Easton's Bible Dictionary
Jaakan — Jehovah-shammah
he twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite ( 1 Chronicles 1:42 ).
heel-catcher, a form of the name Jacob, one of the descendants of Simeon ( 1 Chronicles 4:36 ).
a wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned from the Captivity ( Nehemiah 7:58 ).
mourner, one of the chief Gadites ( 1 Chronicles 5:12 ).
fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the Return ( Ezra 10:37 ).
heard by Jehovah.
1. The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief Rechabites ( Jeremiah 35:3 ).
2. The son of Shaphan ( Ezekiel 8:11 ).
3. The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by ( Ezekiel 11:1 ) at the east gate of the temple.
he (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan, and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad ( Numbers 32:1 Numbers 32:35 ; Joshua 13:25 ). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites ( 21:39 ). In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites, i.e., the descendants of Kohath ( 1 Chronicles 26:31 ). It is mentioned in the "burdens" proclaimed over Moab ( Isaiah 16:8 Isaiah 16:9 ; Jeremiah 48:32 ). Its site is marked by the modern ruin called Sar or Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and 12 from Heshbon. "The vineyards that once covered the hill-sides are gone; and the wild Bedawin from the eastern desert make cultivation of any kind impossible."
comforted by God, a Levitical musician ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 ).
a stream, a descendant of Cain, and brother of Jubal; "the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle" ( Genesis 4:20 ). This description indicates that he led a wandering life.
a pouring out, or a wrestling, one of the streams on the east of Jordan, into which it falls about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the Sea of Galilee. It rises on the eastern side of the mountains of Gilead, and runs a course of about 65 miles in a wild and deep ravine. It was the boundary between the territory of the Ammonites and that of Og, king of Bashan ( Joshua 12:1-5 ; Numbers 21:24 ); also between the tribe of Reuben and the half tribe of Manasseh ( 21:24 ; Deuteronomy 3:16 ). In its course westward across the plains it passes more than once underground. "The scenery along its banks is probably the most picturesque in Palestine; and the ruins of town and village and fortress which stud the surrounding mountain-side render the country as interesting as it is beautiful." This river is now called the Zerka, or blue river.
a town on the east of Jordan, on the top of one of the green hills of Gilead, within the limits of the half tribe of Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe of Benjamin ( Judges 21:8-14 ). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was almost extinguished, only six hundred men remaining. An expedition went against Jabesh-Gilead, the whole of whose inhabitants were put to the sword, except four hundred maidens, whom they brought as prisoners and sent to "proclaim peace" to the Benjamites who had fled to the crag Rimmon. These captives were given to them as wives, that the tribe might be saved from extinction (Judg. 21).
This city was afterwards taken by Nahash, king of the Ammonites, but was delivered by Saul, the newly-elected king of Israel. In gratitude for this deliverance, forty years after this, the men of Jabesh-Gilead took down the bodies of Saul and of his three sons from the walls of Beth-shan, and after burning them, buried the bones under a tree near the city ( 1 Samuel 31:11-13 ). David thanked them for this act of piety ( 2 Samuel 2:4-6 ), and afterwards transferred the remains to the royal sepulchre ( 21:14 ). It is identified with the ruins of ed-Deir, about 6 miles south of Pella, on the north of the Wady Yabis.
2. A place inhabited by several families of the scribes ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 ).
discerner; the wise.
1. A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan ( Joshua 11:1-14 ), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land ( 11:21-23 ; comp 14:6-15 ). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first time the Israelites encountered the iron chariots and horses of the Canaanites.
2. Another king of Hazor, called "the king of Canaan," who overpowered the Israelites of the north one hundred and sixty years after Joshua's death, and for twenty years held them in painful subjection. The whole population were paralyzed with fear, and gave way to hopeless despondency ( Judges 5:6-11 ), till Deborah and Barak aroused the national spirit, and gathering together ten thousand men, gained a great and decisive victory over Jabin in the plain of Esdraelon ( Judges 4:10-16 ; Compare Psalms 83:9 ). This was the first great victory Israel had gained since the days of Joshua. They never needed to fight another battle with the Canaanites ( Judges 5:31 ).
built by God.
