Easton's Bible Dictionary

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K

Kabzeel — Koz

Kabzeel

gathering of God, a city in the extreme south of Judah, near to Idumaea ( Joshua 15:21 ), the birthplace of Benaiah, one of David's chief warriors ( 2 Samuel 23:20 ; 1 Chronicles 11:22 ). It was called also Jekabzeel ( Nehemiah 11:25 ), after the Captivity.

Kadesh

holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from Horeb. It lay in the "wilderness" or "desert of Zin" ( Genesis 14:7 ; Numbers 13:3-26 ; 14:29-33 ; 20:1 ; 27:14 ), on the border of Edom ( 20:16 ). From this place, in compliance with the desire of the people, Moses sent forth "twelve spies" to spy the land. After examining it in all its districts, the spies brought back an evil report, Joshua and Caleb alone giving a good report of the land ( 13:18-31 ). Influenced by the discouraging report, the people abandoned all hope of entering into the Promised Land. They remained a considerable time at Kadesh. (See HORMAH; KORAH .) Because of their unbelief, they were condemned by God to wander for thirty-eight years in the wilderness. They took their journey from Kadesh into the deserts of Paran, "by way of the Red Sea" ( Deuteronomy 2:1 ). (One theory is that during these thirty-eight years they remained in and about Kadesh.)

At the end of these years of wanderings, the tribes were a second time gathered together at Kadesh. During their stay here at this time Miriam died and was buried. Here the people murmured for want of water, as their forefathers had done formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their chidings, "with his rod smote the rock twice," instead of "speaking to the rock before their eyes," as the Lord had commanded him (Compare Numbers 27:14 ; Deuteronomy 9:23 ; Psalms 106:32 Psalms 106:33 ). Because of this act of his, in which Aaron too was involved, neither of them was to be permitted to set foot within the Promised Land ( Numbers 20:12 Numbers 20:24 ). The king of Edom would not permit them to pass on through his territory, and therefore they commenced an eastward march, and "came unto Mount Hor" ( 20:22 ).

This place has been identified with 'Ain el-Kadeis, about 12 miles east-south-east of Beersheba. (See SPIES .)

Kadesh

the sacred city of the Hittites, on the left bank of the Orontes, about 4 miles south of the Lake of Homs. It is identified with the great mound Tell Neby Mendeh, some 50 to 100 feet high, and 400 yards long. On the ruins of the temple of Karnak, in Egypt, has been found an inscription recording the capture of this city by Rameses II. (See PHARAOH .) Here the sculptor "has chiselled in deep work on the stone, with a bold execution of the several parts, the procession of the warriors, the battle before Kadesh, the storming of the fortress, the overthrow of the enemy, and the camp life of the Egyptians." (See HITTITES .)

Kadmiel

before God; i.e., his servant, one of the Levites who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity ( Nehemiah 9:4 ; 10:9 ; 12:8 ).

Kadmonites

Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham ( Genesis 15:19 ). Probably they were identical with the "children of the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates.

Kanah

reedy; brook of reeds.

1. A stream forming the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh, from the Mediterranean eastward to Tappuah ( Joshua 16:8 ). It has been identified with the sedgy streams that constitute the Wady Talaik, which enters the sea between Joppa and Caesarea. Others identify it with the river' Aujeh.

2. A town in the north of Asher ( Joshua 19:28 ). It has been identified with 'Ain-Kana, a village on the brow of a valley some 7 miles south-east of Tyre. About a mile north of this place are many colossal ruins strown about. And in the side of a neighbouring ravine are figures of men, women, and children cut in the face of the rock. These are supposed to be of Phoenician origin.

Kareah

bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 40:8 Jeremiah 40:13 Jeremiah 40:15 Jeremiah 40:16 ).

Karkaa

a floor; bottom, a place between Adar and Azmon, about midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea ( Joshua 15:3 ).

Karkor

foundation, a place in the open desert wastes on the east of Jordan ( Judges 8:10 ), not far beyond Succoth and Penuel, to the south. Here Gideon overtook and routed a fugitive band of Midianites under Zeba and Zalmunna, whom he took captive.

Kartah

city, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari ( Joshua 21:34 ). It is identical with Kattath ( 19:15 ), and perhaps also with Kitron ( Judges 1:30 ).

Kartan

double city, a town of Naphali, assigned to the Gershonite Levites, and one of the cities of refuge ( Joshua 21:32 ). It was probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias, identical with the ruined village el-Katanah.

