Easton's Bible Dictionary
Maachah — Matthew, Gospel according to
1. A daughter of Talmai, king of the old native population of Geshur. She became one of David's wives, and was the mother of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 3:3 ).
2. The father of Hanan, who was one of David's body-guard ( 1 Chronicles 11:43 ).
3. The daughter of Abishalom (called Absalom, 2 Chronicles 11:20-22 ), the third wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijam ( 1 Kings 15:2 ). She is called "Michaiah the daughter of Uriel," who was the husband of Absalom's daughter Tamar ( 2 Chronicles 13:2 ). Her son Abijah or Abijam was heir to the throne.
ascent of the scorpions; i.e., "scorpion-hill", a pass on the south-eastern border of Palestine ( Numbers 34:4 ; Joshua 15:3 ). It is identified with the pass of Sufah, entering Palestine from the great Wady el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea. (See AKRABBIM .)
desolation, a place in the mountains of Judah ( Joshua 15:59 ), probably the modern village Beit Ummar, 6 miles north of Hebron.
the work of Jehovah.
2. One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne ( 2 Chronicles 23:1 ).
3. The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz, killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of Israel ( 2 Chronicles 28:7 ).
4. One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple ( 2 Chronicles 34:8 ). He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the Authorized Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of Jerusalem.
work of Jehovah, one of the priests resident at Jerusalem at the Captivity ( 1 Chronicles 9:12 ).
small, a person named in our Lord's ancestry ( Luke 3:26 ).
strength or consolation of Jehovah.
1. The head of the twenty-fourth priestly course ( 1 Chronicles 24:18 ) in David's reign.
2. A priest ( Nehemiah 10:8 ).
This word does not occur in Scripture. It was the name given to the leaders of the national party among the Jews who suffered in the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded to the Syrian throne B.C. 175. It is supposed to have been derived from the Hebrew word (makkabah) meaning "hammer," as suggestive of the heroism and power of this Jewish family, who are, however, more properly called Asmoneans or Hasmonaeans, the origin of which is much disputed.
After the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes from Egypt by the Romans, he gave vent to his indignation on the Jews, great numbers of whom he mercilessly put to death in Jerusalem. He oppressed them in every way, and tried to abolish altogether the Jewish worship. Mattathias, an aged priest, then residing at Modin, a city to the west of Jerusalem, became now the courageous leader of the national party; and having fled to the mountains, rallied round him a large band of men prepared to fight and die for their country and for their religion, which was now violently suppressed. In 1Macc 2:60 is recorded his dying counsels to his sons with reference to the war they were now to carry on. His son Judas, "the Maccabee," succeeded him (B.C. 166) as the leader in directing the war of independence, which was carried on with great heroism on the part of the Jews, and was terminated in the defeat of the Syrians.
There were originally five books of the Maccabees. The first contains a history of the war of independence, commencing (B.C. 175) in a series of patriotic struggles against the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, and terminating B.C. 135. It became part of the Vulgate Version of the Bible, and was thus retained among the Apocrypha.
The second gives a history of the Maccabees' struggle from B.C. 176 to B.C. 161. Its object is to encourage and admonish the Jews to be faithful to the religion of their fathers.
The third does not hold a place in the Apocrypha, but is read in the Greek Church. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their persecution. Its writer was evidently an Alexandrian Jew.
The fourth was found in the Library of Lyons, but was afterwards burned. The fifth contains a history of the Jews from B.C. 184 to B.C. 86. It is a compilation made by a Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem, from ancient memoirs, to which he had access. It need scarcely be added that none of these books has any divine authority.
in New Testament times, was a Roman province lying north of Greece. It was governed by a propraetor with the title of proconsul. Paul was summoned by the vision of the "man of Macedonia" to preach the gospel there ( Acts 16:9 ). Frequent allusion is made to this event ( 18:5 ; 19:21 ; Romans 15:26 ; 2 co. 1:16 ; 11:9 ; Phil 4:15 ). The history of Paul's first journey through Macedonia is given in detail in Acts 16:10-17:15. . At the close of this journey he returned from Corinth to Syria. He again passed through this country ( 20:1-6 ), although the details of the route are not given. After many years he probably visited it for a third time (Phil 2:24 ; 1 Timothy 1:3 ). The first convert made by Paul in Europe was ( Acts 16:13-15 ) Lydia (q.v.), a "seller of purple," residing in Philippi, the chief city of the eastern division of Macedonia.
the Black Fortress, was built by Herod the Great in the gorge of Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, as a frontier rampart against Arab marauders. John the Baptist was probably cast into the prison connected with this castle by Herod Antipas, whom he had reproved for his adulterous marriage with Herodias. Here Herod "made a supper" on his birthday. He was at this time marching against Aretas, king of Perea, to whose daughter he had been married. During the revelry of the banquet held in the border fortress, to please Salome, who danced before him, he sent an executioner, who beheaded John, and "brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel" ( Mark 6:14-29 ). This castle stood "starkly bold and clear" 3,860 feet above the Dead Sea, and 2,546 above the Mediterranean. Its ruins, now called M'khaur, are still visible on the northern end of Jebel Attarus.
clad with a mantle, or bond of the Lord, one of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the wilderness ( 1 Chronicles 12:13 ).
1. Manasseh's oldest son ( Joshua 17:1 ), or probably his only son (see 1 Chronicles 7:14 1 Chronicles 7:15 ; Compare Numbers 26:29-33 ; Joshua 13:31 ). His descendants are referred to under the name of Machirites, being the offspring of Gilead ( Numbers 26:29 ). They settled in land taken from the Amorites ( Numbers 32:39 Numbers 32:40 ; Deuteronomy 3:15 ) by a special enactment ( Numbers 36:1-3 ; Joshua 17:3 Joshua 17:4 ). He is once mentioned as the representative of the tribe of Manasseh east of Jordan ( Judges 5:14 ).
2. A descendant of the preceding, residing at Lo-debar, where he maintained Jonathan's son Mephibosheth till he was taken under the care of David ( 2 Samuel 9:4 ), and where he afterwards gave shelter to David himself when he was a fugitive ( 17:27 ).
portion; double cave, the cave which Abraham bought, together with the field in which it stood, from Ephron the Hittite, for a family burying-place ( Genesis 23 ). It is one of those Bible localities about the identification of which there can be no doubt. It was on the slope of a hill on the east of Hebron, "before Mamre." Here were laid the bodies of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah ( Genesis 23:19 ; 25:9 ; 49:31 ; 50:13 ). Over the cave an ancient Christian church was erected, probably in the time of Justinian, the Roman emperor. This church has been converted into a Mohammedan mosque. The whole is surrounded by the el-Haram i.e., "the sacred enclosure," about 200 feet long, 115 broad, and of an average height of about 50. This building, from the immense size of some of its stones, and the manner in which they are fitted together, is supposed by some to have been erected in the days of David or of Solomon, while others ascribe it to the time of Herod. It is looked upon as the most ancient and finest relic of Jewish architecture.