1. A town in the north boundary of Judah ( Joshua 15:11 ), called afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia, the modern Yebna, 11 miles south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), it became one of the most populous cities of Judea, and the seat of a celebrated school.
2. A town on the border of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:33 ). Its later name was Kefr Yemmah, "the village by the sea," on the south shore of Lake Merom.
mourner, one of the chief Gadite "brothers" in Bashan ( 1 Chronicles 5:13 ).
2. The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:17 ).
3. One of the priests who returned from the Exile ( 1 Chronicles 9:10 ).
the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple ( 1 Kings 7:15-22 ). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference ( Jeremiah 52:21 Jeremiah 52:23 ; 1 Kings 7:17-21 ). They had doubtless a symbolical import.
properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour ( Revelation 21:20 ). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Exodus 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's breast-plate. In Revelation 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour.
one who follows on another's heels; supplanter, ( Genesis 25:26 ; 27:36 ; Hosea 12:2-4 ), the second born of the twin sons of Isaac by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old. Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning ( Genesis 25:29-34 ).
When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired to deceive the aged patriarch ( Genesis 27 ), with the view of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in his family ( Genesis 49:3 ); (2) a double portion of the paternal inheritance ( Deuteronomy 21:17 ); (3) the priestly office in the family ( Numbers 8:17-19 ); and (4) the promise of the See d in which all nations of the earth were to be blessed ( Genesis 22:18 ).
Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing ( Genesis 27 ), Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob these years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But when the seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence of this double union."
At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six years with him, tending his flocks ( 31:41 ). He then set out with his family and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan" ( Genesis 31 ). Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end.
Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise ( Genesis 32:1 Genesis 32:2 ). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the double camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven ( 28:12 ).
He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this occured he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved" ( 32:25-31 ).
After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18 ; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an altar unto God ( Genesis 35:6 Genesis 35:7 ), and where God appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin ( 35:16-20 ), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the patriarch ( 35:27-29 ).
Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers ( 37:33 ). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy souls ( Exodus 1:5 ; Deuteronomy 10:22 ; Acts 7:14 ), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob, "after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" ( Genesis 48 ). At length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death, although forty years had passed away since that event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost" ( 49:33 ). His body was embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day ( 50:1-13 ). (See HEBRON .)
The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets ( Hosea 12:3 Hosea 12:4 Hosea 12:12 ) and ( Malachi 1:2 ). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul's epistles ( Romans 9:11-13 ; Hebrews 12:16 ; 11:21 ). See references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem in John 1:51 ; John 4:5 John 4:12 ; also to the famine which was the occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See LUZ; BETHEL .)
( John 4:5 John 4:6 ). This is one of the few sites in Palestine about which there is no dispute. It was dug by Jacob, and hence its name, in the "parcel of ground" which he purchased from the sons of Hamor ( Genesis 33:19 ). It still exists, but although after copious rains it contains a little water, it is now usually quite dry. It is at the entrance to the valley between Ebal and Gerizim, about 2 miles south-east of Shechem. It is about 9 feet in diameter and about 75 feet in depth, though in ancient times it was no doubt much deeper, probably twice as deep. The digging of such a well must have been a very laborious and costly undertaking.
"Unfortunately, the well of Jacob has not escaped that misplaced religious veneration which cannot be satisfied with leaving the object of it as it is, but must build over it a shrine to protect and make it sacred. A series of buildings of various styles, and of different ages, have cumbered the ground, choked up the well, and disfigured the natural beauty and simplicity of the spot. At present the rubbish in the well has been cleared out; but there is still a domed structure over it, and you gaze down the shaft cut in the living rock and see at a depth of 70 feet the surface of the water glimmering with a pale blue light in the darkness, while you notice how the limestone blocks that form its curb have been worn smooth, or else furrowed by the ropes of centuries" (Hugh Macmillan).
At the entrance of the enclosure round the well is planted in the ground one of the wooden poles that hold the telegraph wires between Jerusalem and Haifa.
