Easton's Bible Dictionary
Laban — Lucre
1. The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister Rebekah was Isaac's wife ( Genesis 24 ). Jacob, one of the sons of this marriage, fled to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah and Rachel (ch. 29) he eventually married. (See JACOB .)
impregnable, a royal Canaanitish city in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine ( Joshua 10:3 Joshua 10:5 ; 12:11 ). It was taken and destroyed by the Israelites ( Joshua 10:31-33 ). It afterwards became, under Rehoboam, one of the strongest fortresses of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 10:9 ). It was assaulted and probably taken by Sennacherib ( 2 Kings 18:14 2 Kings 18:17 ; 19:8 ; Isaiah 36:2 ). An account of this siege is given on some slabs found in the chambers of the palace of Koyunjik, and now in the British Museum. The inscription has been deciphered as follows:, "Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish: I gave permission for its slaughter." (See NINEVEH .)
Lachish has been identified with Tell-el-Hesy, where a cuneiform tablet has been found, containing a letter supposed to be from Amenophis at Amarna in reply to one of the Amarna tablets sent by Zimrida from Lachish. This letter is from the chief of Atim (=Etam, 1 Chronicles 4:32 ) to the chief of Lachish, in which the writer expresses great alarm at the approach of marauders from the Hebron hills. "They have entered the land," he says, "to lay waste...strong is he who has come down. He lays waste." This letter shows that "the communication by tablets in cuneiform script was not only usual in writing to Egypt, but in the internal correspondence of the country. The letter, though not so important in some ways as the Moabite stone and the Siloam text, is one of the most valuable discoveries ever made in Palestine" (Conder's Tell Amarna Tablets, p. 134).
Excavations at Lachish are still going on, and among other discoveries is that of an iron blast-furnace, with slag and ashes, which is supposed to have existed B.C. 1500. If the theories of experts are correct, the use of the hot-air blast instead of cold air (an improvement in iron manufacture patented by Neilson in 1828) was known fifteen hundred years before Christ. (See FURNACE .)
occurs only once, in the account of Jacob's vision ( Genesis 28:12 ).
1. A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine ( Judges 18:7 Judges 18:14 ); called also Leshem ( Joshua 19:47 ) and Dan ( Judges 18:7 Judges 18:29 ; Jeremiah 8:16 ). It lay near the sources of the Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, "the mound of the judge," to the north of the Waters of Merom ( Joshua 11:5 ).
2. A place mentioned in Isaiah 10:30 . It has been supposed to be the modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem.
3. The father of Phalti ( 1 Samuel 25:44 ).
1. Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice ( Exodus 29:38-42 ), on the Sabbath day ( Numbers 28:9 ), at the feast of the New Moon ( 28:11 ), of Trumpets ( 29:2 ), of Tabernacles (13-40), of Pentecost ( Leviticus 23:18-20 ), and of the Passover ( Exodus 12:5 ), and on many other occasions ( 1 Chronicles 29:21 ; 2 Chr 29:21 ; Leviticus 9:3 ; 14:10-25 ).
2. Heb. taleh, a young sucking lamb ( 1 Samuel 7:9 ; Isaiah 65:25 ). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the type of meekness and innocence ( Isaiah 11:6 ; 65:25 ; Luke 10:3 ; John 21:15 ). The lamb was a symbol of Christ ( Genesis 4:4 ; Exodus 12:3 ; 29:38 ; Isaiah 16:1 ; 53:7 ; John 1:36 ; Revelation 13:8 ). Christ is called the Lamb of God ( John 1:29 John 1:36 ), as the great sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types ( Numbers 6:12 ; Leviticus 14:12-17 ; Isaiah 53:7 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 ).
the strikerdown; the wild man.
1. The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of marriage ( Genesis 4:18-24 ). His address to his two wives, Adah and Zillah ( Genesis 4:23 Genesis 4:24 ), is the only extant example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called "Lamech's sword-song." He was "rude and ruffianly," fearing neither God nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his descendants.
(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan ( 2 Samuel 1:17-27 ). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning ( Amos 8:10 ). In 2Sam 3:33,34is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity ( Ezekiel 27:2 Ezekiel 27:32 ; 28:12 ; Ezekiel 32:2 Ezekiel 32:16 ).
called in the Hebrew canon 'Ekhah , meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2 Samuel 1:19-27 ). The LXX. adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim. (See BIBLE .)
As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in following the LXX. and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah. The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him. According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book. That cavern is still pointed out. "In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the city, the local belief has placed 'the grotto of Jeremiah.' There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned the fall of his country" (Stanley, Jewish Church).
The book consists of five separate poems. In chapter 1 the prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely. In chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with the national sins that had caused them. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God. The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day would dawn for them. Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to the people's sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people.
The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the Psalms (25,34,37,119), i.e., each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The third has sixty-six verses, in which each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The fifth is not acrostic.
Speaking of the "Wailing-place (q.v.) of the Jews" at Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says: "There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms."
1. That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light ( Exodus 25:37 ; 1 Kings 7:49 ; 2 Chr. 4:20 ; 13:11 ; Zechariah 4:2 ). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them ( Exodus 27:20 ).
4. Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage ceremonies ( Matthew 25:1 ). This word is also frequently metaphorically used to denote life, welfare, guidance, etc. ( 2 Samuel 21:17 ; Psalms 119:105 ; Proverbs 6:23 ; 13:9 ).
