zimri at Tirzah ( 1 Kings 16:15-27 ), Omri, his captain, was made king (B.C. 931). For four years there was continued opposition to his reign, Tibni, another claimant to the throne, leading the opposing party; but at the close of that period all his rivals were defeated, and he became king of Israel, "Tibni died and Omri reigned" (B.C. 927). By his vigour and power he gained great eminence and consolidated the kingdom. He fixed his dynasty on the throne so firmly that it continued during four succeeding reigns. Tirza was for six years the seat of his government. He then removed the capital to Samaria (q.v.), where he died, and was succeeded by his son Ahab. "He wrought evil in the eyes of the Lord, and did worse than all that were before him."
Beth-omri, "the house" or "city of Omri," is the name usually found on Assyrian inscriptions for Samaria. In the stele of Mesha (the "Moabite stone"), which was erected in Moab about twenty or thirty years after Omri's death, it is recorded that Omri oppressed Moab till Mesha delivered the land: "Omri, king of Israel, oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was angry with his land. His son succeeded him, and he also said, I will oppress Moab" (Compare 2 Kings 1:1 ; 2 Kings 3:4 2 Kings 3:5 ). The "Moabite stone" also records that "Omri took the land of Medeba, and occupied it in his day and in the days of his son forty years."
light; the sun, ( Genesis 41:45 Genesis 41:50 ), the great seat of sun-worship, called also Bethshemesh ( Jeremiah 43:13 ) and Aven ( Ezekiel 30:17 ), stood on the east bank of the Nile, a few miles north of Memphis, and near Cairo, in the north-east. The Vulgate and the LXX. Versions have "Heliopolis" ("city of the sun") instead of On in Genesis and of Aven in Ezekiel. The "city of destruction" Isaiah speaks of ( 19:18 , marg. "of Heres;" Heb. 'Ir-ha-heres, which some MSS. read Ir-ha-heres, i.e., "city of the sun") may be the name given to On, the prophecy being that the time will come when that city which was known as the "city of the sun-god" shall become the "city of destruction" of the sun-god, i.e., when idolatry shall cease, and the worship of the true God be established.
In ancient times this city was full of obelisks dedicated to the sun. Of these only one now remains standing. "Cleopatra's Needle" was one of those which stood in this city in front of the Temple of Tum, i.e., "the sun." It is now erected on the Thames Embankment, London.
"It was at On that Joseph wooed and won the dark-skinned Asenath, the daughter of the high priest of its great temple." This was a noted university town, and here Moses gained his acquaintance with "all the wisdom of the Egyptians."
useful, a slave who, after robbing his master Philemon (q.v.) at Colosse, fled to Rome, where he was converted by the apostle Paul, who sent him back to his master with the epistle which bears his name. In it he beseeches Philemon to receive his slave as a "faithful and beloved brother." Paul offers to pay to Philemon anything his slave had taken, and to bear the wrong he had done him. He was accompanied on his return by Tychicus, the bearer of the Epistle to the Colossians ( Philemon 1:16 Philemon 1:18 ).
The story of this fugitive Colossian slave is a remarkable evidence of the freedom of access to the prisoner which was granted to all, and "a beautiful illustration both of the character of St. Paul and the transfiguring power and righteous principles of the gospel."
bringing profit, an Ephesian Christian who showed great kindness to Paul at Rome. He served him in many things, and had oft refreshed him. Paul expresses a warm interest in him and his household ( 2 Timothy 1:16-18 ; 4:19 ).
The Israelites in the wilderness longed for the "onions and garlick of Egypt" ( Numbers 11:5 ). This was the betsel of the Hebrews, the Allium cepe of botanists, of which it is said that there are some thirty or forty species now growing in Palestine. The onion is "the 'undivided' leek, unio_, _unus , one."
a town of Benjamin, in the "plain of Ono" ( 1 Chronicles 8:12 ; Ezra 2:33 ); now Kefr 'Ana, 5 miles north of Lydda, and about 30 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Not succeeding in their attempts to deter Nehemiah from rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, Sanballat and Tobiah resorted to strategem, and pretending to wish a conference with him, they invited him to meet them at Ono. Four times they made the request, and every time Nehemiah refused to come. Their object was to take him prisoner.
a nail; claw; hoof, (Heb. sheheleth; Exodus 30:34 ), a Latin word applied to the operculum, i.e., the claw or nail of the strombus or wing-shell, a univalve common in the Red Sea. The opercula of these shell-fish when burned emit a strong odour "like castoreum." This was an ingredient in the sacred incense.
a hail; claw; hoof, (Heb. shoham), a precious stone adorning the breast-plate of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod ( Exodus 28:9-12 Exodus 28:20 ; 35:27 ; Job 28:16 ; Ezekiel 28:13 ). It was found in the land of Havilah ( Genesis 2:12 ). The LXX. translates the Hebrew word by smaragdos, an emerald. Some think that the sardonyx is meant. But the onyx differs from the sardonyx in this, that while the latter has two layers (black and white) the former has three (black, white, and red).
hill; mound, the long, narrow, rounded promontory on the southern slope of the temple hill, between the Tyropoeon and the Kedron valley ( 2 Chronicles 27:3 ; 33:14 ; Nehemiah 3:26 Nehemiah 3:27 ). It was surrounded by a separate wall, and was occupied by the Nethinim after the Captivity. This wall has been discovered by the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund at the south-eastern angle of the temple area. It is 4 feet below the present surface. In 2 Kings 5:24 this word is translated "tower" (RSV, "hill"), denoting probably some eminence near Elisha's house.