1. One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:21 ).
judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 3:7 ).
mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite ( Judges 4:17-22 ). When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael invited him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied on the floor he fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her left hand one of the great wooden pins ("nail") which fastened down the cords of the tent, and in her right hand the mallet, or "hammer," used for driving it into the ground, and stealthily approaching her sleeping guest, with one well-directed blow drove the nail through his temples into the earth ( Judges 5:27 ). She then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and boastfully showed him what she had done. (See SISERA; DEBORAH .)
place of sojourn, a city on the southern border of Judah ( Joshua 15:21 ).
a contraction for Jehovah ( Psalms 68:4 ).
1. A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom ( 1 Chronicles 23:10 ).
2. One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath ( 1 Chronicles 24:22 ).
3. A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the repairs of the temple under Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 34:12 ).
trodden down (called also Jahaza, Joshua 13:18 ; Jahazah, 21:36 ; Jahzah, 1 Chronicles 6:78 ), a town where Sihon was defeated, in the borders of Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond Jordan, and north of the river Arnon ( Numbers 21:23 ; Deuteronomy 2:32 ). It was situated in the tribe of Reuben, and was assigned to the Merarite Levites ( Joshua 13:18 ; 21:36 ). Here was fought the decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.) was completely routed, and his territory (the modern Belka) came into the possession of Israel. This town is mentioned in the denunciations of the prophets against Moab ( Isaiah 15:4 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ).
beheld by God.
1. The third son of Hebron ( 1 Chronicles 23:19 ).
2. A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:4 ).
3. A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem ( 1 Chronicles 16:6 ).
4. The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph ( 2 Chronicles 20:14-17 ). He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites and Ammonites.
grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron ( 1 Chronicles 2:47 ).
allotted by God, the first of the sons of Naphtali ( Genesis 46:24 ).
returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel ( 1 Chronicles 9:12 ).
(of Philippi), Acts 16:23 . The conversion of the Roman jailer, a man belonging to a class "insensible as a rule and hardened by habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the bearers of the message of the gospel," is one of those cases which illustrate its universality and power.
1. The son of Segub. He was brought up with his mother in Gilead, where he had possessions ( 1 Chronicles 2:22 ). He distinguished himself in an expedition against Bashan, and settled in the part of Argob on the borders of Gilead. The small towns taken by him there are called Havoth-jair, i.e., "Jair's villages" ( Numbers 32:41 ; Deuteronomy 3:14 ; Joshua 13:30 ).
2. The eighth judge of Israel, which he ruled for twenty-two years. His opulence is described in Judges 10:3-5 . He had thirty sons, each riding on "ass colts." They had possession of thirty of the sixty cities ( 1 Kings 4:13 ; 1 Chronicles 2:23 ) which formed the ancient Havoth-jair.
3. A Benjamite, the father of Mordecai, Esther's uncle ( Esther 2:5 ).
4. The father of Elhanan, who slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath ( 1 Chronicles 20:5 ).
a ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus restored to life ( Mark 5:22 ; Luke 8:41 ). Entering into the chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid, arise," and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straightway; and "at once to strengthen that life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" ( Mark 5:43 ).
pious, the father of Agur ( Proverbs 30:1 ). Nothing is known of him.
1. Chief of the twelfth priestly order ( 1 Chronicles 24:12 ).
2. A Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 8:19 ).
3. Margin in Matthew 1:11 means Jehoiakim.
lodger, the last of the four sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 4:17 ).
1. The son of Zebedee and Salome; an elder brother of John the apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman, in partnership with Peter ( Matthew 20:20 ; 27:56 ). With John and Peter he was present at the transfiguration ( Matthew 17:1 ; Mark 9:2 ), at the raising of Jairus's daughter ( Mark 5:37-43 ), and in the garden with our Lord ( 14:33 ). Because, probably, of their boldness and energy, he and John were called Boanerges, i.e., "sons of thunder." He was the first martyr among the apostles, having been beheaded by King Herod Agrippa ( Acts 12:1 Acts 12:2 ), A.D. 44. (Compare Matthew 4:21 ; 20:20-23 ).