The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus ( Revelation 3:14 ), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity ( Colossians 2:1 ; 4:15 ; Revelation 1:11 , etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or "old castle."
( Colossians 4:16 ), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea.
torches. Deborah is called "the wife of Lapidoth" ( Judges 4:4 ). Some have rendered the expression "a woman of a fiery spirit," under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a woman of a torch-like spirit.
of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands ( Judges 7:7 ).
the name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Leviticus 11:19 and Deuteronomy 14:18 . The Hebrew name of this bird, dukiphath , has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit.
a city in the island of Crete ( Acts 27:8 ). Its ruins are still found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of "Fair Havens."
fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea ( Genesis 10:19 ). It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs.
the vernacular language of the ancient Romans ( John 19:20 ).
1. Heb. 'eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze passes ( Judges 5:28 ). The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the neighbourhood.
2. Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window (Cant. 2:9 ).
3. Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or balcony ( 2 Kings 1:2 ). The lattice window is frequently used in Eastern countries.
(Heb. kiyor), a "basin" for boiling in, a "pan" for cooking ( 1 Samuel 2:14 ), a "fire-pan" or hearth ( Zechariah 12:6 ), the sacred wash-bowl of the tabernacle and temple ( Exodus 30:18 Exodus 30:28 ; 31:9 ; 35:16 ; 38:8 ; 39:39 ; Exodus 40:7 Exodus 40:11 Exodus 40:30 , etc.), a basin for the water used by the priests in their ablutions.
That which was originally used in the tabernacle was of brass (rather copper; Heb. nihsheth), made from the metal mirrors the women brought out of Egypt ( Exodus 38:8 ). It contained water wherewith the priests washed their hands and feet when they entered the tabernacle ( 40:32 ). It stood in the court between the altar and the door of the tabernacle ( Exodus 30:19 Exodus 30:21 ).
In the temple there were ten lavers used for the sacrifices, and the molten sea for the ablutions of the priests ( 2 Chronicles 4:6 ). The position and uses of these are described 1 Kings 7:23-39 ; 2 Chr 4:6 . The "molten sea" was made of copper, taken from Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer, king of Zobah ( 1 Chronicles 18:8 ; 1 Kings 7:23-26 ).
No lavers are mentioned in the second temple.
a rule of action.
1. The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by natural light ( Romans 1:20 ; Romans 2:14 Romans 2:15 ). This law binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the moral relations of things.
2. The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the rites and ceremonies of worship. This law was obligatory only till Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his work ( Hebrews 7:9 Hebrews 7:11 ; 10:1 ; Ephesians 2:16 ). It was fulfilled rather than abrogated by the gospel.
3. The Judicial Law, the law which directed the civil policy of the Hebrew nation.
4. The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human conduct, binding on all men to the end of time. It was promulgated at Sinai. It is perfect ( Psalms 19:7 ), perpetual ( Matthew 5:17 Matthew 5:18 ), holy ( Romans 7:12 ), good, spiritual (14), and exceeding broad ( Psalms 119:96 ). Although binding on all, we are not under it as a covenant of works ( Galatians 3:17 ). (See .)
5. Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of God. They are right because God commands them.
6. Moral positive laws are commanded by God because they are right.
is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation ( 1 Kings 2:3 ; 2 Kings 23:25 ; Ezra 3:2 ). It is called by way of eminence simply "the Law" (Heb. Torah, Deuteronomy 1:5 ; Deuteronomy 4:8 Deuteronomy 4:44 ; Deuteronomy 17:18 Deuteronomy 17:19 ; Deuteronomy 27:3 Deuteronomy 27:8 ). As a written code it is called the "book of the law of Moses" ( 2 Kings 14:6 ; Isaiah 8:20 ), the "book of the law of God" ( Joshua 24:26 ).
The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at once to the commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.
among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues ( Matthew 22:35 ; Luke 10:25 ). The functions of the "lawyer" and "scribe" were identical. (See DOCTOR .)
an abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps.
1. The brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from the dead after he had lain four days in the tomb ( John 11:1-44 ). This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death.
2. A beggar named in the parable recorded Luke 16:19-31 .
of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Genesis 8:11 . The barren fig-tree had nothing but leaves ( Matthew 21:19 ; Mark 11:13 ). The oak-leaf is mentioned Isaiah 1:30 ; 6:13 . There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their restoration ( Leviticus 26:36 ; Isaiah 34:4 ; Jeremiah 8:13 ; Daniel 4:12 Daniel 4:14 Daniel 4:21 ; Mark 11:13 ; 13:28 ). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity ( Psalms 1:3 ; Jeremiah 17:8 ; Ezekiel 47:12 ); the faded, of decay ( Job 13:25 ; Isaiah 1:30 ; 64:6 ; Jeremiah 8:13 ).
Leaf of a door ( 1 Kings 6:34 ), the valve of a folding door.