On the floor of the mosque are erected six large cenotaphs as monuments to the dead who are buried in the cave beneath. Between the cenotaphs of Isaac and Rebekah there is a circular opening in the floor into the cavern below, the cave of Machpelah. Here it may be that the body of Jacob, which was embalmed in Egypt, is still preserved (much older embalmed bodies have recently been found in the cave of Deir el-Bahari in Egypt, see PHARAOH), though those of the others there buried may have long ago mouldered into dust. The interior of the mosque was visited by the Prince of Wales in 1862 by a special favour of the Mohammedan authorities. An interesting account of this visit is given in Dean Stanley's Lectures on the Jewish Church. It was also visited in 1866 by the Marquis of Bute, and in 1869 by the late Emperor (Frederick) of Germany, then the Crown Prince of Prussia. In 1881 it was visited by the two sons of the Prince of Wales, accompanied by Sir C. Wilson and others. (See Palestine Quarterly Statement, October 1882).
middle land, the third "son" of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2 ), the name by which the Medes are known on the Assyrian monuments.
dunghill, the modern el-Minyay, 15 miles south-south-west of Gaza ( Joshua 15:31 ; 1 Chronicles 2:49 ), in the south of Judah. The Pal. Mem., however, suggest Umm Deimneh, 12 miles north-east of Beersheba, as the site.
ibid., a Moabite town threatened with the sword of the Babylonians ( Jeremiah 48:2 ).
ibid., a town in Benjamin, not far from Jerusalem, towards the north ( Isaiah 10:31 ). The same Hebrew word occurs in Isaiah 25:10 , where it is rendered "dunghill." This verse has, however, been interpreted as meaning "that Moab will be trodden down by Jehovah as teben [broken straw] is trodden to fragments on the threshing-floors of Madmenah."
This word is used in its proper sense in Deuteronomy 28:34 , John 10:20, 1 Corinthians 14:23 . It also denotes a reckless state of mind arising from various causes, as over-study (Eccl 1:17 ; 2:12 ), blind rage ( Luke 6:11 ), or a depraved temper (Eccl 7:25 ; 9:3 ; 2 Pet 2:16 ). David feigned madness ( 1 Samuel 21:13 ) at Gath because he "was sore afraid of Achish."
a tower, a town in Galilee, mentioned only in Matthew 15:39 . In the parallel passage in Mark 8:10 this place is called Dalmanutha. It was the birthplace of Mary called the Magdalen, or Mary Magdalene. It was on the west shore of the Lake of Tiberias, and is now probably the small obscure village called el-Mejdel, about 3 miles north-west of Tiberias. In the Talmud this city is called "the city of colour," and a particular district of it was called "the tower of dyers." The indigo plant was much cultivated here.
a surname derived from Magdala, the place of her nativity, given to one of the Marys of the Gospels to distinguish her from the other Marys ( Matthew 27:56 Matthew 27:61 ; 28:1 , etc.). A mistaken notion has prevailed that this Mary was a woman of bad character, that she was the woman who is emphatically called "a sinner" ( Luke 7:36-50 ). (See MARY .)
The Jews seem early to have consulted the teraphim (q.v.) for oracular answers ( Judges 18:5 Judges 18:6 ; Zechariah 10:2 ). There is a remarkable illustration of this divining by teraphim in Ezek. 21:19-22 . We read also of the divining cup of Joseph ( Genesis 44:5 ). The magicians of Egypt are frequently referred to in the history of the Exodus. Magic was an inherent part of the ancient Egyptian religion, and entered largely into their daily life.
All magical arts were distinctly prohibited under penalty of death in the Mosaic law. The Jews were commanded not to learn the "abomination" of the people of the Promised Land ( Leviticus 19:31 ; Deuteronomy 18:9-14 ). The history of Saul's consulting the witch of Endor ( 1 Samuel 28:3-20 ) gives no warrant for attributing supernatural power to magicians. From the first the witch is here only a bystander. The practice of magic lingered among the people till after the Captivity, when they gradually abandoned it.
It is not much referred to in the New Testament. The Magi mentioned in Matthew 2:1-12 were not magicians in the ordinary sense of the word. They belonged to a religious caste, the followers of Zoroaster, the astrologers of the East. Simon, a magician, was found by Philip at Samaria ( Acts 8:9-24 ); and Paul and Barnabas encountered Elymas, a Jewish sorcerer, at Paphos ( 13:6-12 ). At Ephesus there was a great destruction of magical books ( Acts 19:18 Acts 19:19 ).
Heb. hartumim, ( Daniel 1:20 ) were sacred scribes who acted as interpreters of omens, or "revealers of secret things."
a public civil officer invested with authority. The Hebrew shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having authority in the land ( Deuteronomy 1:16 Deuteronomy 1:17 ). In Judges 18:7 the word "magistrate" (A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version "possessing authority", i.e., having power to do them harm by invasion. In the time of ( Ezra 9:2 ) and ( Nehemiah 2:16 ; 4:14 ; 13:11 ) the Jewish magistrates were called seganim , properly meaning "nobles." In the New Testament the Greek word archon , rendered "magistrate" ( Luke 12:58 ; Titus 3:1 ), means one first in power, and hence a prince, as in Matt Matthew 2:6 Matthew 2:8 . This term is used of the Messiah, "Prince of the kings of the earth" ( Revelation 1:5 ). In Acts 16:20 Acts 16:22 Acts 16:35 Acts 16:36 Acts 16:38 , the Greek term strategos , rendered "magistrate," properly signifies the leader of an army, a general, one having military authority. The strategoi were the duumviri, the two praetors appointed to preside over the administration of justice in the colonies of the Romans. They were attended by the sergeants (properly lictors or "rod bearers").
region of Gog, the second of the "sons" of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:5 ). In ( Ezekiel 38:2 ; 39:6 ) it is the name of a nation, probably some Scythian or Tartar tribe descended from Japheth. They are described as skilled horsemen, and expert in the use of the bow. The Latin father Jerome says that this word denotes "Scythian nations, fierce and innumerable, who live beyond the Caucasus and the Lake Maeotis, and near the Caspian Sea, and spread out even onward to India." Perhaps the name "represents the Assyrian Mat Gugi, or 'country of Gugu,' the Gyges of the Greeks" (Sayce's Races, etc.).
fear on every side, ( Jeremiah 20:3 ), a symbolical name given to the priest Pashur, expressive of the fate announced by the prophet as about to come upon him. Pashur was to be carried to Babylon, and there die.
praise of God.
2. Nehemiah 11:4 , a descendant of Perez.
a lute; lyre.
2. The daughter of Jerimoth, who was one of David's sons. She was one of Rehoboam's wives ( 2 Chronicles 11:18 ).
This word leannoth seems to point to some kind of instrument unknown ( Psalms 88 , title). The whole phrase has by others been rendered, "On the sickness of affliction: a lesson;" or, "Concerning afflictive sickness: a didactic psalm."
in the title of Psalms 53 , denoting that this was a didactic psalm, to be sung to the accompaniment of the lute or guitar. Others regard this word "mahalath" as the name simply of an old air to which the psalm was to be sung. Others, again, take the word as meaning "sickness," and regard it as alluding to the contents of the psalm.
two camps, a place near the Jabbok, beyond Jordan, where Jacob was met by the "angels of God," and where he divided his retinue into "two hosts" on his return from Padan-aram ( Genesis 32:2 ). This name was afterwards given to the town which was built at that place. It was the southern boundary of Bashan ( Joshua 13:26 Joshua 13:30 ), and became a city of the Levites ( 21:38 ). Here Saul's son Ishbosheth reigned ( 2 Samuel 2:8 2 Samuel 2:12 ), while David reigned at Hebron. Here also, after a troubled reign, Ishbosheth was murdered by two of his own bodyguard ( 2 Samuel 4:5-7 ), who brought his head to David at Hebron, but were, instead of being rewarded, put to death by him for their cold-blooded murder. Many years after this, when he fled from Jerusalem on the rebellion of his son Absalom, David made Mahanaim, where Barzillai entertained him, his headquarters, and here he mustered his forces which were led against the army that had gathered around Absalom. It was while sitting at the gate of this town that tidings of the great and decisive battle between the two hosts and of the death of his son Absalom reached him, when he gave way to the most violent grief ( 2 Samuel 17:24-27 ).