Kattath

( Joshua 19:15 ), a town of Asher, has been identified with Kana el Jelil. (See CANA .)

Kedar

dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:13 ).

It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally ( Isaiah 21:16 ; 42:11 ; 60:7 ; Jeremiah 2:10 ; Ezekiel 27:21 ), who dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black hair-tents (Cant 1:5 ). To "dwell in the tents of Kedar" was to be cut off from the worship of the true God ( Psalms 120:5 ). The Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar ( Jeremiah 49:28 Jeremiah 49:29 ).

Kedemah

eastward, the last-named of the sons of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:15 ).

Kedemoth

beginnings; easternmost, a city of Reuben, assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari ( Joshua 13:18 ). It lay not far north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.

Kedesh

sanctuary.

1. A place in the extreme south of Judah ( Joshua 15:23 ). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.).

2. A city of Issachar ( 1 Chronicles 6:72 ). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis, near Lejjun.

3. A "fenced city" of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge ( Joshua 19:37 ; Judges 4:6 ). It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites ( Joshua 21:32 ). It was originally a Canaanite royal city ( Joshua 12:22 ), and was the residence of Barak ( Judges 4:6 ); and here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera in the plain of Esdraelon, "for Jehovah among the mighty" (9,10). In the reign of Pekah it was taken by Tiglath-Pileser ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). It was situated near the "plain" (rather "the oak") of Zaanaim, and has been identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills fully four miles north-west of Lake El Huleh. It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative, where Barak assembled his troops, was not the place in Upper Galilee so named, which was 30 miles distant from the plain of Esdraelon, but Kedish, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12 miles from Tabor.

Kedron

the valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13 , translate "of the cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the cedars which grew there. John 18:1 , "Cedron," only here in New Testament. (See KIDRON .)

Kehelathah

assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert ( Numbers 33:22 Numbers 33:23 ).

Keilah

citadel, a city in the lowlands of Judah ( Joshua 15:44 ). David rescued it from the attack of the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 23:1-8 ); but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men "departed from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go." They fled to the hill Hareth, about 3 miles to the east, and thence through Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). "And David was in the wilderness of Ziph, in a wood" ( 1 Samuel 23:15 ). Here Jonathan sought him out, "and strengthened his hand in God." This was the last interview between David and Jonathan ( 23:16-18 ). It is the modern Khurbet Kila. Others identify it with Khuweilfeh, between Beit Jibrin (Eleutheropolis) and Beersheba, mentioned in the Amarna tablets.

Kelita

dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the people ( Nehemiah 8:7 ; 10:10 ).

Kemuel

helper of God, or assembly of God.

1. The third son of Nahor ( Genesis 22:21 ).

2. Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan ( Numbers 34:24 ).

3. A Levite ( 1 Chronicles 27:17 ).

Kenath

possession, a city of Gilead. It was captured by Nobah, who called it by his own name ( Numbers 32:42 ). It has been identified with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60 miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.

Kenaz

hunter.

1. One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He became the chief of an Edomitish tribe ( Genesis 36:11 Genesis 36:15 Genesis 36:42 ).

2. Caleb's younger brother, and father of Othniel ( Joshua 15:17 ), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:15 ). Some think that Othniel (Judg. 1:13 ), and not Kenaz, was Caleb's brother.

3. Caleb's grandson ( 1 Chronicles 4:15 ).

Kenites

smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of this tribe ( Judges 1:16 ). He is called a "Midianite" ( Numbers 10:29 ), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, "the gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They formed an important guild in an age when the art of metallurgy was confined to a few" (Sayce's Races, etc.). They showed kindness to Israel in their journey through the wilderness. They accompanied them in their march as far as Jericho ( Judges 1:16 ), and then returned to their old haunts among the Amalekites, in the desert to the south of Judah. They sustained afterwards friendly relations with the Israelites when settled in Canaan ( Judges 4:11 Judges 4:17-21 ; 1 Samuel 27:10 ; 30:29 ). The Rechabites belonged to this tribe ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 ) and in the days of ( Jeremiah 35:7-10 ) are referred to as following their nomad habits. Saul bade them depart from the Amalekites ( 1 Samuel 15:6 ) when, in obedience to the divine commission, he was about to "smite Amalek." And his reason is, "for ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt." Thus "God is not unrighteous to forget the kindnesses shown to his people; but they shall be remembered another day, at the farthest in the great day, and recompensed in the resurrection of the just" (M. Henry's Commentary). They are mentioned for the last time in Scripture in 1 Samuel 27:10 ; comp 30:20 .