Leaf of a book ( Jeremiah 36:23 ), perhaps a fold of a roll.
a treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites ( Exodus 23:32 Exodus 23:33 ; 34:12-16 ); (2) with the Amalekites ( Exodus 17:8 Exodus 17:14 ; Deuteronomy 25:17-19 ); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites ( Deuteronomy 2:9 Deuteronomy 2:19 ). Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other nations. Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt.
weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel ( Genesis 29:16 ). Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father ( Genesis 29:23 ). She was "tender-eyed" (17). She bore to Jacob six sons (32-35), also one daughter, Dinah ( 30:21 ). She accompanied Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going down into Egypt ( Genesis 31 ), and was buried in the cave of Machpelah ( 49:31 ).
for answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Psalms 88 . The title "Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth" may be rendered "concerning sickness, to be sung" i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness.
a girdle of, worn by Elijah ( 2 Kings 1:8 ) and John the Baptist ( Matthew 3:4 ). Leather was employed both for clothing ( Numbers 31:20 ; Hebrews 11:37 ) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned ( Acts 9:43 ; Acts 10:6 Acts 10:32 ). It was probably learned in Egypt.
2. Heb. hamets, properly "ferment." In Numbers 6:3 , "vinegar of wine" is more correctly "fermented wine." In Exodus 13:7 , the proper rendering would be, "Unfermented things [Heb. matstsoth] shall be consumed during the seven days; and there shall not be seen with thee fermented things [hamets], and there shall not be seen with thee leavened mass [seor] in all thy borders." The chemical definition of ferment or yeast is "a substance in a state of putrefaction, the atoms of which are in a continual motion." The use of leaven was strictly forbidden in all offerings made to the Lord by fire ( Leviticus 2:11 ; 7:12 ; 8:2 ; Numbers 6:15 ). Its secretly penetrating and diffusive power is referred to in 1 Corinthians 5:6 . In this respect it is used to illustrate the growth of the kingdom of heaven both in the individual heart and in the world ( Matthew 13:33 ). It is a figure also of corruptness and of perverseness of heart and life ( Matthew 16:6 Matthew 16:11 ; Mark 8:15 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 1 Corinthians 5:8 ).
white, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley ( Joshua 11:17 ) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, "the valley," a prolongation of the valley of the Jordan.
Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, "the entering of Hamath" ( Numbers 34:8 ; 1 Kings 8:65 ), in all about 90 geographical miles in extent. The average height of this range is from 6,000 to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about 10,200 feet, and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are covered with perpetual snow and ice. In the recesses of the range wild beasts as of old still abound ( 2 Kings 14:9 ; Cant 4:8 ). The scenes of the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes ( Psalms 29:5 Psalms 29:6 ; 72:16 ; 104:16-18 ; Cant 4:15 ; Isaiah 2:13 ; 35:2 ; 60:13 ; Hosea 14:5 ). It is famous for its cedars (Cant 5:15 ), its wines ( Hosea 14:7 ), and its cool waters ( Jeremiah 18:14 ). The ancient inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites ( Joshua 13:5 ; Judges 3:3 ). It was part of the Phoenician kingdom ( 1 Kings 5:2-6 ).
The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or "Lebanon towards the sunrising," runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet. Its highest peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser ranges radiate.
The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about 300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.
courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve ( Matthew 10:3 ), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord.
frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel ( Judges 21:19 ). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south of Nablus.
(Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered "grass" in 1Kings 1 Kings 19:26 , Job 40:15 , etc.; "herb" in Job 8:12 ; "hay" in Proverbs 27:25 , and Isaiah 15:6 ; "leeks" only in Numbers 11:5 . This Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs, such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables, and not necessarily what are now called leeks. The leek was a favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in Palestine.
(Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was applied to "lees" from the custom of allowing wine to stand on the lees that it might thereby be better preserved ( Isaiah 25:6 ). "Men settled on their lees" ( Zephaniah 1:12 ) are men "hardened or crusted." The image is derived from the crust formed at the bottom of wines long left undisturbed ( Jeremiah 48:11 ). The effect of wealthy undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They become stupidly secure (Compare Psalms 55:19 ; Amos 6:1 ). To drink the lees ( Psalms 75:8 ) denotes severe suffering.
( Judges 3:15 ; 20:16 ), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin.
a regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used ( Matthew 26:53 ; Mark 5:9 ) to express simply a great multitude.
a jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a victory over the Philistines ( Judges 15:9 Judges 15:14 Judges 15:16 ), slaying a thousand of them with the jawbone of an ass. The words in 15:19 , "a hollow place that was in the jaw" (A.V.), should be, as in Revised Version, "the hollow place that is in Lehi."
dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed ( Proverbs 31:1-9 ). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis identified him with Solomon.
(Heb. 'adashim), a species of vetch ( Genesis 25:34 ; 2 Sam 23:11 ), common in Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by Jacob was of lentils ( Genesis 25:29-34 ). They were among the provisions brought to David when he fled from Absalom ( 2 Samuel 17:28 ). It is the Ervum lens of Linnaeus, a leguminous plant which produces a fruit resembling a bean.
(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant 4:8 ), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness ( Isaiah 11:6 ), its watching for its prey ( Jeremiah 5:6 ), its swiftness ( Habakkuk 1:8 ), and the spots of its skin ( Jeremiah 13:23 ), are noticed. This word is used symbolically ( Daniel 7:6 ; Revelation 13:2 ).
(Heb. tsara'ath, a "smiting," a "stroke," because the disease was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Leviticus 13 ; 14 ; Numbers 12:10-15 , etc. There were reckoned six different circumstances under which it might develop itself, (1) without any apparent cause ( Leviticus 13:2-8 ); (2) its reappearance (9-17); (3) from an inflammation (18-28); (4) on the head or chin (29-37); (5) in white polished spots (38,39); (6) at the back or in the front of the head (40-44).