The only other reference to Mahanaim is as a station of one of Solomon's purveyors ( 1 Kings 4:14 ). It has been identified with the modern Mukhumah, a ruin found in a depressed plain called el-Bukie'a, "the little vale," near Penuel, south of the Jabbok, and north-east of es-Salt.
Judges 18:12 = "camp of Dan" 13:25 (RSV, "Mahaneh-dan"), a place behind (i.e., west of) Kirjath-jearim, where the six hundred Danites from Zorah and Eshtaol encamped on their way to capture the city of Laish, which they rebuilt and called "Dan, after the name of their father" ( 18:11-31 ). The Palestine Explorers point to a ruin called 'Erma, situated about 3 miles from the great corn valley on the east of Samson's home.
1. A Kohathite Levite, father of Elkanah ( 1 Chronicles 6:35 ).
2. Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:12 ).
plunder speedeth; spoil hasteth, ( Isaiah 8:1-3 ; Compare Zephaniah 1:14 ), a name Isaiah was commanded first to write in large characters on a tablet, and afterwards to give as a symbolical name to a son that was to be born to him ( Isaiah 8:1 Isaiah 8:3 ), as denoting the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the Assyrian army.
disease, one of the five daughters of Zelophehad ( Numbers 27:1-11 ) who had their father's inheritance, the law of inheritance having been altered in their favour.
dance, the father of four sons ( 1 Kings 4:31 ) who were inferior in wisdom only to Solomon.
"a corselet of scales," a cuirass formed of pieces of metal overlapping each other, like fish-scales ( 1 Samuel 17:5 ); also (38) a corselet or garment thus encased.
(Gr. artemon), answering to the modern "mizzen-sail," as some suppose. Others understand the "jib," near the prow, or the "fore-sail," as likely to be most useful in bringing a ship's head to the wind in the circumstances described ( Acts 27:40 ).
herdsman's place, one of the royal cities of the Canaanites ( Joshua 12:16 ), near which was a cave where the five kings who had confederated against Israel sought refuge ( 10:10-29 ). They were put to death by Joshua, who afterwards suspended their bodies upon five trees. It has been identified with the modern village called Sumeil, standing on a low hill about 7 miles to the north-west of Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), where are ancient remains and a great cave. The Palestine Exploration surveyors have, however, identified it with el-Mughar, or "the caves," 3 miles from Jabneh and 2 1/2 southwest of Ekron, because, they say, "at this site only of all possible sites for Makkedah in the Palestine plain do caves still exist." (See ADONI-ZEDEC.)
mortar, a place in or near Jerusalem inhabited by silver merchants ( Zephaniah 1:11 ). It has been conjectured that it was the "Phoenician quarter" of the city, where the traders of that nation resided, after the Oriental custom.
messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon ( Malachi 4:4 Malachi 4:5 Malachi 4:6 ). Nothing is known of him beyond what is contained in his book of prophecies. Some have supposed that the name is simply a title descriptive of his character as a messenger of Jehovah, and not a proper name. There is reason, however, to conclude that Malachi was the ordinary name of the prophet.
He was contemporary with Nehemiah (Compare Malachi 2:8 with Nehemiah 13:15 ; Malachi 2:10-16 with Nehemiah 13:23 ). No allusion is made to him by Ezra, and he does not mention the restoration of the temple, and hence it is inferred that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah, and when the temple services were still in existence ( Malachi 1:10 ; Malachi 3:1 Malachi 3:10 ). It is probable that he delivered his prophecies about B.C. 420, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia ( Nehemiah 13:6 ), or possibly before his return.
The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters. In the Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but one. The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an introduction ( Malachi 1:1-5 ), in which the prophet reminds Israel of Jehovah's love to them. The first section ( (1:6-2:9) ) contains a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in administering the law. In the second ( 2:9-16 ) the people are rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen. In the third ( (2:17-4:6) ) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the advent of the Messiah.
( 2 Samuel 12:30 , Heb., RSV, "their king;" Jeremiah 49:1 Jeremiah 49:3 , RSV; Zephaniah 1:5 ), the national idol of the Ammonites. When Rabbah was taken by David, the crown of this idol was among the spoils. The weight is said to have been "a talent of gold" (above 100 lbs.). The expression probably denotes its value rather than its weight. It was adorned with precious stones.
1. The head of the fifth division of the priests in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 24:9 ).
3. One of the priests appointed as musicians to celebrate the completion of the walls of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 12:42 ).
4. A priest who stood by Ezra when he "read in the book of the law of God" ( Nehemiah 8:4 ).
5. Nehemiah 3:11 .
6. Nehemiah 3:31 .
7. Nehemiah 3:14 .
reigning, the personal servant or slave of the high priest Caiaphas. He is mentioned only by John. Peter cut off his right ear in the garden of Gethsemane ( John 18:10 ). But our Lord cured it with a touch ( Matthew 26:51 ; Mark 14:47 ; Luke 22:51 ). This was the last miracle of bodily cure wrought by our Lord. It is not mentioned by John.
my fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the Levite ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 ), and chief of the nineteenth division of the temple musicians (26).
occurs only in Job 30:4 (RSV, "saltwort"). The word so rendered (malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found on the shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt marshes. It is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height sometimes of 10 feet. Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eaten by the poor in Palestine.
reigned over, or reigning.
1. A Levite of the family of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 6:44 ).
2. A priest who returned from Babylon ( Nehemiah 12:2 ).
3. Ezra 10:29 .
4. Ezra 10:32
2. The name of the place in the neighbourhood of Hebron (q.v.) where Abraham dwelt ( Genesis 23:17 Genesis 23:19 ; 35:27 ); called also in Authorized Version ( 13:18 ) the "plain of Mamre," but in Revised Version more correctly "the oaks [marg., 'terebinths'] of Mamre." The name probably denotes the "oak grove" or the "wood of Mamre," thus designated after Abraham's ally. This "grove" must have been within sight of or "facing" Machpelah (q.v.). The site of Mamre has been identified with Ballatet Selta, i.e., "the oak of rest", where there is a tree called "Abraham's oak," about a mile and a half west of Hebron. Others identify it with er-Rameh, 2 miles north of Hebron.
1. Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper name of the first man. The name is derived from a word meaning "to be red," and thus the first man was called Adam because he was formed from the red earth. It is also the generic name of the human race ( Genesis 1:26 Genesis 1:27 ; 5:2 ; 8:21 ; Deuteronomy 8:3 ). Its equivalents are the Latin homo and the Greek anthropos ( Matthew 5:13 Matthew 5:16 ). It denotes also man in opposition to woman ( Genesis 3:12 ; Matthew 19:10 ).
2. Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes properly a man in opposition to a woman ( 1 Samuel 17:33 ; Matthew 14:21 ); a husband ( Genesis 3:16 ; Hosea 2:16 ); man with reference to excellent mental qualities.