1. One of the sons of Joktan ( Genesis 10:29 ).
2. Some region famous for its gold ( 1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:11 ; 22:48 ; Job 22:24 ; 28:16 ; Isaiah 13:12 ). In the LXX. this word is rendered "Sophir," and "Sofir" is the Coptic name for India, which is the rendering of the Arabic version, as also of the Vulgate. Josephus has identified it with the Golden Chersonese, i.e., the Malay peninsula. It is now generally identified with Abhira, at the mouth of the Indus. Much may be said, however, in favour of the opinion that it was somewhere in Arabia.
mouldy, a city of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:24 ).
a fawn. 1 Chronicles 4:14 .
2. "Of the Abi-ezrites." A city of Manasseh, 6 miles south-west of Shechem, the residence of Gideon ( Judges 6:11 ; Judges 8:27 Judges 8:32 ). After his great victory over the Midianites, he slew at this place the captive kings ( 8:18-21 ). He then assumed the function of high priest, and sought to make Ophrah what Shiloh should have been. This thing "became a snare" to Gideon and his house. After Gideon's death his family resided here till they were put to death by Abimelech ( Judges 9:5 ). It is identified with Ferata.
In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2 Samuel 16:23 , to denote the most holy place in the temple ( 1 Kings 6:5 1 Kings 6:19-23 ; 8:6 ). In 2 Samuel 16:23 it means the Word of God. A man inquired "at the oracle of God" by means of the Urim and Thummim in the breastplate on the high priest's ephod. In the New Testament it is used only in the plural, and always denotes the Word of God ( Romans 3:2 ; Hebrews 5:12 , etc.). The Scriptures are called "living oracles" (Compare Hebrews 4:12 ) because of their quickening power ( Acts 7:38 ).
raven, a prince of Midian, who, being defeated by Gideon and put to straits, was slain along with Zeeb ( Judges 7:20-25 ). Many of the Midianites perished along with him ( Psalms 83:9 ; Isaiah 10:26 ).
ash or pine, the son of Jerahmeel ( 1 Chronicles 2:25 ).
Heb. Kesil; i.e., "the fool", the name of a constellation ( Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ; Amos 5:8 ) consisting of about eighty stars. The Vulgate renders thus, but the LXX. renders by Hesperus, i.e., "the evening-star," Venus. The Orientals "appear to have conceived of this constellation under the figure of an impious giant bound upon the sky." This giant was, according to tradition, Nimrod, the type of the folly that contends against God. In Isaiah 13:10 the plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered "constellations."
( Lamentations 5:3 ), i.e., desolate and without protectors. The word occurs only here. In John 14:18 the word there rendered "comfortless" (RSV, "desolate;" marg., "orphans") properly means "orphans." The same Greek word is rendered "fatherless" in James 1:27 .
Heb. 'ozniyyah, an unclean bird according to the Mosaic law ( Leviticus 11:13 ; Deuteronomy 14:12 ); the fish-eating eagle (Pandion haliaetus); one of the lesser eagles. But the Hebrew word may be taken to denote the short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus of Southern Europe), one of the most abundant of the eagle tribe found in Palestine.
Heb. peres = to "break" or "crush", the lammer-geier, or bearded vulture, the largest of the whole vulture tribe. It was an unclean bird ( Leviticus 11:13 ; Deuteronomy 14:12 ). It is not a gregarious bird, and is found but rarely in Palestine. "When the other vultures have picked the flesh off any animal, he comes in at the end of the feast, and swallows the bones, or breaks them, and swallows the pieces if he cannot otherwise extract the marrow. The bones he cracks [hence the appropriateness of the name ossifrage, i.e., "bone-breaker"] by letting them fall on a rock from a great height. He does not, however, confine himself to these delicacies, but whenever he has an opportunity will devour lambs, kids, or hares. These he generally obtains by pushing them over cliffs, when he has watched his opportunity; and he has been known to attack men while climbing rocks, and dash them against the bottom. But tortoises and serpents are his ordinary food...No doubt it was a lammer-geier that mistook the bald head of the poet AEschylus for a stone, and dropped on it the tortoise which killed him" (Tristram's Nat. Hist.).