Lepers were required to live outside the camp or city ( Numbers 5:1-4 ; 12:10-15 , etc.). This disease was regarded as an awful punishment from the Lord ( 2 Kings 5:7 ; 2 Chr 26:20 ). (See MIRIAM; GEHAZI; UZZIAH .)
This disease "begins with specks on the eyelids and on the palms, gradually spreading over the body, bleaching the hair white wherever they appear, crusting the affected parts with white scales, and causing terrible sores and swellings. From the skin the disease eats inward to the bones, rotting the whole body piecemeal." "In Christ's day no leper could live in a walled town, though he might in an open village. But wherever he was he was required to have his outer garment rent as a sign of deep grief, to go bareheaded, and to cover his beard with his mantle, as if in lamentation at his own virtual death. He had further to warn passers-by to keep away from him, by calling out, 'Unclean! unclean!' nor could he speak to any one, or receive or return a salutation, since in the East this involves an embrace."
That the disease was not contagious is evident from the regulations regarding it ( Leviticus 13:12 Leviticus 13:13 Leviticus 13:36 ; 2 Kings 5:1 ). Leprosy was "the outward and visible sign of the innermost spiritual corruption; a meet emblem in its small beginnings, its gradual spread, its internal disfigurement, its dissolution little by little of the whole body, of that which corrupts, degrades, and defiles man's inner nature, and renders him unmeet to enter the presence of a pure and holy God" (Maclear's Handbook O.T). Our Lord cured lepers ( Matthew 8:2 Matthew 8:3 ; Mark 1:40-42 ). This divine power so manifested illustrates his gracious dealings with men in curing the leprosy of the soul, the fatal taint of sin.
in Rom 2:27,29means the outward form. The "oldness of the letter" ( 7:6 ) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules of conduct. In 2 Corinthians 3:6 , "the letter" means the Mosaic law as a written law. (See WRITING .)
peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan, and head of an Arabian tribe ( Genesis 25:3 ).
1. The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the name is found in Leah's words ( Genesis 29:34 ), "This time will my husband be joined [Heb. yillaveh] unto me." He is mentioned as taking a prominent part in avenging his sister Dinah ( Genesis 34:25-31 ). He and his three sons went down with Jacob ( 46:11 ) into Egypt, where he died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years ( Exodus 6:16 ).
2. The father of Matthat, and son of Simeon, of the ancestors of Christ ( Luke 3:29 ).
3. Luke 3:24 .
a transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning "twisted," "coiled." In Job 3:8 , Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Psalms 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep." This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as some think "the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and cast on the shores of the Red Sea" ( Psalms 74:14 ). As used in Isaiah 27:1 , "leviathan the piercing [RSV 'swift'] serpent, even leviathan that crooked [RSV marg. 'winding'] serpent," the word may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the Babylonian.
from Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage ( Genesis 38:8 ; Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ; Compare Ruth 3 ; 4:10 ). Its object was "to raise up seed to the departed brother."
a descendant of the tribe of Levi ( Exodus 6:25 ; Leviticus 25:32 ; Numbers 35:2 ; Joshua 21:3 Joshua 21:41 ). This name is, however, generally used as the title of that portion of the tribe which was set apart for the subordinate offices of the sanctuary service ( 1 Kings 8:4 ; Ezra 2:70 ), as assistants to the priests.
When the Israelites left Egypt, the ancient manner of worship was still observed by them, the eldest son of each house inheriting the priest's office. At Sinai the first change in this ancient practice was made. A hereditary priesthood in the family of Aaron was then instituted ( Exodus 28:1 ). But it was not till that terrible scene in connection with the sin of the golden calf that the tribe of Levi stood apart and began to occupy a distinct position ( Exodus 32 ). The religious primogeniture was then conferred on this tribe, which henceforth was devoted to the service of the sanctuary ( Numbers 3:11-13 ). They were selected for this purpose because of their zeal for the glory of God ( Exodus 32:26 ), and because, as the tribe to which Moses and Aaron belonged, they would naturally stand by the lawgiver in his work.
The Levitical order consisted of all the descendants of Levi's three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari; whilst Aaron, Amram's son (Amram, son of Kohat), and his issue constituted the priestly order.
They were not included among the armies of Israel ( Numbers 1:47 ; 2:33 ; 26:62 ), but were reckoned by themselves. They were the special guardians of the tabernacle ( Numbers 1:51 ; 18:22-24 ). The Gershonites pitched their tents on the west of the tabernacle ( 3:23 ), the Kohathites on the south ( 3:29 ), the Merarites on the north ( 3:35 ), and the priests on the east ( 3:38 ). It was their duty to move the tent and carry the parts of the sacred structure from place to place. They were given to Aaron and his sons the priests to wait upon them and do work for them at the sanctuary services ( Numbers 8:19 ; 18:2-6 ).