5. Heb. methim, men as mortal ( Isaiah 41:14 ), and as opposed to women and children ( Deuteronomy 3:6 ; Job 11:3 ; Isaiah 3:25 ). Man was created by the immediate hand of God, and is generically different from all other creatures ( Genesis 1:26 Genesis 1:27 ; 2:7 ). His complex nature is composed of two elements, two distinct substances, viz., body and soul ( Genesis 2:7 ; Eccl 12:7 ; 2 co 5:1-8 ). The words translated "spirit" and "soul," in 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , Hebrews 4:12 , are habitually used interchangeably ( Matthew 10:28 ; 16:26 ; 1 Peter 1:22 ). The "spirit" (Gr. pneuma) is the soul as rational; the "soul" (Gr. psuche) is the same, considered as the animating and vital principle of the body. Man was created in the likeness of God as to the perfection of his nature, in knowledge ( Colossians 3:10 ), righteousness, and holiness ( Ephesians 4:24 ), and as having dominion over all the inferior creatures ( Genesis 1:28 ). He had in his original state God's law written on his heart, and had power to obey it, and yet was capable of disobeying, being left to the freedom of his own will. He was created with holy dispositions, prompting him to holy actions; but he was fallible, and did fall from his integrity ( 3:1-6 ). (See .)
a designation of Antichrist given in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10 , usually regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist."
[J] indicates this entry was also found in Jack Van Impe's Prophecy Dictionary
consoler, a Christian teacher at Antioch. Nothing else is known of him beyond what is stated in Acts 13:1 , where he is spoken of as having been brought up with (Gr. syntrophos; rendered in RSV "foster brother" of) Herod, i.e., Herod Antipas, the tetrach, who, with his brother Archelaus, was educated at Rome.
who makes to forget. "God hath made me forget" (Heb. nashshani), Genesis 41:51 .
1. The elder of the two sons of Joseph. He and his brother Ephraim were afterwards adopted by Jacob as his own sons ( 48:1 ). There is an account of his marriage to a Syrian ( 1 Chronicles 7:14 ); and the only thing afterwards recorded of him is, that his grandchildren were "brought up upon Joseph's knees" ( Genesis 50:23 ; RSV, "born upon Joseph's knees") i.e., were from their birth adopted by Joseph as his own children. The tribe of Manasseh was associated with that of Ephraim and Benjamin during the wanderings in the wilderness. They encamped on the west side of the tabernacle. According to the census taken at Sinai, this tribe then numbered 32,200 ( Numbers 1:10 Numbers 1:35 ; Numbers 2:20 Numbers 2:21 ). Forty years afterwards its numbers had increased to 52,700 ( Numbers 26:34 Numbers 26:37 ), and it was at this time the most distinguished of all the tribes. The half of this tribe, along with Reuben and Gad, had their territory assigned them by Moses on the east of the Jordan ( Joshua 13:7-14 ); but it was left for Joshua to define the limits of each tribe. This territory on the east of Jordan was more valuable and of larger extent than all that was allotted to the nine and a half tribes in the land of Palestine. It is sometimes called "the land of Gilead," and is also spoken of as "on the other side of Jordan." The portion given to the half tribe of Manasseh was the largest on the east of Jordan. It embraced the whole of Bashan. It was bounded on the south by Mahanaim, and extended north to the foot of Lebanon. Argob, with its sixty cities, that "ocean of basaltic rocks and boulders tossed about in the wildest confusion," lay in the midst of this territory. The whole "land of Gilead" having been conquered, the two and a half tribes left their wives and families in the fortified cities there, and accompanied the other tribes across the Jordan, and took part with them in the wars of conquest. The allotment of the land having been completed, Joshua dismissed the two and a half tribes, commending them for their heroic service ( Joshua 22:1-34 ). Thus dismissed, they returned over Jordan to their own inheritance. (See ED .) On the west of Jordan the other half of the tribe of Manasseh was associated with Ephraim, and they had their portion in the very centre of Palestine, an area of about 1,300 square miles, the most valuable part of the whole country, abounding in springs of water. Manasseh's portion was immediately to the north of that of Ephraim ( Joshua 16 ). Thus the western Manasseh defended the passes of Esdraelon as the eastern kept the passes of the Hauran.
2. The only son and successor of Hezekiah on the throne of Judah. He was twelve years old when he began to reign ( 2 Kings 21:1 ), and he reigned fifty-five years (B.C. 698-643). Though he reigned so long, yet comparatively little is known of this king. His reign was a continuation of that of Ahaz, both in religion and national polity. He early fell under the influence of the heathen court circle, and his reign was characterized by a sad relapse into idolatry with all its vices, showing that the reformation under his father had been to a large extent only superficial ( Isaiah 7:10 ; 2 Kings 21:10-15 ). A systematic and persistent attempt was made, and all too successfully, to banish the worship of Jehovah out of the land. Amid this wide-spread idolatry there were not wanting, however, faithful prophets (Isaiah, Micah) who lifted up their voice in reproof and in warning. But their fidelity only aroused bitter hatred, and a period of cruel persecution against all the friends of the old religion began. "The days of Alva in Holland, of Charles IX. in France, or of the Covenanters under Charles II. in Scotland, were anticipated in the Jewish capital. The streets were red with blood." There is an old Jewish tradition that Isaiah was put to death at this time ( 2 Kings 21:16 ; 2 Kings 24:3 2 Kings 24:4 ; Jeremiah 2:30 ), having been sawn asunder in the trunk of a tree. Psalms 497377140 ,73,77,140, and 141 seem to express the feelings of the pious amid the fiery trials of this great persecution. Manasseh has been called the "Nero of Palestine." Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in Babylon for thirteen years (the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned in Babylon), took Manasseh prisoner (B.C. 681) to Babylon. Such captive kings were usually treated with great cruelty. They were brought before the conqueror with a hook or ring passed through their lips or their jaws, having a cord attached to it, by which they were led. This is referred to in 2 Chronicles 33:11 , where the Authorized Version reads that Esarhaddon "took Manasseh among the thorns;" while the Revised Version renders the words, "took Manasseh in chains;" or literally, as in the margin, "with hooks." (Compare 2 Kings 19:28 .) The severity of Manasseh's imprisonment brought him to repentance. God heard his cry, and he was restored to his kingdom ( 2 Chronicles 33:11-13 ). He abandoned his idolatrous ways, and enjoined the people to worship Jehovah; but there was no thorough reformation. After a lengthened reign extending through fifty-five years, the longest in the history of Judah, he died, and was buried in the garden of Uzza, the "garden of his own house" ( 2 Kings 21:17 2 Kings 21:18 ; 2 Chr 33:20 ), and not in the city of David, among his ancestors. He was succeeded by his son Amon. In Judges 18:30 the correct reading is "Moses," and not "Manasseh." The name "Manasseh" is supposed to have been introduced by some transcriber to avoid the scandal of naming the grandson of Moses the great lawgiver as the founder of an idolatrous religion.
Hebrew dudaim; i.e., "love-plants", occurs only in Genesis 30:14-16 and Cant 7:13 . Many interpretations have been given of this word dudaim . It has been rendered "violets," "Lilies," "jasmines," "truffles or mushrooms," "flowers," the "citron," etc. The weight of authority is in favour of its being regarded as the Mandragora officinalis of botanists, "a near relative of the night-shades, the 'apple of Sodom' and the potato plant." It possesses stimulating and narcotic properties ( Genesis 30:14-16 ). The fruit of this plant resembles the potato-apple in size, and is of a pale orange colour. It has been called the "love-apple." The Arabs call it "Satan's apple." It still grows near Jerusalem, and in other parts of Palestine.
portion ( Ezekiel 45:12 ), rendered "pound" ( 1 Kings 10:17 ; Ezra 2:69 ; Nehemiah 7:71 Nehemiah 7:72 ), a weight variously estimated, probably about 2 1/2 or 3 lbs. A maneh of gold consisted of a hundred common shekels (q.v.). (Compare 1 Kings 10:17 , and 2 Chronicles 9:16 ).