Kenizzite

1. The name of a tribe referred to in the covenant God made with Abraham ( Genesis 15:19 ). They are not mentioned among the original inhabitants of Canaan ( Exodus 3:8 ; Joshua 3:10 ), and probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria.

2. A designation given to Caleb (RSV, Numbers 32:12 ; A.V., Kenezite).

Kerchief

mentioned only Ezekiel 13:18 Ezekiel 13:21 , as an article of apparel or ornament applied to the head of the idolatrous women of Israel. The precise meaning of the word is uncertain. It appears to have been a long loose shawl, such as Oriental women wrap themselves in ( Ruth 3:15 ; Isaiah 3:22 ). Some think that it was a long veil or head-dress, denoting by its form the position of those who wore it.

Keren-happuch

horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job's third daughter ( Job 42:14 ), born after prosperity had returned to him.

Kerioth

cities.

1. A town in the south of Judah ( Joshua 15:25 ). Judas the traitor was probably a native of this place, and hence his name Iscariot. It has been identified with the ruins of el-Kureitein, about 10 miles south of Hebron. (See HAZOR [4]).

2. A city of Moab ( Jeremiah 48:24 Jeremiah 48:41 ), called Kirioth ( Amos 2:2 ).

Kesitah

( Genesis 33:19 , RSV, marg., a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl. "pieces of money," marg., "lambs;" Joshua 24:32 , "pieces of silver;" Job 42:11 , "piece of money"). The kesitah was probably a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form of a lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used. (See PIECES .)

Kettle

a large pot for cooking. The same Hebrew word (dud, "boiling") is rendered also "pot" ( Psalms 81:6 ), "caldron" ( 2 Chronicles 35:13 ), "basket" ( Jeremiah 24:2 ). It was used for preparing the peace-offerings ( 1 Samuel 2:13 1 Samuel 2:14 ).

Keturah

incense, the wife of Abraham, whom he married probably after Sarah's death ( Genesis 25:1-6 ), by whom he had six sons, whom he sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown. She is styled "Abraham's concubine" ( 1 Chronicles 1:32 ). Through the offshoots of the Keturah line Abraham became the "father of many nations."

Key

frequently mentioned in Scripture. It is called in Hebrew maphteah , i.e., the opener ( Judges 3:25 ); and in the Greek New Testament kleis , from its use in shutting ( Matthew 16:19 ; Luke 11:52 ; Revelation 1:18 , etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and keys of wood, and of a large size (Compare Isaiah 22:22 ).

The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office ( Isaiah 22:22 ; Revelation 3:7 ; Revelation 1:8 ; comp 9:1 ; 20:1 ; Compare also Matthew 16:19 ; 18:18 ). The "key of knowledge" ( Luke 11:52 ; Compare Matthew 23:13 ) is the means of attaining the knowledge regarding the kingdom of God. The "power of the keys" is a phrase in general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical authority.

Kezia

cassia, the name of Job's second daughter ( 42:14 ), born after prosperity had returned to him.

Keziz

abrupt; cut off, a city of the tribe of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:21 ).

Kibroth-hattaavah

the graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig, where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found, about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day's journey from 'Ain Hudherah.

"Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke out among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and the privations of the march; and then God at once punished them by lightning, which fell on the hinder part of the camp, and killed many persons, but ceased at the intercession of Moses ( Numbers 11:1 Numbers 11:2 ). Then a disgust fell on the multitude at having nothing to eat but the manna day after day, no change, no flesh, no fish, no high-flavoured vegetables, no luscious fruits...The people loathed the 'light food,' and cried out to Moses, 'Give us flesh, give us flesh, that we may eat.'" In this emergency Moses, in despair, cried unto God. An answer came. God sent "a prodigious flight of quails, on which the people satiated their gluttonous appetite for a full month. Then punishment fell on them: they loathed the food which they had desired; it bred disease in them; the divine anger aggravated the disease into a plague, and a heavy mortality was the consequence. The dead were buried without the camp; and in memory of man's sin and of the divine wrath this name, Kibroth-hattaavah, the Graves of Lust, was given to the place of their sepulchre" ( Numbers 11:34 Numbers 11:35 ; Numbers 33:16 Numbers 33:17 ; Deuteronomy 9:22 ; Compare Psalms 78:30 Psalms 78:31 )., Rawlinson's Moses, p. 175. From this encampment they journeyed in a north-eastern direction to Hazeroth.