As being wholly consecrated to the service of the Lord, they had no territorial possessions. Jehovah was their inheritance ( Numbers 18:20 ; 26:62 ; Deuteronomy 10:9 ; Deuteronomy 18:1 Deuteronomy 18:2 ), and for their support it was ordained that they should receive from the other tribes the tithes of the produce of the land. Forty-eight cities also were assigned to them, thirteen of which were for the priests "to dwell in", i.e., along with their other inhabitants. Along with their dwellings they had "suburbs", i.e., "commons", for their herds and flocks, and also fields and vineyards ( Numbers 35:2-5 ). Nine of these cities were in Judah, three in Naphtali, and four in each of the other tribes ( Joshua 21 ). Six of the Levitical cities were set apart as "cities of refuge" (q.v.). Thus the Levites were scattered among the tribes to keep alive among them the knowledge and service of God. (See PRIEST .)
the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service.
In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is,
1. A series of laws (1-7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering of sacrifices (6; 7).
2. An historical section (8-10), giving an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (8); Aaron's first offering for himself and the people (9); Nadab and Abihu's presumption in offering "strange fire before Jehovah," and their punishment (10).
3. Laws concerning purity, and the sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (11-16). An interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration officers, makes the following statement:, "Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus  and Deuteronomy . There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz., that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna and the flora of the desert" (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan. 1887).
4. Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen (17-20).
5. Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and their eating of the holy things (20; 21); about the offerings of Israel, that they were to be without blemish ( 22:17-33 ); and about the due celebration of the great festivals (23; 25).
6. Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows. The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered in the space of a month (Compare Exodus 40:17 ; Numbers 1:1 ), the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the third book of Moses. No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace of God.
( 1 Kings 4:6 , RSV; 5:13 ), forced service. The service of tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a "great levy" of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram ( 12:18 ) presided over this forced labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).
( Acts 18:14 ), villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of the word. The word "lewd" is from the Saxon, and means properly "ignorant," "unlearned," and hence low, vicious ( Acts 17:5 ).
found only Acts 6:9 , one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many of them found their way to Jerusalem, and there established a synagogue.
2. One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua ( Joshua 10:29-32 ; 12:15 ). It became one of the Levitical towns in the tribe of Judah ( 21:13 ), and was strongly fortified. Sennacherib laid siege to it ( 2 Kings 19:8 ; Isaiah 37:8 ). It was the native place of Hamutal, the queen of Josiah ( 2 Kings 23:31 ). It stood near Lachish, and has been identified with the modern Arak el-Menshiyeh.
(Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt ( Exodus 8:16-18 ). They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land. "The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests." The plague of lice is referred to in Psalms 105:31 .
Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly, but gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the "tick" which is much larger than lice.
an intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture ( John 8:44 ; 1 Timothy 1:9 1 Timothy 1:10 ; Revelation 21:27 ; 22:15 ). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham ( Genesis 12:12 Genesis 12:13 ; 20:2 ), Isaac ( 26:7 ), and Jacob ( 27:24 ); also by the Hebrew midwives ( Exodus 1:15-19 ), by Michal ( 1 Samuel 19:14 ), and by David ( 1 Samuel 20:6 ). (See ANANIAS .)
generally of physical life ( Genesis 2:7 ; Luke 16:25 , etc.); also used figuratively (1) for immortality ( Hebrews 7:16 ); (2) conduct or manner of life ( Romans 6:4 ); (3) spiritual life or salvation ( John 3:16 John 3:17 John 3:18 John 3:36 ); (4) eternal life ( Matthew 19:16 Matthew 19:17 ; John 3:15 ); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life ( John 1:4 ; John 5:26 John 5:39 ; 11:25 ; 12:50 ).
the offspring of the divine command ( Genesis 1:3 ). "All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light" ( 1 Kings 11:36 ; Isaiah 58:8 ; Esther 8:16 ; Psalms 97:11 ). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts ( Psalms 119:105 ; Isaiah 8:20 ; Matthew 4:16 , etc.), and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed ( Colossians 1:12 ; Revelation 21:23-25 ). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible ( 1 Timothy 6:16 ). It frequently signifies instruction ( Matthew 5:16 ; John 5:35 ). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the "Sun of righteousness" ( Malachi 4:2 ; Luke 2:32 ; John 1:7-9 ). God is styled "the Father of lights" ( James 1:17 ). It is used of angels ( 2 Corinthians 11:14 ), and of John the Baptist, who was a "burning and a shining light" ( John 5:35 ), and of all true disciples, who are styled "the light of the world" ( Matthew 5:14 ).
frequently referred to by the sacred writers ( Nahum 1:3-6 ). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath ( 2 Samuel 22:15 ; Job 28:26 ; 37:4 ; Psalms 135:7 ; 144:6 ; Zechariah 9:14 ). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty ( Revelation 4:5 ), or some judgment of God on the world ( 20:9 ).
(only in pl., Heb. 'ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree ( Numbers 24:6 ), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See ALOES).
(Heb. leshem) occurs only in Exodus 28:19 and 39:12 , as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The "ligurite" is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.
The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., "whiteness", was used as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus (Cant Exodus 2:1 Exodus 2:2 ; 2:16 ; 4:5 ; 5:13 ; Exodus 6:2 Exodus 6:3 ; 7:2 ). "Its flowers are large, and they are of a white colour, with streaks of pink. They supplied models for the ornaments of the pillars and the molten sea" ( 1 Kings 7:19 1 Kings 7:22 1 Kings 7:26 ; 2 Chr 4:5 ). In the Canticles its beauty and fragrance shadow forth the preciousness of Christ to the Church. Groser, however (Scrip. Nat. Hist.), strongly argues that the word, both in the Old and New Testaments, denotes liliaceous plants in general, or if one genus is to be selected, that it must be the genus Iris, which is "large, vigorous, elegant in form, and gorgeous in colouring."