( Luke 2:7 Luke 2:12 Luke 2:16 ), the name (Gr. phatne, rendered "stall" in Luke 13:15 ) given to the place where the infant Redeemer was laid. It seems to have been a stall or crib for feeding cattle. Stables and mangers in our modern sense were in ancient times unknown in the East. The word here properly denotes "the ledge or projection in the end of the room used as a stall on which the hay or other food of the animals of travellers was placed." (See INN .)
Heb. man-hu, "What is that?" the name given by the Israelites to the food miraculously supplied to them during their wanderings in the wilderness ( Exodus 16:15-35 ). The name is commonly taken as derived from man , an expression of surprise, "What is it?" but more probably it is derived from manan , meaning "to allot," and hence denoting an "allotment" or a "gift." This "gift" from God is described as "a small round thing," like the "hoar-frost on the ground," and "like coriander seed," "of the colour of bdellium," and in taste "like wafers made with honey." It was capable of being baked and boiled, ground in mills, or beaten in a mortar ( Exodus 16:23 ; Numbers 11:7 ). If any was kept over till the following morning, it became corrupt with worms; but as on the Sabbath none fell, on the preceding day a double portion was given, and that could be kept over to supply the wants of the Sabbath without becoming corrupt. Directions concerning the gathering of it are fully given ( Exodus 16:16-18 Exodus 16:33 ; Deuteronomy 8:3 Deuteronomy 8:16 ). It fell for the first time after the eighth encampment in the desert of Sin, and was daily furnished, except on the Sabbath, for all the years of the wanderings, till they encamped at Gilgal, after crossing the Jordan, when it suddenly ceased, and where they "did eat of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more" ( Joshua 5:12 ). They now no longer needed the "bread of the wilderness."
This manna was evidently altogether a miraculous gift, wholly different from any natural product with which we are acquainted, and which bears this name. The manna of European commerce comes chiefly from Calabria and Sicily. It drops from the twigs of a species of ash during the months of June and July. At night it is fluid and resembles dew, but in the morning it begins to harden. The manna of the Sinaitic peninsula is an exudation from the "manna-tamarisk" tree (Tamarix mannifera), the el-tarfah of the Arabs. This tree is found at the present day in certain well-watered valleys in the peninsula of Sinai. The manna with which the people of Israel were fed for forty years differs in many particulars from all these natural products.
one who was guilty of accidental homicide, and was entitled to flee to a city of refuge ( Numbers 35:6 Numbers 35:12 Numbers 35:22 Numbers 35:23 ), his compulsory residence in which terminated with the death of the high priest. (See CITY OF REFUGE .)
1. Heb. 'addereth, a large over-garment. This word is used of Elijah's mantle ( 1 Kings 19:13 1 Kings 19:19 ; 2 Kings 1 Kings 2:8 1 Kings 2:13 , etc.), which was probably a sheepskin. It appears to have been his only garment, a strip of skin or leather binding it to his loins. 'Addereth twice occurs with the epithet "hairy" ( Genesis 25:25 ; Zechariah 13:4 , RSV). It is the word denoting the "goodly Babylonish garment" which Achan coveted ( Joshua 7:21 ).
2. Heb. me'il, frequently applied to the "robe of the ephod" ( Exodus 28:4 Exodus 28:31 ; Leviticus 8:7 ), which was a splendid under tunic wholly of blue, reaching to below the knees. It was woven without seam, and was put on by being drawn over the head. It was worn not only by priests but by kings ( 1 Samuel 24:4 ), prophets ( 15:27 ), and rich men ( Job 1:20 ; 2:12 ). This was the "little coat" which Samuel's mother brought to him from year to year to Shiloh ( 1 Samuel 2:19 ), a miniature of the official priestly robe.
3. Semikah, "a rug," the garment which Jael threw as a covering over Sisera ( Judges 4:18 ). The Hebrew word occurs nowhere else in Scripture.
habitation, a town in the tribe of Judah, about 7 miles south of Hebron, which gave its name to the wilderness, the district round the conical hill on which the town stood. Here David hid from Saul, and here Nabal had his possessions and his home ( 1 Samuel 23:24 1 Samuel 23:25 ; 25:2 ). "Only some small foundations of hewn stone, a square enclosure, and several cisterns are now to be seen at Maon. Are they the remains of Nabal's great establishment?" The hill is now called Tell M'ain.
bitter; sad, a symbolical name which Naomi gave to herself because of her misfortunes ( Ruth 1:20 ).
bitterness, a fountain at the sixth station of the Israelites ( Exodus 15:23 Exodus 15:24 ; Numbers 33:8 ) whose waters were so bitter that they could not drink them. On this account they murmured against Moses, who, under divine direction, cast into the fountain "a certain tree" which took away its bitterness, so that the people drank of it. This was probably the 'Ain Hawarah, where there are still several springs of water that are very "bitter," distant some 47 miles from 'Ayun Mousa.
trembling, a place on the southern boundary of Zebulun ( Joshua 19:11 ). It has been identified with the modern M'alul, about 4 miles south-west of Nazareth.
( 1 Corinthians 16:22 ) consists of two Aramean words, Maran'athah, meaning, "our Lord comes," or is "coming." If the latter interpretation is adopted, the meaning of the phrase is, "Our Lord is coming, and he will judge those who have set him at nought." (Compare Phil 4:5 ; James 5:8 James 5:9 .)
as a mineral, consists of carbonate of lime, its texture varying from the highly crystalline to the compact. In Esther 1:6 there are four Hebrew words which are rendered marble:,
1. Shesh, "pillars of marble." But this word probably designates dark-blue limestone rather than marble.
2. Dar, some regard as Parian marble. It is here rendered "white marble." But nothing is certainly known of it.
3. Bahat, "red marble," probably the verd-antique or half-porphyry of Egypt.
4. Sohareth, "black marble," probably some spotted variety of marble. "The marble pillars and tesserae of various colours of the palace at Susa came doubtless from Persia itself, where marble of various colours is found, especially in the province of Hamadan Susiana." The marble of Solomon's architectural works may have been limestone from near Jerusalem, or from Lebanon, or possibly white marble from Arabia. Herod employed Parian marble in the temple, and marble columns still exist in great abundance at Jerusalem.
the post-biblical name of the month which was the eighth of the sacred and the second of the civil year of the Jews. It began with the new moon of our November. It is once called Bul ( 1 Kings 6:38 ). Assyrian, Arah Samna, "eighth month,"
possession, a city in the plain of Judah ( John 15:44 ). Here Asa defeated Zerah the Ethiopian ( 2 Chronicles 14:9 2 Chronicles 14:10 ). It is identified with the ruin el-Mer'ash, about 1 1/2 mile south of Beit Jibrin.
the evangelist; "John whose surname was Mark" ( Acts 12:12 Acts 12:25 ). Mark (Marcus, Colossians 4:10 , etc.) was his Roman name, which gradually came to supersede his Jewish name John. He is called John in Acts 13:5 Acts 13:13 , and Mark in 15:39,2Tim 4:11 , etc.