2. The son of Alphaeus, or Cleopas, "the brother" or near kinsman or cousin of our Lord ( Galatians 1:18 Galatians 1:19 ), called James "the Less," or "the Little," probably because he was of low stature. He is mentioned along with the other apostles ( Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 ; Luke 6:15 ). He had a separate interview with our Lord after his resurrection ( 1 Corinthians 15:7 ), and is mentioned as one of the apostles of the circumcision ( Acts 1:13 ). He appears to have occupied the position of head of the Church at Jerusalem, where he presided at the council held to consider the case of the Gentiles ( Acts 12:17 ; 15:13-29 : 21:18-24 ). This James was the author of the epistle which bears his name.
1. Author of, was James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. He was one of the three pillars of the Church ( Galatians 2:9 ).
2. It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, "the twelve tribes scattered abroad."
3. The place and time of the writing of the epistle were Jerusalem, where James was residing, and, from internal evidence, the period between Paul's two imprisonments at Rome, probably about A.D. 62.
4. The object of the writer was to enforce the practical duties of the Christian life. "The Jewish vices against which he warns them are, formalism, which made the service of God consist in washings and outward ceremonies, whereas he reminds them ( 1:27 ) that it consists rather in active love and purity; fanaticism, which, under the cloak of religious zeal, was tearing Jerusalem in pieces ( 1:20 ); fatalism, which threw its sins on God ( 1:13 ); meanness, which crouched before the rich ( 2:2 ); falsehood, which had made words and oaths play-things ( 3:2-12 ); partisanship ( 3:14 ); evil speaking ( 4:11 ); boasting ( 4:16 ); oppression ( 5:4 ). The great lesson which he teaches them as Christians is patience, patience in trial ( 1:2 ), patience in good works ( 1:22-25 ), patience under provocation ( 3:17 ), patience under oppression ( 5:7 ), patience under persecution ( 5:10 ); and the ground of their patience is that the coming of the Lord draweth nigh, which is to right all wrong ( 5:8 )." "Justification by works," which James contends for, is justification before man, the justification of our profession of faith by a consistent life. Paul contends for the doctrine of "justification by faith;" but that is justification before God, a being regarded and accepted as just by virtue of the righteousness of Christ, which is received by faith.
one of the Egyptians who "withstood Moses" ( 2 Timothy 3:8 ).
or Jano'hah, rest.
2. A town of Northern Palestine, within the boundaries of Naphtali. It was taken by the king of Assyria ( 2 Kings 15:29 ).
slumber, a town in the mountains of Judah ( Joshua 15:53 ).
wide spreading: "God shall enlarge Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Genesis 9:27 . Some, however, derive the name from yaphah , "to be beautiful;" hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last in order ( Genesis 5:32 ; 6:10 ; 7:13 ), perhaps first by birth ( 10:21 ; comp 9:24 ). He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark ( 1 Peter 3:20 ). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east of Europe and the north of Asia ( Genesis 10:2-5 ). An act of filial piety ( 9:20-27 ) was the occasion of Noah's prophecy of the extension of his posterity.
After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the descendants of Noah, "the sons of Japheth" ( Genesis 10:2 ), "the sons of Ham" (6), and "the sons of Shem" (22). It is important to notice that modern ethnological science, reasoning from a careful analysis of facts, has arrived at the conclusion that there is a three-fold division of the human family, corresponding in a remarkable way with the great ethnological chapter of the book of Genesis (10). The three great races thus distinguished are called the Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). "Setting aside the cases where the ethnic names employed are of doubtful application, it cannot reasonably be questioned that the author [of Genesis 10 ] has in his account of the sons of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating what has become known in modern times as the 'Indo-European Theory,' or the essential unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal races of Europe, indicated by the Celts and the Ionians. Nor can it be doubted that he has thrown together under the one head of 'children of Shem' the Assyrians (Asshur), the Syrians (Aram), the Hebrews (Eber), and the Joktanian Arabs (Joktan), four of the principal races which modern ethnology recognizes under the heading of 'Semitic.' Again, under the heading of 'sons of Ham,' the author has arranged 'Cush', i.e., the Ethiopians; 'Mizraim,' the people of Egypt; 'Sheba and Dedan,' or certain of the Southern Arabs; and 'Nimrod,' or the ancient people of Babylon, four races between which the latest linguistic researches have established a close affinity" (Rawlinson's Hist. Illustrations).