The lilies (Gr. krinia) spoken of in the New Testament ( Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 12:27 ) were probably the scarlet martagon (Lilium Chalcedonicum) or "red Turk's-cap lily", which "comes into flower at the season of the year when our Lord's sermon on the mount is supposed to have been delivered. It is abundant in the district of Galilee; and its fine scarlet flowers render it a very conspicous and showy object, which would naturally attract the attention of the hearers" (Balfour's Plants of the Bible).
Of the true "floral glories of Palestine" the pheasant's eye (Adonis Palestina), the ranunuculus (R. Asiaticus), and the anemone (A coronaria), the last named is however, with the greatest probability regarded as the "lily of the field" to which our Lord refers. "Certainly," says Tristram (Nat. Hist. of the Bible), "if, in the wondrous richness of bloom which characterizes the land of Israel in spring, any one plant can claim pre-eminence, it is the anemone, the most natural flower for our Lord to pluck and seize upon as an illustration, whether walking in the fields or sitting on the hill-side." "The white water-lily (Nymphcea alba) and the yellow water-lily (Nuphar lutea) are both abundant in the marshes of the Upper Jordan, but have no connection with the lily of Scripture."
The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing." From Isaiah 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same Hebrew word is used in Deuteronomy 27:2-4 , and is there rendered "plaster." Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains of Syria.
1. Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which linen is made ( Isaiah 19:9 ); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Leviticus 13:47 Leviticus 13:48 Leviticus 13:52 Leviticus 13:59 ; Deuteronomy 22:11 . Flax was early cultivated in Egypt ( Exodus 9:31 ), and also in Palestine ( Joshua 2:6 ; Hosea 2:9 ). Various articles were made of it: garments ( 2 Samuel 6:14 ), girdles ( Jeremiah 13:1 ), ropes and thread ( Ezekiel 40:3 ), napkins ( Luke 24:12 ; John 20:7 ), turbans ( Ezekiel 44:18 ), and lamp-wicks ( Isaiah 42:3 ).
2. Heb. buts, "whiteness;" rendered "fine linen" in 1 Chronicles 4:21 ; 15:27 ; 2 Chr 2:14 ; 3:14 ; Esther 1:6 ; 8:15 , and "white linen" 2 Chronicles 5:12 . It is not certain whether this word means cotton or linen.
3. Heb. bad; rendered "linen" Exodus 28:42 ; 39:28 ; Leviticus 6:10 ; Leviticus 16:4 Leviticus 16:23 Leviticus 16:32 ; 1 Samuel 2:18 ; 2 Sam 6:14 , etc. It is uniformly used of the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root signifying "separation."
4. Heb. shesh; rendered "fine linen" Exodus 25:4 ; Exodus 26:1 Exodus 26:31 Exodus 26:36 , etc. In Proverbs 31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version "silk," and in Revised Version "fine linen." The word denotes Egyptian linen of peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen ( Genesis 41:42 ).
5. Heb. 'etun. Proverbs 7:16 , "fine linen of Egypt;" in Revised Version, "the yarn of Egypt."
6. Heb. sadin. Proverbs 31:24 , "fine linen;" in Revised Version, "linen garments" ( Judges 14:12 Judges 14:13 ; Isaiah 3:23 ). From this Hebrew word is probably derived the Greek word sindon, rendered "linen" in Mark 14:51 Mark 14:52 ; 15:46 ; Matthew 27:59 . The word "linen" is used as an emblem of moral purity ( Revelation 15:6 ). In Luke 16:19 it is mentioned as a mark of luxury.
(See YARN .)
were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession ( Psalms 16:6 ).
1. Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover ( Exodus 12:22 Exodus 12:23 ; ver. 7, "upper door post," but RSV "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb.
the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests ( Jeremiah 5:6 ; 12:8 ; Amos 3:4 ), in the caves of the mountains (Cant 4:8 ; Nahum 2:12 ), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan ( Jeremiah 49:19 ; 50:44 ; Zechariah 11:3 ).
No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion.
6. Labi , from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness ( Genesis 49:9 ; Numbers 23:24 ; 24:9 ; Ezekiel 19:2 ; Nahum 2:11 ). The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages ( 2 Kings 17:25 2 Kings 17:26 ) and devoured men ( 1 Kings 13:24 1 Kings 13:25 ). Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them ( 1 Samuel 17:34 1 Samuel 17:35 ; Amos 3:12 ). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and "rent him as he would have rent a kid" ( Judges 14:5 Judges 14:6 ). The strength ( Judges 14:18 ), courage ( 2 Samuel 17:10 ), and ferocity ( Genesis 49:9 ) of the lion were proverbial.
besides its literal sense ( Isaiah 37:29 , etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a cup ( 1 Kings 7:26 ), a garment ( Exodus 28:32 ), a curtain ( 26:4 ), the sea ( Genesis 22:17 ), the Jordan ( 2 Kings 2:13 ). To "open the lips" is to begin to speak ( Job 11:5 ); to "refrain the lips" is to keep silence ( Psalms 40:9 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ). The "fruit of the lips" ( Hebrews 13:15 ) is praise, and the "calves of the lips" thank-offerings ( Hosea 14:2 ). To "shoot out the lip" is to manifest scorn and defiance ( Psalms 22:7 ). Many similar forms of expression are found in Scripture.