He was the son of Mary, a woman apparently of some means and influence, and was probably born in Jerusalem, where his mother resided ( Acts 12:12 ). Of his father we know nothing. He was cousin of Barnabas ( Colossians 4:10 ). It was in his mother's house that Peter found "many gathered together praying" when he was released from prison; and it is probable that it was here that he was converted by Peter, who calls him his "son" ( 1 Peter 5:13 ). It is probable that the "young man" spoken of in Mark 14:51,52was Mark himself. He is first mentioned in Acts 12:25 . He went with Paul and Barnabas on their first journey (about A.D. 47) as their "minister," but from some cause turned back when they reached Perga in Pamphylia ( Acts 12:25 ; 13:13 ). Three years afterwards a "sharp contention" arose between Paul and Barnabas ( 15:36-40 ), because Paul would not take Mark with him. He, however, was evidently at length reconciled to the apostle, for he was with him in his first imprisonment at Rome ( Colossians 4:10 ; Philemon 1:24 ). At a later period he was with Peter in Babylon ( 1 Peter 5:13 ), then, and for some centuries afterwards, one of the chief seats of Jewish learning; and he was with Timothy in Ephesus when Paul wrote him during his second imprisonment ( 2 Timothy 4:11 ). He then disappears from view.
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter of Peter" specially.
As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us with no definite information. Mark makes no mention of the destruction of Jerusalem, hence it must have been written before that event, and probably about A.D. 63.
It was intended primarily for Romans. This appears probable when it is considered that it makes no reference to the Jewish law, and that the writer takes care to interpret words which a Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as, "Boanerges" ( 3:17 ); "Talitha cumi" ( 5:41 ); "Corban" ( 7:11 ); "Bartimaeus" ( 10:46 ); "Abba" ( 14:36 ); "Eloi," etc. ( 15:34 ). Jewish usages are also explained ( 7:3 ; 14:3 ; 14:12 ; 15:42 ). Mark also uses certain Latin words not found in any of the other Gospels, as "speculator" ( 6:27 , rendered, A.V., "executioner;" RSV, "soldier of his guard"), "xestes" (a corruption of sextarius, rendered "pots," Acts 7:4 Acts 7:8 ), "quadrans" ( 12:42 , rendered "a farthing"), "centurion" ( Acts 15:39 Acts 15:44 Acts 15:45 ). He only twice quotes from the Old Testament ( 1:2 ; 15:28 ).
The characteristics of this Gospel are, (1) the absence of the genealogy of our Lord, (2) whom he represents as clothed with power, the "lion of the tribe of Judah."
1. Mark also records with wonderful minuteness the very words ( 3:17 ; 5:41 ; Acts 7:11 Acts 7:34 ; 14:36 ) as well as the position ( 9:35 ) and gestures ( Acts 3:5 Acts 3:34 ; 5:32 ; 9:36 ; 10:16 ) of our Lord.
2. He is also careful to record particulars of person ( Acts 1:29 Acts 1:36 ; Acts 3:6 Acts 3:22 , etc.), number ( 5:13 ; 6:7 , etc.), place ( 2:13 ; 4:1 ; 7:31 , etc.), and time ( 1:35 ; 2:1 ; 4:35 , etc.), which the other evangelists omit.
3. The phrase "and straightway" occurs nearly forty times in this Gospel; while in Luke's Gospel, which is much longer, it is used only seven times, and in John only four times. "The Gospel of Mark," says Westcott, "is essentially a transcript from life. The course and issue of facts are imaged in it with the clearest outline." "In Mark we have no attempt to draw up a continuous narrative. His Gospel is a rapid succession of vivid pictures loosely strung together without much attempt to bind them into a whole or give the events in their natural sequence. This pictorial power is that which specially characterizes this evangelist, so that 'if any one desires to know an evangelical fact, not only in its main features and grand results, but also in its most minute and so to speak more graphic delineation, he must betake himself to Mark.'" The leading principle running through this Gospel may be expressed in the motto: "Jesus came...preaching the gospel of the kingdom" ( Mark 1:14 ). "Out of a total of 662 verses, Mark has 406 in common with Matthew and Luke, 145 with Matthew, 60 with Luke, and at most 51 peculiar to itself." (See MATTHEW .)
any place of public resort, and hence a public place or broad street ( Matthew 11:16 ; 20:3 ), as well as a forum or market-place proper, where goods were exposed for sale, and where public assemblies and trials were held ( Acts 16:19 ; 17:17 ). This word occurs in the Old Testament only in Ezekiel 27:13 .
In early times markets were held at the gates of cities, where commodities were exposed for sale ( 2 Kings 7:18 ). In large towns the sale of particular articles seems to have been confined to certain streets, as we may infer from such expressions as "the bakers' street" ( Jeremiah 37:21 ), and from the circumstance that in the time of Josephus the valley between Mounts Zion and Moriah was called the Tyropoeon or the "valley of the cheesemakers."
bitterness; i.e., "perfect grief", a place not far from Jerusalem; mentioned in connection with the invasion of the Assyrian army ( Micah 1:12 ).
was instituted in Paradise when man was in innocence ( Genesis 2:18-24 ). Here we have its original charter, which was confirmed by our Lord, as the basis on which all regulations are to be framed ( Matthew 19:4 Matthew 19:5 ). It is evident that monogamy was the original law of marriage ( Matthew 19:5 ; 1 Corinthians 6:16 ). This law was violated in after times, when corrupt usages began to be introduced ( Genesis 4:19 ; 6:2 ). We meet with the prevalence of polygamy and concubinage in the patriarchal age ( Genesis 16:1-4 ; 22:21-24 ; Genesis 28:8 Genesis 28:9 ; 29:23-30 , etc.). Polygamy was acknowledged in the Mosaic law and made the basis of legislation, and continued to be practised all down through the period of Jewish histroy to the Captivity, after which there is no instance of it on record.
It seems to have been the practice from the beginning for fathers to select wives for their sons ( Genesis 24:3 ; 38:6 ). Sometimes also proposals were initiated by the father of the maiden ( Exodus 2:21 ). The brothers of the maiden were also sometimes consulted ( Genesis 24:51 ; 34:11 ), but her own consent was not required. The young man was bound to give a price to the father of the maiden ( 31:15 ; 34:12 ; Exodus 22:16 Exodus 22:17 ; 1 Samuel 18:23 1 Samuel 18:25 ; Ruth 4:10 ; Hosea 3:2 ) On these patriarchal customs the Mosaic law made no change.
In the pre-Mosaic times, when the proposals were accepted and the marriage price given, the bridegroom could come at once and take away his bride to his own house ( Genesis 24:63-67 ). But in general the marriage was celebrated by a feast in the house of the bride's parents, to which all friends were invited ( Genesis 29:22 Genesis 29:27 ); and on the day of the marriage the bride, concealed under a thick veil, was conducted to her future husband's home.
Our Lord corrected many false notions then existing on the subject of marriage ( Matthew 22:23-30 ), and placed it as a divine institution on the highest grounds. The apostles state clearly and enforce the nuptial duties of husband and wife ( Ephesians 5:22-33 ; Colossians 3:18 Colossians 3:19 ; 1 Peter 3:1-7 ). Marriage is said to be "honourable" ( Hebrews 13:4 ), and the prohibition of it is noted as one of the marks of degenerate times ( 1 Timothy 4:3 ).
The marriage relation is used to represent the union between God and his people ( Isaiah 54:5 ; Jeremiah 3:1-14 ; Hosea 2:9 Hosea 2:20 ). In the New Testament the same figure is employed in representing the love of Christ to his saints ( Ephesians 5:25-27 ). The Church of the redeemed is the "Bride, the Lamb's wife" ( Revelation 19:7-9 ).