Kibzaim

two heaps, a city of Ephraim, assigned to the Kohathite Levites, and appointed as a city of refuge ( Joshua 21: : 22 ). It is also called Jokmeam ( 1 Chronicles 6:68 ).

Kid

the young of the goat. It was much used for food ( Genesis 27:9 ; 38:17 ; Judges 6:19 ; 14:6 ). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated ( Exodus 23:19 ; 34:26 ; Deuteronomy 14:21 ). Among the various reasons assigned for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which regards it as "a protest against cruelty and outraging the order of nature." A kid cooked in its mother's milk is "a gross, unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it. Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and originally, I suspect," says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book), "was connected with idolatrous sacrifices."

Kidron

= Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the winter torrent which flows through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern side of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley is known in Scripture only by the name "the brook Kidron." David crossed this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom ( 2 Samuel 15:23 2 Samuel 15:30 ), and it was frequently crossed by our Lord in his journeyings to and fro ( John 18:1 ). Here Asa burned the obscene idols of his mother ( 1 Kings 15:13 ), and here Athaliah was executed ( 2 Kings 11:16 ). It afterwards became the receptacle for all manner of impurities ( 2 Chronicles 29:16 ; 30:14 ); and in the time of Josiah this valley was the common cemetery of the city ( 2 Kings 23:6 ; Compare Jeremiah 26:23 ).

Through this mountain ravine no water runs, except after heavy rains in the mountains round about Jerusalem. Its length from its head to en-Rogel is 2 3/4 miles. Its precipitous, rocky banks are filled with ancient tombs, especially the left bank opposite the temple area. The greatest desire of the Jews is to be buried there, from the idea that the Kidron is the "valley of Jehoshaphat" mentioned in Joel 3:2 .

Below en-Rogel the Kidron has no historical or sacred interest. It runs in a winding course through the wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. Its whole length, in a straight line, is only some 20 miles, but in this space its descent is about 3,912 feet. (See KEDRON .)

Recent excavations have brought to light the fact that the old bed of the Kidron is about 40 feet lower than its present bed, and about 70 feet nearer the sanctuary wall.

Kinah

an elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah ( Joshua 15:22 ). It was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.

Kine

(Heb. sing. parah, i.e., "fruitful"), mentioned in Pharaoh's dream ( Genesis 41: : 18 ). Here the word denotes "buffaloes," which fed on the reeds and sedge by the river's brink.

King

is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan ( Joshua 12:9 Joshua 12:24 ), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek subdued seventy kings ( Judges 1:7 ). In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king ( 1 Peter 2:13 1 Peter 2:17 ); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called a king ( Matthew 14:9 ; Mark 6:22 ).

This title is applied to God ( 1 Timothy 1:17 ), and to Christ, the Son of God ( 1 Timothy 6:15 1 Timothy 6:16 ; Matthew 27:11 ). The people of God are also called "kings" ( Daniel 7:22 Daniel 7:27 ; Matthew 19:28 ; Revelation 1:6 , etc.). Death is called the "king of terrors" ( Job 18:14 ).

Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation ( 1 Samuel 8:7 ; Isaiah 33:22 ). But there came a time in the history of that people when a king was demanded, that they might be like other nations ( 1 Samuel 8:5 ). The prophet Samuel remonstrated with them, but the people cried out, "Nay, but we will have a king over us." The misconduct of Samuel's sons was the immediate cause of this demand.

The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name of the people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and partly as representatives of Jehovah, the true King of Israel ( 1 Samuel 10:1 ). The limits of the king's power were prescribed ( 1 Samuel 10:25 ). The officers of his court were, (1) the recorder or remembrancer ( 2 Samuel 8:16 ; 1 Kings 4:3 ); (2) the scribe ( 2 Samuel 8:17 ; 20:25 ); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward ( Isaiah 22:15 ); (4) the "king's friend," a confidential companion ( 1 Kings 4:5 ); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe ( 2 Kings 22:14 ); (6) captain of the bodyguard ( 2 Samuel 20:23 ); (7) officers over the king's treasures, etc. ( 1 Chronicles 27:25-31 ); (8) commander-in-chief of the army ( 1 Chronicles 27:34 ); (9) the royal counsellor ( 1 Chronicles 27:32 ; 2 Sam 16:20-23 ).