1. The king of Lachish, who joined in the confederacy against Joshua ( Joshua 10:3 ), and was defeated and slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king of Gezer. Called also Horam ( Joshua 10:33 ).
2. One of the sons of David ( 2 Samuel 5:15 ), born in Jerusalem.
3. A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum ( Joshua 19:12 ); now Yafa, 2 miles south-west of Nazareth.
2. A son of Ezra probably ( 1 Chronicles 4:18 ).
1. A son of Simeon ( 1 Chronicles 4:24 ).
2. One of the chiefs sent by Ezra to bring up the priests to Jerusalem ( Ezra 8:16 ).
3. Ezra 10:18 .
1. A town in the plain of Judah ( Joshua 15:35 ), originally the residence of one of the Canaanitish kings ( Joshua 10:3 Joshua 10:5 Joshua 10:23 ). It has been identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village about 7 miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.
upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle of Beth-horon ( Joshua 10:12 Joshua 10:13 ); and (2) "the Song of the Bow," that beautiful and touching mournful elegy which David composed on the occasion of the death of Saul and Jonathan ( 2 Samuel 1:18-27 ).
dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite ( 1 Chronicles 11:11 ), one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag ( 12:6 ). He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem ( 2 Samuel 23:13-17 ). He is also called Adino the Eznite (8).
2. Ezra 10:29 .
he that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city ( Acts 17:5-9 ). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul ( Romans 16:21 ), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth.
(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate ( Exodus 28:20 ). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem ( Revelation 21:18 Revelation 21:19 ). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" ( 21:11 ). It was emblematic of the glory of God ( 4:3 ).
1. The fourth "son" of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2 ), whose descendants settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan" (rendered "Grecia," Daniel 8:21 ; 10:20 ; comp 11:2 ; Zechariah 9:13 ). This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the generic name of the Greek race.
2. A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians obtained iron, cassia, and calamus ( Ezekiel 27:19 ).
2. Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its piercing ( Numbers 25:7 ). (See .)
of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew a thousand men. In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in the Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in shape like a jaw-bone.
suspicion of a wife's purity, one of the strongest passions ( Numbers 5:14 ; Proverbs 6:34 ; Cant 8:6 ); also an intense interest for another's honour or prosperity ( Psalms 79:5 ; 1 Corinthians 10:22 ; Zechariah 1:14 ).
the name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery ( Numbers 5:11-15 ).
water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that the result might prove her guilt or innocence ( Numbers 5:12-17 Numbers 5:27 ). We have no record of this form of trial having been actually resorted to.
forests, a mountain on the border of Judah ( Joshua 15:10 ).
trodden hard, or fastness, or "the waterless hill", the name of the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion ( Joshua 15:8 ; Joshua 18:16 Joshua 18:28 ). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judg. 19:10 , and with the castle or city of David ( 1 Chronicles 11:4 1 Chronicles 11:5 ). It was a place of great natural strength, and its capture was one of David's most brilliant achievements ( 2 Samuel 5:8 ).
the name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction ( Genesis 10:16 ; 15:21 ; Exodus 3:8 Exodus 3:17 ; 13:5 , etc.). At the time of the arrival of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek ( Joshua 10:1 Joshua 10:23 ). They were defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of Jebus till the time of David, who made it the capital of his kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it was purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift ( 2 Samuel 24:16-25 ; 1 Chronicles 21:24 1 Chronicles 21:25 ).
able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of King Uzziah ( 2 Chronicles 26:3 ).
1. Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite ( 1 Chronicles 4:37 ).
2. One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after the return from Babylon ( Nehemiah 3:10 ).
3. Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:7 ).
4. A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile ( 1 Chronicles 9:10 ).
known by God.