( John 2:1-11 ) "lasted usually for a whole week; but the cost of such prolonged rejoicing is very small in the East. The guests sit round the great bowl or bowls on the floor, the meal usually consisting of a lamb or kid stewed in rice or barley. The most honoured guests sit nearest, others behind; and all in eating dip their hand into the one smoking mound, pieces of the thin bread, bent together, serving for spoons when necessary. After the first circle have satisfied themselves, those lower in honour sit down to the rest, the whole company being men, for women are never seen at a feast. Water is poured on the hands before eating; and this is repeated when the meal closes, the fingers having first been wiped on pieces of bread, which, after serving the same purpose as table-napkins with us, are thrown on the ground to be eaten by any dog that may have stolen in from the streets through the ever-open door, or picked up by those outside when gathered and tossed out to them ( Matthew 15:27 ; Mark 7:28 ). Rising from the ground and retiring to the seats round the walls, the guests then sit down cross-legged and gossip, or listen to recitals, or puzzle over riddles, light being scantily supplied by a small lamp or two, or if the night be chilly, by a smouldering fire of weeds kindled in the middle of the room, perhaps in a brazier, often in a hole in the floor. As to the smoke, it escapes as it best may; but indeed there is little of it, though enough to blacken the water or wine or milk skins hung up on pegs on the wall. (Compare Psalms 119:83 .) To some such marriage-feast Jesus and his five disciples were invited at Cana of Galilee." Geikie's Life of Christ. (See CANA .)
the Areopagus or rocky hill in Athens, north-west of the Acropolis, where the Athenian supreme tribunal and court of morals was held. From some part of this hill Paul delivered the address recorded in Acts 17:22-31 . (See AREOPAGUS .)
bitterness, the sister of Lazarus and Mary, and probably the eldest of the family, who all resided at Bethany ( Luke 10:38 Luke 10:40 Luke 10:41 ; John 11:1-39 ). From the residence being called "her house," some have supposed that she was a widow, and that her brother and sister lodged with her. She seems to have been of an anxious, bustling spirit, anxious to be helpful in providing the best things for the Master's use, in contrast to the quiet earnestness of Mary, who was more concerned to avail herself of the opportunity of sitting at his feet and learning of him. Afterwards at a supper given to Christ and his disciples in her house "Martha served." Nothing further is known of her.
"Mary and Martha are representatives of two orders of human character. One was absorbed, preoccupied, abstracted; the other was concentrated and single-hearted. Her own world was the all of Martha; Christ was the first thought with Mary. To Martha life was 'a succession of particular businesses;' to Mary life 'was rather the flow of one spirit.' Martha was Petrine, Mary was Johannine. The one was a well-meaning, bustling busybody; the other was a reverent disciple, a wistful listener." Paul had such a picture as that of Martha in his mind when he spoke of serving the Lord "without distraction" ( 1 Corinthians 7:35 ).
one who bears witness of the truth, and suffers death in the cause of Christ ( Acts 22:20 ; Revelation 2:13 ; 17:6 ). In this sense Stephen was the first martyr. The Greek word so rendered in all other cases is translated "witness."
1. The wife of Joseph, the mother of Jesus, called the "Virgin Mary," though never so designated in Scripture ( Matthew 2:11 ; Acts 1:14 ). Little is known of her personal history. Her genealogy is given in Luke 3 . She was of the tribe of Judah and the lineage of David ( Psalms 132:11 ; Luke 1:32 ). She was connected by marriage with Elisabeth, who was of the lineage of Aaron ( Luke 1:36 ). While she resided at Nazareth with her parents, before she became the wife of Joseph, the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah ( Luke 1:35 ). After this she went to visit her cousin Elisabeth, who was living with her husband Zacharias (probably at Juttah, Joshua 15:55 ; 21:16 , in the neighbourhood of Maon), at a considerable distance, about 100 miles, from Nazareth. Immediately on entering the house she was saluted by Elisabeth as the mother of her Lord, and then forthwith gave utterance to her hymn of thanksgiving ( Luke 1:46-56 ; Compare 1 Samuel 2:1-10 ). After three months Mary returned to Nazareth to her own home. Joseph was supernaturally made aware ( Matthew 1:18-25 ) of her condition, and took her to his own home. Soon after this the decree of Augustus ( Luke 2:1 ) required that they should proceed to Bethlehem ( Micah 5:2 ), some 80 or 90 miles from Nazareth; and while they were there they found shelter in the inn or khan provided for strangers ( Luke 2:6 Luke 2:7 ). But as the inn was crowded, Mary had to retire to a place among the cattle, and there she brought forth her son, who was called Jesus ( Matthew 1:21 ), because he was to save his people from their sins. This was followed by the presentation in the temple, the flight into Egypt, and their return in the following year and residence at Nazareth ( Matthew 2 ). There for thirty years Mary, the wife of Joseph the carpenter, resides, filling her own humble sphere, and pondering over the strange things that had happened to her. During these years only one event in the history of Jesus is recorded, viz., his going up to Jerusalem when twelve years of age, and his being found among the doctors in the temple ( Luke 2:41-52 ). Probably also during this period Joseph died, for he is not again mentioned. After the commencement of our Lord's public ministry little notice is taken of Mary. She was present at the marriage in Cana. A year and a half after this we find her at Capernaum ( Matthew 12:46 Matthew 12:48 Matthew 12:49 ), where Christ uttered the memorable words, "Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!" The next time we find her is at the cross along with her sister Mary, and Mary Magdalene, and Salome, and other women ( John 19:26 ). From that hour John took her to his own abode. She was with the little company in the upper room after the Ascension ( Acts 1:14 ). From this time she wholly disappears from public notice. The time and manner of her death are unknown.
2. Mary Magdalene, i.e., Mary of Magdala, a town on the western shore of the Lake of Tiberias. She is for the first time noticed in Luke 8:3 as one of the women who "ministered to Christ of their substance." Their motive was that of gratitude for deliverances he had wrought for them. Out of Mary were cast seven demons. Gratitude to her great Deliverer prompted her to become his follower. These women accompanied him also on his last journey to Jerusalem ( Matthew 27:55 ; Mark 15:41 ; Luke 23:55 ). They stood near the cross. There Mary remained till all was over, and the body was taken down and laid in Joseph's tomb. Again, in the earliest dawn of the first day of the week she, with Salome and Mary the mother of James ( Matthew 28:1 ; Mark 16:2 ), came to the sepulchre, bringing with them sweet spices, that they might anoint the body of Jesus. They found the sepulchre empty, but saw the "vision of angels" ( Matthew 28:5 ). She hastens to tell Peter and John, who were probably living together at this time ( John 20:1 John 20:2 ), and again immediately returns to the sepulchre. There she lingers thoughtfully, weeping at the door of the tomb. The risen Lord appears to her, but at first she knows him not. His utterance of her name "Mary" recalls her to consciousness, and she utters the joyful, reverent cry, "Rabboni." She would fain cling to him, but he forbids her, saying, "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father." This is the last record regarding Mary of Magdala, who now returned to Jerusalem. The idea that this Mary was "the woman who was a sinner," or that she was unchaste, is altogether groundless.