(For catalogue of kings of Israel and Judah see chronological table in Appendix.)

Kingdom of God

( Matthew 6:33 ; Mark 1:14 Mark 1:15 ; Luke 4:43 ) = "kingdom of Christ" ( Matthew 13:41 ; 20:21 ) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" ( Ephesians 5:5 ) = "kingdom of David" ( Mark 11:10 ) = "the kingdom" ( Matthew 8:12 ; 13:19 ) = "kingdom of heaven" ( Matthew 3:2 ; 4:17 ; 13:41 ), all denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1) Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2) the blessings and advantages of all kinds that flow from this rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken collectively, or the Church.

[J] indicates this entry was also found in Jack Van Impe's Prophecy Dictionary

Kingly office of Christ

one of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his people. Christ's office as mediator comprehends three different functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one office of mediator.

Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all things to his Church ( Ephesians 1:22 ; 4:15 ; Colossians 1:18 ; 2:19 ). He executes this mediatorial kingship in his Church, and over his Church, and over all things in behalf of his Church. This royalty differs from that which essentially belongs to him as God, for it is given to him by the Father as the reward of his obedience and sufferings (Phil 2:6-11 ), and has as its especial object the upbuilding and the glory of his redeemed Church. It attaches, moreover, not to his divine nature as such, but to his person as God-man.

Christ's mediatorial kingdom may be regarded as comprehending, (1) his kingdom of power, or his providential government of the universe; (2) his kingdom of grace, which is wholly spiritual in its subjects and administration; and (3) his kingdom of glory, which is the consummation of all his providential and gracious administration.

Christ sustained and exercised the function of mediatorial King as well as of Prophet and Priest, from the time of the fall of man, when he entered on his mediatorial work; yet it may be said that he was publicly and formally enthroned when he ascended up on high and sat down at the Father's right hand ( Psalms 2:6 ; Jeremiah 23:5 ; Isaiah 9:6 ), after his work of humiliation and suffering on earth was "finished."

Kings dale

mentioned only in Genesis 14:17 ; 2 Sam 18:18 , the name given to "the valley of Shaveh," where the king of Sodom met Abram.

Kings, The Books of

The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings.

They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The books of Chronicles (q.v.) are more comprehensive in their contents than those of Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chronicles 282 -2Chr 36:21 . While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the kingly.

The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some portions of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical, e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jeremiah 52 ; 39:1-10 ; 40:7-41:10. . There are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings ( 2 Kings 2123 -23 and Jeremiah 7:15 ; 15:4 ; 19:3 , etc.), and events recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge. These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings. But the more probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which they now exist.

In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these books are ranked among the "Prophets." They are frequently quoted or alluded to by our Lord and his apostles ( Matthew 6:29 ; 12:42 ; Luke 4:25 Luke 4:26 ; 10:4 ; Compare 2 Kings 4:29 ; Mark 1:6 ; Compare 2 Kings 1:8 ; Matthew 3:4 , etc.).

The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) "the book of the acts of Solomon" ( 1 Kings 11:41 ); (2) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" ( 14:29 ; 1 Kings 15:7 1 Kings 15:23 , etc.); (3) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" ( 14:19 ; 15:31 ; 1 Kings 16:14 1 Kings 16:20 1 Kings 16:27 , etc.).

The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the date of the last chapter ( 2 Kings 25 ), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus.

Kinsman

Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin.

1. If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it ( Leviticus 25:25 Leviticus 25:28 ; Ruth 3:9 Ruth 3:12 ). He was also required to redeem his relation who had sold himself into slavery ( Leviticus 25:48 Leviticus 25:49 ). God is the Goel of his people because he redeems them ( Exodus 6:6 ; Isaiah 43:1 ; 41:14 ; Isaiah 44:6 Isaiah 44:22 ; 48:20 ; Psalms 103:4 ; Job 19:25 , etc.).

2. The goel also was the avenger (q.v.) of blood ( Numbers 35:21 ) in the case of the murder of the next of kin.

Kir

a wall or fortress, a place to which Tiglath-pileser carried the Syrians captive after he had taken the city of Damascus ( 2 Kings 16:9 ; Amos 1:5 ; 9:7 ). ( Isaiah 22:6 ), who also was contemporary with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have supposed that Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south of Elam.

