Easton's Bible Dictionary
Tiberias — Tyropoeon Valley
a city, the modern Tubarich, on the western shore of the Sea of Tiberias. It is said to have been founded by Herod Antipas (A.D. 16), on the site of the ruins of an older city called Rakkath, and to have been thus named by him after the Emperor Tiberius. It is mentioned only three times in the history of our Lord ( John 6:1 John 6:23 ; 21:1 ).
In 1837 about one-half of the inhabitants perished by an earthquake. The population of the city is now about six thousand, nearly the one-half being Jews. "We do not read that our Lord ever entered this city. The reason of this is probably to be found in the fact that it was practically a heathen city, though standing upon Jewish soil. Herod, its founder, had brought together the arts of Greece, the idolatry of Rome, and the gross lewdness of Asia. There were in it a theatre for the performance of comedies, a forum, a stadium, a palace roofed with gold in imitation of those in Italy, statues of the Roman gods, and busts of the deified emperors. He who was not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel might well hold himself aloof from such scenes as these" (Manning's Those Holy Fields).
After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), Tiberias became one of the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine. It was for more than three hundred years their metropolis. From about A.D. 150 the Sanhedrin settled here, and established rabbinical schools, which rose to great celebrity. Here the Jerusalem (or Palestinian) Talmud was compiled about the beginning of the fifth century. To this same rabbinical school also we are indebted for the Masora, a "body of traditions which transmitted the readings of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and preserved, by means of the vowel-system, the pronunciation of the Hebrew." In its original form, and in all manuscripts, the Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it ceased to be a spoken language, the importance of knowing what vowels to insert between the consonants. This is supplied by the Masora, and hence these vowels are called the "Masoretic vowel-points."
called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth. ( John 21:1 ) is the only evangelist who so designates this lake. His doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote after the other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the taking of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Tiberias had by this time become an important city, having been spared by the Romans, and made the capital of the province when Jerusalem was destroyed. It thus naturally gave its name to the lake.
i.e., as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only mentioned in Luke 3:1 . He was the stepson of Augustus, whom he succeeded on the throne, A.D. 14. He was noted for his vicious and infamous life. In the fifteenth year of his reign John the Baptist entered on his public ministry, and under him also our Lord taught and suffered. He died A.D. 37. He is frequently referred to simply as "Caesar" ( Matthew 22:17 Matthew 22:21 ; Mark 12:14 Mark 12:16 Mark 12:17 ; Luke 20:22 Luke 20:24 Luke 20:25 ; 23:2 ; John 19:12 John 19:15 ).
building of Jehovah, the son of Ginath, a man of some position, whom a considerable number of the people chose as monarch. For the period of four years he contended for the throne with Omri ( 1 Kings 16:21 1 Kings 16:22 ), who at length gained the mastery, and became sole monarch of Israel.
(in the LXX. called "Thorgal"), styled the "king of nations" (Gen.14:1-9). Mentioned as Tudkhula on Arioch's brick (see facing page 139). Goyyim , translated "nations," is the country called Gutium, east of Tigris and north of Elam.
(not mentioned in Scripture) was the most famous of the monarchs of the first Assyrian empire (about B.C. 1110). After his death, for two hundred years the empire fell into decay. The history of David and Solomon falls within this period. He was succeeded by his son, Shalmaneser II.
or Tilgath-Pil-neser, the Assyrian throne-name of Pul (q.v.). He appears in the Assyrian records as gaining, in the fifth year of his reign (about B.C. 741), a victory over Azariah (= Uzziah in 2Chr.26:1), king of Judah, whose achievements are described in 2 Chronicles 26:6-15 . He is first mentioned in Scripture, however, as gaining a victory over Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin of Damascus, who were confederates. He put Rezin to death, and punished Pekah by taking a considerable portion of his kingdom, and carrying off (B.C. 734) a vast number of its inhabitants into captivity ( 2 Kings 15:29 ; 16:5-9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:6 1 Chronicles 5:26 ), the Reubenites, the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh whom he settled in Gozan. In the Assyrian annals it is further related that, before he returned from Syria, he held a court at Damascus, and received submission and tribute from the neighbouring kings, among whom were Pekah of Samaria and "Yahu-khazi [i.e., Ahaz], king of Judah" (Compare 2 Kings 16:10-16 ).