3. A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers to the temple ( 1 Chronicles 26:2 ).
beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine favour ( 2 Samuel 12:25 ).
lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of music appointed by David ( 1 Chronicles 16:41 1 Chronicles 16:42 ; 25:1-6 ). He is called in 2 Chronicles 35:15 "the king's seer." His descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments ( Nehemiah 11:17 ). He was probably the same as Ethan ( 1 Chronicles 15:17 1 Chronicles 15:19 ). In the superscriptions to Psalms 3962 ,62, and 77, the words "upon Jeduthun" probably denote a musical instrument; or they may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun, or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.
pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the pile of stones erected as a memorial of the covenant between him and Jacob ( Genesis 31:47 ), who, however, called it in Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q.v.).
praiser of God.
1. A descendant of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 4:16 ).
2. A Levite of the family of Merari ( 2 Chronicles 29:12 ).
rejoicer in Jehovah.
1. One of the Levitical attendants at the temple, a descendant of Shubael ( 1 Chronicles 24:20 ).
2. A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon ( 1 Chronicles 27:30 ).
God's living one.
1. The father of Gibeon ( 1 Chronicles 9:35 ).
2. One of David's guard ( 1 Chronicles 11:44 ).
4. A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the close of his reign ( 1 Chronicles 27:32 ).
5. The second of Jehoshaphat's six sons ( 2 Chronicles 21:2 ).
6. One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted Hezekiah in his work of reformation ( 2 Chronicles 29:14 ).
7. A "prince" and "ruler of the house of God" who contributed liberally to the renewal of the temple sacrifices under Josiah ( 2 Chronicles 35:8 ).
8. The father of Obadiah ( Ezra 8:9 ).
9. One of the "sons" of Elam ( Ezra 10:26 ).
10. Ezra 10:21 .
Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of Ephraim ( 2 Chronicles 28:12 ).
Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of King Amaziah ( 2 Kings 14:2 ).
Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth.
2. The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel ( 2 Kings 10:35 ). He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length driven out of the land by his son Jehoash ( 2 Kings 13:1-9 2 Kings 13:25 ).
3. Josiah's third son, usually called Shallum ( 1 Chronicles 3:15 ). He succeeded his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah for three months ( 2 Kings 23:31 2 Kings 23:34 ). He fell into the idolatrous ways of his predecessors ( 23:32 ), was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt, where he died in captivity ( 2 Kings 23:33 2 Kings 23:34 ; Jeremiah 22:10-12 ; 2 Chr 36:1-4 ).
1. The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving descendant of Solomon ( 2 Chronicles 21:4 2 Chronicles 21:17 ). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when she heard the shout of the people, "Long live the king;" and when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be led forth to death ( 2 Kings 11:13-20 ). While the high priest lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law; but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of the high priest, was put to death. These evil deeds brought down on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted by ( Matthew 1:8 ) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David ( 2 Kings 12:21 ). (See JOASH .)
2. The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel ( 2 Kings 14:1 ; comp 12:1 ; 13:10 ). When he ascended the throne the kingdom was suffering from the invasion of the Syrians. Hazael "was cutting Israel short." He tolerated the worship of the golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the prophet Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying, addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah was carried up into heaven: "O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof." He was afterwards involved in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 25:23-24 ), whom he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and Philistia, and advancing on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of the wall, and carried away the treasures of the temple and the palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was buried in Samaria ( 2 Kings 14:1-17 2 Kings 14:19 2 Kings 14:20 ). He was succeeded by his son. (See JOASH [5.].)
Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II.
1. A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple porters ( 1 Chronicles 26:3 ).
2. One of Jehoshaphat's "captains" ( 2 Chronicles 17:15 ).
3. The father of Azariah ( 2 Chronicles 28:12 ).
4. The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews ( Nehemiah 6:18 ).
5. Nehemiah 12:42 .
6. Nehemiah 12:13 .
succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days ( 2 Chronicles 36:9 ). He is also called Jeconiah ( Jeremiah 24:1 ; 27:20 , etc.), and Coniah ( 22:24 ; 37:1 ). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in all ( 2 Kings 24:12-16 ; Jeremiah 52:28 ). After an imprisonment of thirty-seven years ( Jeremiah 52:31 Jeremiah 52:33 ), he was liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in the king's household and sit at his table, receiving "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life" ( 52:32-34 ).