Kir of Moab

Isaiah 15:1 . The two strongholds of Moab were Ar and Kir, which latter is probably the Kir-haraseth ( 16:7 ) following.

Kir-haraseth

built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres ( Isaiah 16:7 Isaiah 16:11 ; Jeremiah 48:31 Jeremiah 48:36 ). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel, and fought successfully for the independence of his kingdom. After this Jehoram, king of Israel, in seeking to regain his supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three kings led their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then took his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in the sight of the allied armies. "There was great indignation against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to their own land." The invaders evacuated the land of Moab, and Mesha achieved the independence of his country ( 2 Kings 3:20-27 ).

Kirjath

city, a city belonging to Benjamin ( Joshua 18:28 ), the modern Kuriet el-'Enab, i.e., "city of grapes", about 7 1/2 miles west-north-west of Jerusalem.

Kirjathaim

two cities; a double city.

1. A city of refuge in Naphtali ( 1 Chronicles 6:76 ).

2. A town on the east of Jordan ( Genesis 14:5 ; Deuteronomy 2:9 Deuteronomy 2:10 ). It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben ( Numbers 32:37 ). In the time of ( Ezekiel 25:9 ) it was one of the four cities which formed the "glory of Moab" (Compare Jeremiah 48:1 Jeremiah 48:23 ). It has been identified with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west of Medeba, on the south slope of Jebel Attarus, the ancient Ataroth.

Kirjath-arba

city of Arba, the original name of Hebron (q.v.), so called from the name of its founder, one of the Anakim ( Genesis 23:2 ; 35:27 ; Joshua 15:13 ). It was given to Caleb by Joshua as his portion. The Jews interpret the name as meaning "the city of the four", i.e., of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam, who were all, as they allege, buried there.

Kirjath-huzoth

city of streets, Numbers 22:39 , a Moabite city, which some identify with Kirjathaim. Balak here received and entertained Balaam, whom he had invited from Pethor, among the "mountains of the east," beyond the Euphrates, to lay his ban upon the Israelites, whose progress he had no hope otherwise of arresting. It was probably from the summit of Attarus, the high place near the city, that the soothsayer first saw the encampments of Israel.

Kirjath-jearim

city of jaars; i.e., of woods or forests, a Gibeonite town ( Joshua 9:17 ) on the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was assigned ( Joshua 18:15 Joshua 18:28 ). The ark was brought to this place ( 1 Samuel 7:1 1 Samuel 7:2 ) from Beth-shemesh and put in charge of Abinadab, a Levite. Here it remained till it was removed by David to Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 6:2 2 Samuel 6:3 2 Samuel 6:12 ; 1 Chronicles 15:1-29 ; Compare Psalms 132 ). It was also called Baalah ( Joshua 15:9 ) and Kirjath-baal (60). It has been usually identified with Kuriet el-'Enab (i.e., "city of grapes"), among the hills, about 8 miles north-east of 'Ain Shems (i.e., Beth-shemesh). The opinion, however, that it is to be identified with 'Erma, 4 miles east of 'Ain Shems, on the edge of the valley of Sorek, seems to be better supported. (See KIRJATH .)

The words of Psalms 132:6 , "We found it in the fields of the wood," refer to the sojourn of the ark at Kirjath-jearim. "Wood" is here the rendering of the Hebrew word jaar , which is the singular of jearim .

Kirjath-sannah

city of the sannah; i.e., of the palm(?), Joshua 15:49 ; the same as Kirjath-sepher ( 15:16 ; Judges 1:11 ) and Debir (q.v.), a Canaanitish royal city included in Judah ( Joshua 10:38 ; 15:49 ), and probably the chief seat of learning among the Hittites. It was about 12 miles to the south-west of Hebron.

Kirjath-sepher

city of books, Joshua 15:15 ; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites were acquainted with writing and books. "The town probably contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the residence of some learned priest." The "books" were probably engraved stones or bricks.

Kish

a bow.

1. A Levite of the family of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 23:21 ; 24:29 ).

2. A Benjamite of Jerusalem ( 1 Chronicles 8:30 ; 9:36 ).

3. A Levite in the time of Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:12 ).

4. The great-grandfather of Mordecai ( Esther 2:5 ).

5. A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul ( 1 Samuel 9:1 1 Samuel 9:3 ; 1 Samuel 10:11 1 Samuel 10:21 ; 14:51 ; 2 Sam 21:14 ). All that is recorded of him is that he sent his son Saul in search of his asses that had strayed, and that he was buried in Zelah. Called Cis, Acts 13:21 (RSV, Kish).