(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank ( Isaiah 66:20 ). In Numbers 7:3 , the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.
(Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Exodus 29:13 Exodus 29:22 ; Leviticus 3:4 Leviticus 3:1 Leviticus 3:10 Leviticus 3:15 ) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezekiel 21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon "looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood "the liver of goats." By the "caul above the liver," in Leviticus 4:9 ; 7:4 , etc., some understand the great lobe of the liver itself.
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John ( Revelation 4 , etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels ( Revelation 15:7 ); they join the elders in the "new song" ( Revelation 5:8 Revelation 5:9 ); they warn of danger from divine justice ( Isaiah 6:3-5 ), and deliver the commission to those who execute it ( Ezekiel 10:2 Ezekiel 10:7 ); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song ( Revelation 14:3 ), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies ( 19:4 ).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
Only in Leviticus 11:30 , as rendering of Hebrew letaah , so called from its "hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON .)
not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people ( Hosea 1:9 Hosea 1:10 ), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in ver. 10; 2:23 .
The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner ( Exodus 22:25 ; Deuteronomy 23:19 Deuteronomy 23:20 ; Leviticus 25:35-38 ). At the end of seven years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in the commercial sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was regarded as discreditable ( Psalms 15:5 ; Proverbs 6:1 Proverbs 6:4 ; 11:15 ; 17:18 ; 20:16 ; 27:13 ; Jeremiah 15:10 ).
Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a pledge from the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept at night, if taken in pledge, was to be returned before sunset ( Exodus 22:26 Exodus 22:27 ; Deuteronomy 24:12 Deuteronomy 24:13 ). A widow's garment ( Deuteronomy 24:17 ) and a millstone (6) could not be taken. A creditor could not enter the house to reclaim a pledge, but must remain outside till the borrower brought it (10,11). The Hebrew debtor could not be retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at farthest the year of jubilee ( Exodus 21:2 ; Leviticus 25:39 Leviticus 25:42 ), but foreign sojourners were to be "bondmen for ever" ( Leviticus 25:44-54 ).
The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron ( Isaiah 45:2 ; 1 Kings 4:3 ). These were the locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside ( Judges 3:24 ). (See KEY .)
There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist ( Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned "clean," so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Revelation 9:3 Revelation 9:7 , in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect.
Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e., straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more destructive. "The legs and thighs of these insects are so powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving mass." Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked into cakes; "sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and then eaten." They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient Assyrians.
The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very appalling. The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites that can befall a country. "Their numbers exceed computation: the hebrews called them 'the countless,' and the Arabs knew them as 'the darkeners of the sun.' Unable to guide their own flight, though capable of crossing large spaces, they are at the mercy of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of Providence to the doomed region given over to them for the time. Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore, their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the earth ( Exodus 10:15 ; Judges 6:5 ; 7:12 ; Jeremiah 46:23 ; Joel 2:10 ). It seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain, many miles in breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress. Woe to the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight! They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground. It may be 'like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them is a desolate wilderness. At their approach the people are in anguish; all faces lose their colour' ( Joel 2:6 ). No walls can stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the countless armies march on ( Joel 2:8 Joel 2:9 ). If a door or a window be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the house. Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in a moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt ( Exodus 10:1-19 ), consuming before it every green thing, and stripping the trees, till the land was bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong north-west wind from the Mediterranean swept the locusts into the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 149.
the smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews ( Leviticus 14:10 Leviticus 14:12 Leviticus 14:15 Leviticus 14:21 Leviticus 14:24 ), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint.
the maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul for her faith ( 2 Timothy 1:5 ).
a knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding to the "taches" or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain ( Exodus 26:4 Exodus 26:5 Exodus 26:10 Exodus 26:11 ).
There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered.
1. Heb. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible LORD, printed in small capitals. This is the proper name of the God of the Hebrews. The form "Jehovah" is retained only in Exodus 6:3 ; Psalms 83:18 ; Isaiah 12:2 ; 26:4 , both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.
2. Heb. 'adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It denotes a master, as of slaves ( Genesis 24:14 Genesis 24:27 ), or a ruler of his subjects ( 45:8 ), or a husband, as lord of his wife ( 18:12 ). The old plural form of this Hebrew word is 'adonai . From a superstitious reverence for the name "Jehovah," the Jews, in reading their Scriptures, whenever that name occurred, always pronounced it 'Adonai .
3. Greek kurios, a supreme master, etc. In the LXX. this is invariably used for "Jehovah" and "'Adonai."
4. Heb. ba'al, a master, as having domination. This word is applied to human relations, as that of husband, to persons skilled in some art or profession, and to heathen deities. "The men of Shechem," literally "the baals of Shechem" ( Judges 9:2 Judges 9:3 ). These were the Israelite inhabitants who had reduced the Canaanites to a condition of vassalage ( Joshua 16:10 ; 17:13 ).
5. Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the "lords of the Philistines" ( Judges 3:3 ). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At this period the Philistines were not, as at a later period ( 1 Samuel 21:10 ), under a kingly government. (See Joshua 13:3 ; 1 Samuel 6:18 .) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron.
only once, in Revelation 1:10 , was in the early Christian ages used to denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus used the name. (See SABBATH .)
the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples ( Matthew 6:9-13 ). The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by ( Luke 11:2-4 ), also in the RSV of Matthew 6:13 . This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17 . The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer."
In the early Church it was called also "eucharist," or giving of thanks (Compare Matthew 26:27 ), and generally by the Latin Church "mass," a name derived from the formula of dismission, Ite, missa est, i.e., "Go, it is discharged."
It was designed,
1. To commemorate the death of Christ: "This do in remembrance of me."
2. To signify, seal, and apply to believers all the benefits of the new covenant. In this ordinance Christ ratifies his promises to his people, and they on their part solemnly consecrate themselves to him and to his entire service.
3. To be a badge of the Christian profession.
4. To indicate and to promote the communion of believers with Christ.
5. To represent the mutual communion of believers with each other. The elements used to represent Christ's body and blood are bread and wine. The kind of bread, whether leavened or unleavened, is not specified. Christ used unleavened bread simply because it was at that moment on the paschal table. Wine, and no other liquid, is to be used ( Matthew 26:26-29 ). Believers "feed" on Christ's body and blood, (1) not with the mouth in any manner, but (2) by the soul alone, and (3) by faith, which is the mouth or hand of the soul. This they do (4) by the power of the Holy Ghost. This "feeding" on Christ, however, takes place not in the Lord's Supper alone, but whenever faith in him is exercised. This is a permanent ordinance in the Church of Christ, and is to be observed "till he come" again.
(Heb. goral, a "pebble"), a small stone used in casting lots ( Numbers 33:54 ; Jonah 1:7 ). The lot was always resorted to by the Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God, and as a method of ascertaining the divine will ( Proverbs 16:33 ), and in serious cases of doubt ( Esther 3:7 ). Thus the lot was used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral tribes ( Numbers 26:55 ; 34:13 ), at the detection of Achan ( Joshua 7:14 Joshua 7:18 ), the election of Saul to be king ( 1 Samuel 10:20 1 Samuel 10:21 ), the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service ( 1 Chronicles 24:3 1 Chronicles 24:5 1 Chronicles 24:19 ; Luke 1:9 ), and over the two goats at the feast of Atonement ( Leviticus 16:8 ). Matthias, who was "numbered with the eleven" ( Acts 1:24-26 ), was chosen by lot.
Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and nephew of Abraham ( Genesis 11:27 ). On the death of his father, he was left in charge of his grandfather Terah (31), after whose death he accompanied his uncle Abraham into Canaan ( 12:5 ), thence into Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan ( 13:1 ). After this he separated from him and settled in Sodom ( 13:5-13 ). There his righteous soul was "vexed" from day to day ( 2 Peter 2:7 ), and he had great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the separation he was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued by Abraham ( Genesis 14 ). At length, when the judgment of God descended on the guilty cities of the plain ( Genesis 19:1-20 ), Lot was miraculously delivered. When fleeing from the doomed city his wife "looked back from behind him, and became a pillar of salt." There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot, i.e., Lot's wife. It is "a tall, isolated needle of rock, which really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a child upon her shoulder." From the words of warning in Luke 17:32 , "Remember Lot's wife," it would seem as if she had gone back, or tarried so long behind in the desire to save some of her goods, that she became involved in the destruction which fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a time in the saline incrustations. She became "a pillar of salt", i.e., as some think, of asphalt. (See SALT .)
Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then, fearing to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the neighbouring mountains ( Genesis 19:30 ). Lot has recently been connected with the people called on the Egyptian monuments Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been the hero of the Edomite tribe Lotan.
This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its use by our Lord in his interview with "Simon, the son of Jonas," after his resurrection ( John 21:16 John 21:17 ). When our Lord says, "Lovest thou me?" he uses the Greek word agapas ; and when Simon answers, he uses the Greek word philo , i.e., "I love." This is the usage in the first and second questions put by our Lord; but in the third our Lord uses Simon's word. The distinction between these two Greek words is thus fitly described by Trench:, " Agapan has more of judgment and deliberate choice; philein has more of attachment and peculiar personal affection. Thus the 'Lovest thou' (Gr. agapas) on the lips of the Lord seems to Peter at this moment too cold a word, as though his Lord were keeping him at a distance, or at least not inviting him to draw near, as in the passionate yearning of his heart he desired now to do. Therefore he puts by the word and substitutes his own stronger 'I love' (Gr. philo) in its room. A second time he does the same. And now he has conquered; for when the Lord demands a third time whether he loves him, he does it in the word which alone will satisfy Peter ('Lovest thou,' Gr. phileis), which alone claims from him that personal attachment and affection with which indeed he knows that his heart is full."
In 1 Corinthians 13 the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as the word "charity" there is rendered in the Revised Version.
the inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt ( 2 Chronicles 12:3 ; 16:8 ). Their territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the Mizraite Lehabim.
brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon ( Isaiah 14:12 ) to denote his glory.
of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch ( Acts 13:1 ), and Paul's kinsman ( Romans 16:21 ). His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa.
from the Lat. lucrum, "gain." 1 Timothy 3:3 , "not given to filthy lucre." Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.