3. Mary the sister of Lazarus is brought to our notice in connection with the visits of our Lord to Bethany. She is contrasted with her sister Martha, who was "cumbered about many things" while Jesus was their guest, while Mary had chosen "the good part." Her character also appears in connection with the death of her brother ( John 11:20 John 11:31 John 11:33 ). On the occasion of our Lord's last visit to Bethany, Mary brought "a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus" as he reclined at table in the house of one Simon, who had been a leper ( Matthew 26:6 ; Mark 14:3 ; John 12:2 John 12:3 ). This was an evidence of her overflowing love to the Lord. Nothing is known of her subsequent history. It would appear from this act of Mary's, and from the circumstance that they possessed a family vault ( 11:38 ), and that a large number of Jews from Jerusalem came to condole with them on the death of Lazarus ( 11:19 ), that this family at Bethany belonged to the wealthier class of the people. (See MARTHA .)
4. Mary the wife of Cleopas is mentioned ( John 19:25 ) as standing at the cross in company with Mary of Magdala and Mary the mother of Jesus. By comparing Matthew 27:56 and Mark 15:40 , we find that this Mary and "Mary the mother of James the little" are on and the same person, and that she was the sister of our Lord's mother. She was that "other Mary" who was present with Mary of Magdala at the burial of our Lord ( Matthew 27:61 ; Mark 15:47 ); and she was one of those who went early in the morning of the first day of the week to anoint the body, and thus became one of the first witnesses of the resurrection ( Matthew 28:1 ; Mark 16:1 ; Luke 24:1 ).
5. Mary the mother of John Mark was one of the earliest of our Lord's disciples. She was the sister of Barnabas ( Colossians 4:10 ), and joined with him in disposing of their land and giving the proceeds of the sale into the treasury of the Church ( Acts 4:37 ; 12:12 ). Her house in Jerusalem was the common meeting-place for the disciples there.
6. A Christian at Rome who treated Paul with special kindness ( Romans 16:6 ).
instructing, occurs in the title of thirteen Psalms (32,42,44, etc.). It denotes a song enforcing some lesson of wisdom or piety, a didactic song. In Psalms 47:7 it is rendered, Authorized Version, "with understanding;" Revised Version, marg., "in a skilful psalm."
(= Meshech 1 Chronicles 1:17 ), one of the four sons of Aram, and the name of a tribe descended from him ( Genesis 10:23 ) inhabiting some part probably of Mesopotamia. Some have supposed that they were the inhabitants of Mount Masius, the present Karja Baghlar, which forms part of the chain of Taurus.
an artificer in stone. The Tyrians seem to have been specially skilled in architecture ( 1 Kings 5:17 1 Kings 5:18 ; 2 Sam 5:11 ). This art the Hebrews no doubt learned in Egypt ( Exodus 1:11 Exodus 1:14 ), where ruins of temples and palaces fill the traveller with wonder at the present day.
a lifting up, gift, one of the sons of Ishmael, the founder of an Arabian tribe ( Genesis 25:14 ); a nomad tribe inhabiting the Arabian desert toward Babylonia.
trial, temptation, a name given to the place where the Israelites, by their murmuring for want of water, provoked Jehovah to anger against them. It is also called Meribah ( Exodus 17:7 ; Deuteronomy 6:16 ; Psalms 95:8 Psalms 95:9 ; Hebrews 3:8 ).
1. A priest of Baal, slain before his altar during the reformation under Jehoiada ( 2 Kings 11:18 ).
2. The son of Eleazar, and father of Jacob, who was the father of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin Mary ( Matthew 1:15 ).
3. The father of Shephatiah ( Jeremiah 38:1 ).
gift of Jehovah.
2. A Levite who assisted in purifying the temple at the reformation under Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:13 ).
3. The original name of Zedekiah (q.v.), the last of the kings of Judah ( 2 Kings 24:17 ). He was the third son of Josiah, who fell at Megiddo. He succeeded his nephew Jehoiakin.
1. The son of Amos, in the genealogy of our Lord ( Luke 3:25 ).
2. The son of Semei, in the same genealogy ( Luke 3:26 ).
gift, one of our Lord's ancestry ( Matthew 1:15 ).
gift of God.
1. The son of Levi, and father of Heli ( Luke 3:24 ).
2. Son of another Levi ( Luke 3:29 ).
gift of God, a common Jewish name after the Exile. He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or tax-gatherer at Capernaum. On one occasion Jesus, coming up from the side of the lake, passed the custom-house where Matthew was seated, and said to him, "Follow me." Matthew arose and followed him, and became his disciple ( Matthew 9:9 ). Formerly the name by which he was known was Levi ( Mark 2:14 ; Luke 5:27 ); he now changed it, possibly in grateful memory of his call, to Matthew. The same day on which Jesus called him he made a "great feast" ( Luke 5:29 ), a farewell feast, to which he invited Jesus and his disciples, and probably also many of old associates. He was afterwards selected as one of the twelve ( 6:15 ). His name does not occur again in the Gospel history except in the lists of the apostles. The last notice of him is in Acts 1:13 . The time and manner of his death are unknown.
The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists."
As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem ( Matthew 24 ), and some time after the events it records. The probability is that it was written between the years A.D. 60 and 65.
The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the writer show that this Gospel was written for Jewish Christians of Palestine. His great object is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah, and that in him the ancient prophecies had their fulfilment. The Gospel is full of allusions to those passages of the Old Testament in which Christ is predicted and foreshadowed. The one aim prevading the whole book is to show that Jesus is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write." This Gospel contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament, forty-three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly outnumbering those found in the other Gospels. The main feature of this Gospel may be expressed in the motto, "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil."
As to the language in which this Gospel was written there is much controversy. Many hold, in accordance with old tradition, that it was originally written in Hebrew (i.e., the Aramaic or Syro-Chaldee dialect, then the vernacular of the inhabitants of Palestine), and afterwards translated into Greek, either by Matthew himself or by some person unknown. This theory, though earnestly maintained by able critics, we cannot see any ground for adopting. From the first this Gospel in Greek was received as of authority in the Church. There is nothing in it to show that it is a translation. Though Matthew wrote mainly for the Jews, yet they were everywhere familiar with the Greek language. The same reasons which would have suggested the necessity of a translation into Greek would have led the evangelist to write in Greek at first. It is confessed that this Gospel has never been found in any other form than that in which we now possess it.
The leading characteristic of this Gospel is that it sets forth the kingly glory of Christ, and shows him to be the true heir to David's throne. It is the Gospel of the kingdom. Matthew uses the expression "kingdom of heaven" (thirty-two times), while Luke uses the expression "kingdom of God" (thirty-three times). Some Latinized forms occur in this Gospel, as kodrantes ( Matthew 5:26 ), for the Latin quadrans, and phragello ( 27:26 ), for the Latin flagello. It must be remembered that Matthew was a tax-gatherer for the Roman government, and hence in contact with those using the Latin language.
As to the relation of the Gospels to each other, we must maintain that each writer of the synoptics (the first three) wrote independently of the other two, Matthew being probably first in point of time.
"Out of a total of 1071 verses, Matthew has 387 in common with Mark and Luke, 130 with Mark, 184 with Luke; only 387 being peculiar to itself." (See MARK; LUKE; GOSPELS .)
The book is fitly divided into these four parts:
1. Containing the genealogy, the birth, and the infancy of Jesus (1; 2).
2. The discourses and actions of John the Baptist preparatory to Christ's public ministry (3; 4:11 ).
3. The discourses and actions of Christ in Galilee ( (4:12-20:16). ).
4. The sufferings, death and resurrection of our Lord ( 20:17-28 ).