He was the founder of what is called "the second Assyrian empire," an empire meant to embrace the whole world, the centre of which should be Nineveh. He died B.C. 728, and was succeeded by a general of his army, Ulula, who assumed the name Shalmaneser IV.
defiled, the father of blind Bartimaeus ( Mark 10:46 ).
(Heb. toph), a small drum or tambourine; a tabret (q.v.). The antiquity of this musical instrument appears from the scriptural allusions to it ( Genesis 31:27 ; Exodus 15:20 ; Judges 11:34 , etc.) (See MUSIC .)
1. A town of Judah ( Joshua 15:10 ). The Philistines took possession of it in the days of Ahaz ( 2 Chronicles 28:18 ). It was about 20 miles west of Jerusalem. It has been identified with Timnatha of Dan ( Joshua 19:43 ), and also with Timnath (Judg. Joshua 14:1 Joshua 14:5 ).
2. A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh.15:57)= Tibna near Jeba'.
3. A "duke" or sheik of Edom ( Genesis 36:40 ).
1. Heb. Timnathah, which is appropriately rendered in the Revised Version, Timnah, a town in Judah.
2. The town where Samson sojourned, probably identical with "Timnah" (1) ( Judges 14:1-18 ).
portion of the sun, where Joshua was buried ( Judges 2:9 ). It was "in the mount of Ephraim, in the north side of the hill Gaash," 10 miles south-west of Shechem. The same as the following.
remaining portion, the city of Joshua in the hill country of Ephraim, the same as Timnath-heres ( Joshua 19:50 ; 24:30 ). "Of all sites I have seen," says Lieut. Col. Conder, "none is so striking as that of Joshua's home, surrounded as it is with deep valleys and wild, rugged hills." Opposite the town is a hill, on the northern side of which there are many excavated sepulchres. Among these is the supposed tomb of Joshua, which is said to be "the most striking monument in the country." It is a "square chamber with five excavations in three of its sides, the central one forming a passage leading into a second chamber beyond. A great number of lamp-niches cover the walls of the porch, upwards of two hundred, arranged in vertical rows. A single cavity with a niche for a lamp has been thought to be the resting-place of the warrior-chief of Israel." The modern Kefr Haris, 10 miles south-west of Shechem.
a man of Timnah. Samson's father-in-law is so styled (Judg. 15:6 ).
honouring, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem ( Acts 6:5 ). Nothing further is known of him.
the Greek form of the name of Timothy ( Acts 16:1 , etc.; the RSV always "Timothy").
honouring God, a young disciple who was Paul's companion in many of his journeyings. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother, Lois, are mentioned as eminent for their piety ( 2 Timothy 1:5 ). We know nothing of his father but that he was a Greek ( Acts 16:1 ). He is first brought into notice at the time of Paul's second visit to Lystra ( 16:2 ), where he probably resided, and where it seems he was converted during Paul's first visit to that place ( 1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Tim 3:11 ). The apostle having formed a high opinion of his "own son in the faith," arranged that he should become his companion ( Acts 16:3 ), and took and circumcised him, so that he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the office of an evangelist ( 1 Timothy 4:14 ), and went with Paul in his journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and Philippi and Berea ( Acts 17:14 ). Thence he followed Paul to Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to Thessalonica ( 17:15 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:2 ). We next find him at Corinth ( 1 Thessalonians 1:1 ; 2 th 1:1 ) with Paul. He passes now out of sight for a few years, and is again noticed as with the apostle at Ephesus ( Acts 19:22 ), whence he is sent on a mission into Macedonia. He accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia ( 20:4 ), where he was with him for some time. When the apostle was a prisoner at Rome, Timothy joined him (Phil 1:1 ), where it appears he also suffered imprisonment ( Hebrews 13:23 ). During the apostle's second imprisonment he wrote to Timothy, asking him to rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring with him certain things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and parchments ( 2 Timothy 4:13 ). According to tradition, after the apostle's death he settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a martyr's grave.