2. The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram ( 2 Chronicles 22:11 ), and took an active part along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah. The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his ancestors are described in 2 Kings 11:2 ; 12:2 ; 2 Chr 22:11 ; 23:24 . He was among the foremost of the benefactors of the kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of David among the kings of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 24:15 2 Chronicles 24:16 ). He is said to have been one hundred and thirty years old.
he whom Jehovah has set up, the second son of Josiah, and eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven years (B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.).
On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz (=Shallum, Jeremiah 22:11 ), who favoured the Chaldeans against the Egyptians, was made king by the people; but the king of Egypt, Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and deposed Jehoahaz ( 2 Kings 23:33 2 Kings 23:34 ; Jeremiah 22:10-12 ), setting Eliakim on the throne in his stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim.
After this the king of Egypt took no part in Jewish politics, having been defeated by the Chaldeans at Carchemish ( 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:2 ). Palestine was now invaded and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim was taken prisoner and carried captive to Babylon ( 2 Chronicles 36:6 2 Chronicles 36:7 ). It was at this time that Daniel also and his three companions were taken captive to Babylon ( Daniel 1:1 Daniel 1:2 ).
Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated him as a vassal king. In the year after this, Jeremiah caused his prophecies to be read by Baruch in the court of the temple. Jehoiakim, hearing of this, had them also read in the royal palace before himself. The words displeased him, and taking the roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it in pieces and threw it into the fire ( Jeremiah 36:23 ). During his disastrous reign there was a return to the old idolatry and corruption of the days of Manasseh.
After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld his tribute and threw off the yoke ( 2 Kings 24:1 ), hoping to make himself independent. Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of Chaldeans, Syrians, and Ammonites ( 2 Kings 24:2 ) to chastise his rebellious vassal. They cruelly harassed the whole country (Compare Jeremiah 49:1-6 ). The king came to a violent death, and his body having been thrown over the wall of Jerusalem, to convince the beseieging army that he was dead, after having been dragged away, was buried beyond the gates of Jerusalem "with the burial of an ass," B.C. 599 ( Jeremiah 22:18 Jeremiah 22:19 ; 36:30 ). Nebuchadnezzar placed his son Jehoiachin on the throne, wishing still to retain the kingdom of Judah as tributary to him.
Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels.
1. A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne ( 2 Samuel 13:3-6 ). He was very "subtil," but unprincipled.
2. A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by a vow to abstain from wine ( Jeremiah 35:6-19 ). There were different settlements of Rechabites ( Judges 1:16 ; 4:11 ; 1 Chronicles 2:55 ). (See .) His interview and alliance with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23 . He went with Jehu in his chariot to Samaria.
whom Jehovah gave.
1. One of the stewards of David's store-houses ( 1 Chronicles 27:25 ).
2. A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ).
3. Nehemiah 12:18 .
1. Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over Hadadezer ( 2 Samuel 8:10 ).
2. A Levite of the family of Gershom ( 1 Chronicles 26:25 ).
3. A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people in Judah ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ).
4. The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C. 896-884 ( 2 Kings 1:17 ; 3:1 ). His first work was to reduce to subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their independence in the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated army ( 2 Kings 3:1-19 ), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory. The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final stand. The Israelites refrained from pressing their victory further, and returned to their own land. Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke out between the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way brought that war to a bloodless close ( 2 Kings 6:23 ). But Jehoram, becoming confident in his own power, sank into idolatry, and brought upon himself and his land another Syrian invasion, which led to great suffering and distress in Samaria ( 2 Kings 6:24-33 ). By a remarkable providential interposition the city was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were put to flight ( 2 Kings 7:6-15 ). Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and obliged to return to Jezreel ( 2 Kings 8:29 ; 2 Kings 9:14 2 Kings 9:15 ), and soon after the army proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram ( 2 Kings 9 ). Jehoram was pierced by an arrow from Jehu's bow on the piece of ground at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died ( 2 Kings 9:21-29 ).