Kishion

hardness, a city of Issachar assigned to the Gershonite Levites ( Joshua 19:20 ), the same as Kishon ( 21:28 ).

Kishon

winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of Acre, at the foot of Carmel. It is the drain by which the waters of the plain of Esdraelon and of the mountains that surround it find their way to the sea. It bears the modern name of Nahr el-Mokattah, i.e., "the river of slaughter" (Compare 1 Kings 18:40 ). In the triumphal song of Deborah ( Judges 5:21 ) it is spoken of as "that ancient river," either (1) because it had flowed on for ages, or (2), according to the Targum, because it was "the torrent in which were shown signs and wonders to Israel of old;" or (3) probably the reference is to the exploits in that region among the ancient Canaanites, for the adjoining plain of Esdraelon was the great battle-field of Palestine.

This was the scene of the defeat of Sisera ( Judges 4:7 Judges 4:13 ), and of the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah ( 1 Kings 18:40 ). "When the Kishon was at its height, it would be, partly on account of its quicksands, as impassable as the ocean itself to a retreating army." (See DEBORAH .)

Kiss

of affection ( Genesis 27:26 Genesis 27:27 ; 29:13 ; Luke 7:38 Luke 7:45 ); reconciliation ( Genesis 33:4 ; 2 Sam 14:33 ); leave-taking ( Genesis 31:28 Genesis 31:55 ; Ruth 1:14 ; 2 Sam 19:39 ); homage ( Psalms 2:12 ; 1 Samuel 10:1 ); spoken of as between parents and children ( Genesis 27:26 ; Genesis 31:28 Genesis 31:55 ; 48:10 ; 50:1 ; Exodus 18:7 ; Ruth 1:9 Ruth 1:14 ); between male relatives ( Genesis 29:13 ; 33:4 ; 45:15 ). It accompanied social worship as a symbol of brotherly love ( Romans 16:16 ; 1 Corinthians 16:20 ; 2 co 13:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:26 ; 1 Peter 5:14 ). The worship of idols was by kissing the image or the hand toward the image ( 1 Kings 19:18 ; Hosea 13:2 ).

Kite

an unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey ( Leviticus 11:14 ; Deuteronomy 14:13 ). The Hebrew word used, 'ayet , is rendered "vulture" in Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, "falcon" in Revised Version. It is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine.

Kithlish

a man's wall, a town in the plain of Judah ( Joshua 15:40 ). It has been identified with Jelameh.

Kitron

knotty, a city of Zebulun ( Judges 1:30 ), called also Kattath ( Joshua 19:15 ); supposed to be "Cana of Galilee."

Kittim

( Genesis 10:4 ). (See CHITTIM .)

Knead

to prepare dough in the process of baking ( Genesis 18:6 ; 1 Samuel 28:24 ; Hosea 7:4 ).

Kneading-trough

the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment ( Exodus 8:3 ; 12:34 ; Deuteronomy 28:5 Deuteronomy 28:7 ). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in haste.

Knife

1. Heb. hereb, "the waster," a sharp instrument for circumcision ( Joshua 5:2 Joshua 5:3 , lit. "knives of flint;" Compare Exodus 4:25 ); a razor ( Ezekiel 5:1 ); a graving tool ( Exodus 20:25 ); an axe ( Ezekiel 26:9 ).

2. Heb. maakeleth, a large knife for slaughtering and cutting up food ( Genesis 22:6 Genesis 22:10 ; Proverbs 30:14 ).

3. Heb. sakkin, a knife for any purpose, a table knife ( Proverbs 23:2 ).

4. Heb. mahalaph, a butcher's knife for slaughtering the victims offered in sacrifice ( Ezra 1:9 ).

5. Smaller knives (Heb. ta'ar, Jeremiah 36:26 ) were used for sharpening pens. The pruning-knives mentioned in Isaiah 18:5 (Heb. mizmaroth) were probably curved knives.

Knock

"Though Orientals are very jealous of their privacy, they never knock when about to enter your room, but walk in without warning or ceremony. It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to knock at your door. They give warning at the outer gate either by calling or knocking. To stand and call is a very common and respectful mode. Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to stand without and call to the owner to come forth ( Deuteronomy 24:10 ). This was to avoid the violent intrusion of cruel creditors. Peter stood knocking at the outer door ( Acts 12:13 Acts 12:16 ), and the three men sent to Joppa by Cornelius made inquiry and 'stood before the gate' ( Acts 10:17 Acts 10:18 ). The idea is that the guard over your privacy is to be placed at the entrance."