Paul in this epistle speaks of himself as having left Ephesus for Macedonia ( 1:3 ), and hence not Laodicea, as mentioned in the subscription; but probably Philippi, or some other city in that region, was the place where this epistle was written. During the interval between his first and second imprisonments he probably visited the scenes of his former labours in Greece and Asia, and then found his way into Macedonia, whence he wrote this letter to Timothy, whom he had left behind in Ephesus.
It was probably written about A.D. 66 or 67.
The epistle consists mainly, (1) of counsels to Timothy regarding the worship and organization of the Church, and the responsibilities resting on its several members; and (2) of exhortation to faithfulness in maintaining the truth amid surrounding errors.
was probably written a year or so after the first, and from Rome, where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent to Timothy by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (Compare Phil 2:22 ). He was anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" ( 2 Timothy 4:6 ), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and steadfastness, and to patience under persecution ( 1:6-15 ), and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office ( 4:1-5 ), with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of quick and dead.
Heb. bedil ( Numbers 31:22 ; Ezekiel 22:18 Ezekiel 22:20 ), a metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles. In Ezekiel 27:12 it is said to have been brought from Tarshish, which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isaiah 1:25 the word so rendered is generally understood of lead, the alloy with which the silver had become mixed (ver. 22). The fire of the Babylonish Captivity would be the means of purging out the idolatrous alloy that had corrupted the people.
( Isaiah 3:18 ), anklets of silver or gold, etc., such as are still used by women in Syria and the East.
passing over; ford, one of the boundaries of Solomon's dominions ( 1 Kings 4:24 ), probably "Thapsacus, a great and wealthy town on the western bank of the Euphrates," about 100 miles north-east of Tadmor. All the land traffic between the east and the west passed through it. Menahem undertook an expedition against this city, and "smote Tiphsah and all that were therein" ( 2 Kings 15:16 ). This expedition implied a march of some 300 miles from Tirzah if by way of Tadmor, and about 400 if by way of Aleppo; and its success showed the strength of the Israelite kingdom, for it was practically a defiance to Assyria. Conder, however, identifies this place with Khurbet Tafsah, some 6 miles west of Shechem.
"To tire" the head is to adorn it ( 2 Kings 9:30 ). As a noun the word is derived from "tiara," and is the rendering of the Heb. p'er, a "turban" or an ornament for the head ( Ezekiel 24:17 ; RSV, "headtire;" 24:23 ). In Isaiah 3:18 the word saharonim is rendered "round tires like the moon," and in Jud 8:21,26"ornaments," but in both cases "crescents" in the Revised Version.
the last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty. He was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the throne about B.C. 692, having been previously king of Ethiopia ( 2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 ), which with Egypt now formed one nation. He was a great warrior, and but little is known of him. The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning twenty-six years.
a word probably of Persian origin, meaning "severity," denoting a high civil dignity. The Persian governor of Judea is so called ( Ezra 2:63 ; Nehemiah 7:65 Nehemiah 7:70 ). Nehemiah is called by this name in Nehemiah 8:9 ; 10:1 , and the "governor" (pehah) in 5:18 . Probably, therefore, tirshatha=pehah=the modern pasha.