5. The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. He reigned eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of Judah, having been previously for some years associated with his father ( 2 Chronicles 21:5 2 Chronicles 21:20 ; 2 Kings 8:16 ). His wife was Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was married to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross idolatry, and brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger of Jehovah. The Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the Philistines and the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and carried away great spoil, along with Jehoram's wives and all his children, except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful malady, and was refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings ( 2 Kings 8:16-24 ; 2 Chr. 21 ).
1. One of David's body-guard ( 1 Chronicles 11:43 ).
2. One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem ( 1 Chronicles 15:24 ).
3. Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon ( 2 Samuel 8:16 ), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the kingdom.
4. Solomon's purveyor in Issachar ( 1 Kings 4:17 ).
5. The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After fortifying his kingdom against Israel ( 2 Chronicles 17:1 2 Chronicles 17:2 ), he set himself to cleanse the land of idolatry ( 1 Kings 22:43 ). In the third year of his reign he sent out priests and Levites over the land to instruct the people in the law ( 2 Chronicles 17:7-9 ). He enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of God resting on the people "in their basket and their store." The great mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance with Ahab, the king of Israel, which involved him in much disgrace, and brought disaster on his kingdom ( 1 Kings 22:1-33 ). Escaping from the bloody battle of Ramoth-gilead, the prophet Jehu ( 2 Chronicles 19:1-3 ) reproached him for the course he had been pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigour on his former course of opposition to all idolatry, and of deepening interest in the worship of God and in the righteous government of the people ( 2 Chronicles 19:4-11 ). Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of Israel, for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-gaber was speedily wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without the co-operation of the king of Israel, and although it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted ( 2 Chronicles 20:35-37 ; 1 Kings 22:48-49 ). He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful. The Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of Mesha in offering his own son a sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth in the sight of the armies of Israel filled him with horror, and he withdrew and returned to his own land ( 2 Kings 3:4-27 ). The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in 2 Chronicles 20 . The Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with the surrounding nations, and came against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces were encamped at Engedi. The king and his people were filled with alarm, and betook themselves to God in prayer. The king prayed in the court of the temple, "O our God, wilt thou not judge them? for we have no might against this great company that cometh against us." Amid the silence that followed, the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing that on the morrow all this great host would be overthrown. So it was, for they quarrelled among themselves, and slew one another, leaving to the people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. This was recognized as a great deliverance wrought for them by God (B.C. 890). Soon after this Jehoshaphat died, after a reign of twenty-five years, being sixty years of age, and was succeeded by his son Jehoram ( 1 Kings 22:50 ). He had this testimony, that "he sought the Lord with all his heart" ( 2 Chronicles 22:9 ). The kingdom of Judah was never more prosperous than under his reign.
mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2 Joel 3:12 . This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel ( Psalms 83:6-8 ); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. ( Joel 3:4 Joel 3:19 ), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel speaks of the final conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem's enemies, of whom Tyre and Zidon, etc., were types. The "valley of Jehoshaphat" may therefore be simply regarded as a general term for the theatre of God's final judgments on the enemies of Israel.
This valley has from ancient times been used by the Jews as a burial-ground. It is all over paved with flat stones as tombstones, bearing on them Hebrew inscriptions.
Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chronicles 22:11 . She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada ( 2 Chronicles 22:11 ).
the special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews ( Exodus 6:2 Exodus 6:3 ). This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, "Adonai" (i.e., Lord), thus using another word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Leviticus 24:16 . The meaning of the word appears from Exodus 3:14 to be "the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God," the "I am that I am," a convenant-keeping God. (Compare Malachi 3:6 ; Hosea 12:5 ; Revelation 1:4 Revelation 1:8 .)
The Hebrew name "Jehovah" is generally translated in the Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios , which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated "Jehovah" only in Exodus 6:3 ; Psalms 83:18 ; Isaiah 12:2 ; 26:4 , and in the compound names mentioned below.
It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament. It is found, however, on the "Moabite stone" (q.v.), and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their heathen neighbours.
Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide, the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression used in Genesis 22:14 , "in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen," has been regarded as equivalent to the saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity."
Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites ( Exodus 17:15 ).
Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him ( Judges 6:24 ).
Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision ( Ezekiel 48:35 ). It was a type of the gospel Church.