Knocking is used as a sign of importunity ( Matthew 7:7 Matthew 7:8 ; Luke 13:25 ), and of the coming of Christ ( Luke 12:36 ; Revelation 3:20 ).

Knop

some architectural ornament.

1. Heb. kaphtor ( Exodus 25:31-36 ), occurring in the description of the candlestick. It was an ornamental swell beneath the cups of the candlestick, probably an imitation of the fruit of the almond.

2. Heb. peka'im, found only in 1 Kings 6:18 and 7:24 , an ornament resembling a small gourd or an egg, on the cedar wainscot in the temple and on the castings on the brim of the brazen sea.

Koa

he-camel, occurs only in Ezekiel 23:23 , some province or place in the Babylonian empire, used in this passage along with Shoa (q.v.).

Kohath

assembly, the second son of Levi, and father of Amram ( Genesis 46:11 ). He came down to Egypt with Jacob, and lived to the age of one hundred and thirty-three years ( Exodus 6:18 ).

Kohathites

the descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three divisions of the Levites ( Exodus 6:16 Exodus 6:18 ; Numbers 3:17 ). In the journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark ( Numbers 4 ). Their place in the marching and encampment was south of the tabernacle ( Numbers 3:29 Numbers 3:31 ). Their numbers at different times are specified ( 3:28 ; 4:36 ; Numbers 26:57 Numbers 26:62 ). Samuel was of this division.

Korah

ice, hail.

1. The third son of Esau, by Aholibamah ( Genesis 36:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35 ).

2. A Levite, the son of Izhar, the brother of Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron ( Exodus 6:21 ). The institution of the Aaronic priesthood and the Levitical service at Sinai was a great religious revolution. The old priesthood of the heads of families passed away. This gave rise to murmurings and discontent, while the Israelites were encamped at Kadesh for the first time, which came to a head in a rebellion against Moses and Aaron, headed by Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. Two hundred and fifty princes, "men of renown" i.e., well-known men from among the other tribes, joined this conspiracy. The whole company demanded of Moses and Aaron that the old state of things should be restored, alleging that "they took too much upon them" ( Numbers 16:1-3 ). On the morning after the outbreak, Korah and his associates presented themselves at the door of the tabernacle, and "took every man his censer, and put fire in them, and laid incense thereon." But immediately "fire from the Lord" burst forth and destroyed them all ( Numbers 16:35 ). Dathan and Abiram "came out and stood in the door of their tents, and their wives, and their sons, and their little children," and it came to pass "that the ground clave asunder that was under them; and the earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up." A plague thereafter began among the people who sympathized in the rebellion, and was only stayed by Aaron's appearing between the living and the dead, and making "an atonement for the people" ( 16:47 ). The descendants of the sons of Korah who did not participate in the rebellion afterwards rose to eminence in the Levitical service.

Korahites

that portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah.

1. They were an important branch of the singers of the Kohathite division ( 2 Chronicles 20:19 ). There are eleven psalms Psalms 84 ; 85 ; 87 ; 88 ) dedicated to the sons of Korah.

2. Some of the sons of Korah also were "porters" of the temple ( 1 Chronicles 9:17-19 ); one of them was over "things that were made in the pans" (31), i.e., the baking in pans for the meat-offering ( Leviticus 2:5 ).

Kore

partridge.

1. A Levite and temple-warder of the Korahites, the son of Asaph. He was father of Shallum and Meshelemiah, temple-porters ( 1 Chronicles 9:19 ; 26:1 ).

2. A Levitical porter at the east gate of the temple ( 2 Chronicles 31:14 ).

3. In 1 Chronicles 26:19 the word should be "Korahites," as in the Revised Version.

Korhites

a Levitical family descended from Korah ( Exodus 6:24 ; 1 Chronicles 12:6 ; 26:1 ; 2 Chr 20:19 ).

Koz

thorn.

1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chronicles 4:8 , "Coz;" RSV, "Hakkoz."

2. A priest, the head of the seventh division of the priests ( Ezra 2:61 ; Nehemiah 3:4 Nehemiah 3:21 ; 7:63 ). In 1 Chronicles 24:10 the word has the article prefixed, and it is taken as a part of the word "Hakkoz."