1. An old royal city of the Canaanites, which was destroyed by Joshua ( Joshua 12:24 ). Jeroboam chose it for his residence, and he removed to it from Shechem, which at first he made the capital of his kingdom. It remained the chief residence of the kings of Israel till Omri took Samaria ( 1 Kings 14:17 ; 15:21 ; 1 Kings 16:6 1 Kings 16:8 , etc.). Here Zimri perished amid the flames of the palace to which in his despair he had set fire ( 1 Kings 16:18 ), and here Menahem smote Shallum ( 2 Kings 15:14 2 Kings 15:16 ). Solomon refers to its beauty (Cant 6:4 ). It has been identified with the modern mud hamlet Teiasir, 11 miles north of Shechem. Others, however, would identify it with Telluza, a village about 6 miles east of Samaria.
Elijah the prophet was thus named ( 1 Kings 17:1 ; 1 Kings 21:17 1 Kings 21:28 , etc.). In 1 Kings 17:1 the word rendered "inhabitants" is in the original the same as that rendered "Tishbite," hence that verse may be read as in the LXX., "Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in Gilead." Some interpret this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the stranger from among the strangers in Gilead." This designation is probably given to the prophet as denoting that his birthplace was Tishbi, a place in Upper Galilee (mentioned in the apocryphal book of Tobit), from which for some reason he migrated into Gilead. Josephus, the Jewish historian (Ant 1 Kings 8:13 1 Kings 8:2 ), however, supposes that Tishbi was some place in the land of Gilead. It has been identified by some with el-Ishtib, a some place 22 miles due south of the Sea of Galilee, among the mountains of Gilead.
the first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the ecclesiastical year. See ETHANIM ( 1 Kings 8:2 ). Called in the Assyrian inscriptions Tasaritu, i.e. "beginning."
a tenth of the produce of the earth consecrated and set apart for special purposes. The dedication of a tenth to God was recognized as a duty before the time of Moses. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek ( Genesis 14:20 ; Hebrews 7:6 ); and Jacob vowed unto the Lord and said, "Of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee."
The first Mosaic law on this subject is recorded in Leviticus 27:30-32 . Subsequent legislation regulated the destination of the tithes ( Numbers 18:21-24 Numbers 18:26-28 ; Deuteronomy 12:5 Deuteronomy 12:6 Deuteronomy 12:11 Deuteronomy 12:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:22 Deuteronomy 14:23 ). The paying of the tithes was an important part of the Jewish religious worship. In the days of Hezekiah one of the first results of the reformation of religion was the eagerness with which the people brought in their tithes ( 2 Chronicles 31:5 2 Chronicles 31:6 ). The neglect of this duty was sternly rebuked by the prophets ( Amos 4:4 ; Malachi 3:8-10 ). It cannot be affirmed that the Old Testament law of tithes is binding on the Christian Church, nevertheless the principle of this law remains, and is incorporated in the gospel ( 1 Corinthians 9:13 1 Corinthians 9:14 ); and if, as is the case, the motive that ought to prompt to liberality in the cause of religion and of the service of God be greater now than in Old Testament times, then Christians outght to go beyond the ancient Hebrew in consecrating both themselves and their substance to God.
Every Jew was required by the Levitical law to pay three tithes of his property (1) one tithe for the Levites; (2) one for the use of the temple and the great feasts; and (3) one for the poor of the land.
honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem ( Galatians 2:1-3 ; Acts 15:2 ), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a later period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent forward ( 2 Corinthians 8:6 ; 12:18 ). He rejoined the apostle when he was in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth ( 7:6-15 ). After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose ( Titus 1:5 ). The last notice of him is in 2 Timothy 4:10 , where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on some important missionary errand. We have no record of his death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.
was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities. "Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of this description are in both letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus are likewise cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in particular against the same misdirection of their cares and studies. This affinity obtains not only in the subject of the letters, which from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were addressed might be expected to be somewhat alike, but extends in a great variety of instances to the phrases and expressions. The writer accosts his two friends with the same salutation, and passes on to the business of his letter by the same transition (Compare 1Tim 1:2,3with Titus 1:4 Titus 1:5 ; 1Tim.1:4 with Titus 1:13 Titus 1:14 ; 3:9 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 with Titus 2:7 Titus 2:15 ).", Paley's Horae Paulinae.