( Lamentations 4:3 ), the rendering of Hebrew pl. enim; so called from its greediness and gluttony. The allusion here is to the habit of the ostrich with reference to its eggs, which is thus described: "The outer layer of eggs is generally so ill covered that they are destroyed in quantities by jackals, wild-cats, etc., and that the natives carry them away, only taking care not to leave the marks of their footsteps, since, when the ostrich comes and finds that her nest is discovered, she crushes the whole brood, and builds a nest elsewhere." In Job 39:13 this word in the Authorized Version is the rendering of a Hebrew word (notsah) which means "feathers," as in the Revised Version. In the same verse the word "peacocks" of the Authorized Version is the rendering of the Hebrew pl. renanim, properly meaning "ostriches," as in the Revised Version. (See OWL .)
a lion of Jehovah, a son of Shemaiah, and one of the temple porters in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 26:7 ). He was a "mighty man of valour."
lion of God, the first of the judges. His wife Achsah was the daughter of Caleb ( Joshua 15:16 Joshua 15:17 ; Judges 1:13 ). He gained her hand as a reward for his bravery in leading a successful expedition against Debir (q.v.). Some thirty years after the death of Joshua, the Israelites fell under the subjection of Chushan-rishathaim (q.v.), the king of Mesopotamia. He oppressed them for full eight years, when they "cried" unto Jehovah, and Othniel was raised up to be their deliverer. He was the younger brother of Caleb ( Judges 3:8 Judges 3:9-11 ). He is the only judge mentioned connected with the tribe of Judah. Under him the land had rest forty years.
an Old English word denoting cavities or sockets in which gems were set ( Exodus 28:11 ).
Heb. tannur, ( Hosea 7:4 ). In towns there appear to have been public ovens. There was a street in Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 37:21 ) called "bakers' street" (the only case in which the name of a street in Jerusalem is preserved). The words "tower of the furnaces" ( Nehemiah 3:11 ; 12:38 ) is more properly "tower of the ovens" (Heb. tannurim). These resemble the ovens in use among ourselves.
There were other private ovens of different kinds. Some were like large jars made of earthenware or copper, which were heated inside with wood ( 1 Kings 17:12 ; Isaiah 44:15 ; Jeremiah 7:18 ) or grass ( Matthew 6:30 ), and when the fire had burned out, small pieces of dough were placed inside or spread in thin layers on the outside, and were thus baked. (See FURNACE .)
Pits were also formed for the same purposes, and lined with cement. These were used after the same manner.
1. Heb. bath-haya'anah, "daughter of greediness" or of "shouting." In the list of unclean birds ( Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ); also mentioned in Job 30:29 ; Isaiah 13:21 ; 34:13 ; 43:20 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ; Micah 1:8 . In all these passages the Revised Version translates "ostrich" (q.v.), which is the correct rendering.
2. Heb. yanshuph, rendered "great owl" in Leviticus 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 , and "owl" in Isaiah 34:11 . This is supposed to be the Egyptian eagle-owl (Bubo ascalaphus), which takes the place of the eagle-owl (Bubo maximus) found in Southern Europe. It is found frequenting the ruins of Egypt and also of the Holy Land. "Its cry is a loud, prolonged, and very powerful hoot. I know nothing which more vividly brought to my mind the sense of desolation and loneliness than the re-echoing hoot of two or three of these great owls as I stood at midnight among the ruined temples of Baalbek" (Tristram). The LXX. and Vulgate render this word by "ibis", i.e., the Egyptian heron.
3. Heb. kos, rendered "little owl" in Leviticus 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 , and "owl" in Psalms 102:6 . The Arabs call this bird "the mother of ruins." It is by far the most common of all the owls of Palestine. It is the Athene persica, the bird of Minerva, the symbol of ancient Athens.
4. Heb. kippoz, the "great owl" ( Isaiah 34:15 ); Revised Version, "arrow-snake;" LXX. and Vulgate, "hedgehog," reading in the text, kippod, instead of kippoz. There is no reason to doubt the correctness of the rendering of the Authorized Version. Tristram says: "The word [i.e., kippoz] is very possibly an imitation of the cry of the scops owl (Scops giu), which is very common among ruins, caves, and old walls of towns...It is a migrant, returning to Palestine in spring."
5. Heb. lilith, "screech owl" ( Isaiah 34:14 , marg. and RSV, "night monster"). The Hebrew word is from a root signifying "night." Some species of the owl is obviously intended by this word. It may be the hooting or tawny owl (Syrnium aluco), which is common in Egypt and in many parts of Palestine. This verse in Isaiah is "descriptive of utter and perpetual desolation, of a land that should be full of ruins, and inhabited by the animals that usually make such ruins their abode."
Heb. bakar, "cattle;" "neat cattle", ( Genesis 12:16 ; 34:28 ; Job 1:3 Job 1:14 ; 42:12 , etc.); not to be muzzled when treading the corn ( Deuteronomy 25:4 ). Referred to by our Lord in his reproof to the Pharisees ( Luke 13:15 ; 14:5 ).
mentioned only in Judges 3:31 , the weapon with which Shamgar (q.v.) slew six hundred Philistines. "The ploughman still carries his goad, a weapon apparently more fitted for the hand of the soldier than the peaceful husbandman. The one I saw was of the 'oak of Bashan,' and measured upwards of ten feet in length. At one end was an iron spear, and at the other a piece of the same metal flattened. One can well understand how a warrior might use such a weapon with effect in the battle-field" (Porter's Syria, etc.). (See GOAD .)
1. One of David's brothers; the sixth son of Jesse ( 1 Chronicles 2:15 ).
2. A son of Jerahmeel ( 1 Chronicles 2:25 ).