The date of its composition may be concluded from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete ( Titus 1:5 ). That visit could not be the one referred to in Acts 27:7 , when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he continued a prisoner for two years. We may warrantably suppose that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia and took Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that were wanting." Thence he went to Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and from Ephesus to Macedonia, where he wrote First Timothy, and thence to Nicopolis in Epirus, from which place he wrote to Titus, about A.D. 66 or 67.
In the subscription to the epistle it is said to have been written from "Nicopolis of Macedonia," but no such place is known. The subscriptions to the epistles are of no authority, as they are not authentic.
a district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren ( Judges 11:3 Judges 11:5 ). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon ( 2 Samuel 10:6 2 Samuel 10:8 ). Its modern name is Taiyibeh.
good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people of Judah in the law ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ).
pleasing to Jehovah, the "servant," the "Ammonite," who joined with those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Exile ( Nehemiah 2:10 ). He was a man of great influence, which he exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to Nehemiah "to put him in fear" ( Nehemiah 6:17-19 ). "Eliashib the priest" prepared for him during Nehemiah's absence "a chamber in the courts of the house of God," which on his return grieved Nehemiah sore, and therefore he "cast forth all the household stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber" ( Nehemiah 13:7 Nehemiah 13:8 ).
id., a Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the people ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ).
measured, a town of Simeon ( 1 Chronicles 4:32 ).
1. A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth ( Genesis 10:3 ).
one of Samuel's ancestors ( 1 Samuel 1:1 ).
a king of Hamath, who sent "Joram his son unto King David to salute him," when he "heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer" ( 2 Samuel 8:9 2 Samuel 8:10 ). Called Tou ( 1 Chronicles 18:9 1 Chronicles 18:10 ).
a scarlet worm.
1. Eldest son of Issachar ( Genesis 46:13 ).
productive, a town of Simeon, in the south of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 4:29 ).
of the Hebrews were generally excavated in the solid rock, or were natural caves. Mention is made of such tombs in Judges 8:32 ; 2 Sam 2:32 ; 2 Kings 9:28 ; 23:30 . They were sometimes made in gardens ( 2 Kings 21:26 ; 23:16 ; Matthew 27:60 ). They are found in great numbers in and around Jerusalem and all over the land. They were sometimes whitewashed ( Matthew 23:27 Matthew 23:29 ). The body of Jesus was laid in Joseph's new rock-hewn tomb, in a garden near to Calvary. All evidence is in favour of the opinion that this tomb was somewhere near the Damascus gate, and outside the city, and cannot be identified with the so-called "holy sepulchre." The mouth of such rocky tombs was usually closed by a large stone (Heb. golal), which could only be removed by the united efforts of several men ( Matthew 28:2 ; Compare John 11:39 ). (See GOLGOTHA .)
at Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language" ( Genesis 11:1-8 ), and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." (See .)
granted on the day of Pentecost ( Acts 2:4 ), in fulfilment of a promise Christ had made to his disciples ( Mark 16:17 ). What this gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all nations. But the words of Luke ( Acts 2:9 ) clearly show that the various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really hear themselves addressed in their own special language with which they were naturally acquainted (Compare Joel 2:28 Joel 2:29 ).
Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in 1 Corinthians 12:10-14:30, , "divers kinds of tongues" and the "interpretation of tongues." This "gift" was a different manifestation of the Spirit from that on Pentecost, although it resembled it in many particulars. Tongues were to be "a sign to them that believe not."
one of the particulars regarding which retaliatory punishment was to be inflicted ( Exodus 21:24 ; Leviticus 24:20 ; Deuteronomy 19:21 ). "Gnashing of teeth" =rage, despair ( Matthew 8:12 ; Acts 7:54 ); "cleanness of teeth" =famine ( Amos 4:6 ); "children's teeth set on edge" =children suffering for the sins of their fathers ( Ezekiel 18:2 ).
Heb. pitdah ( Ezekiel 28:13 ; Revelation 21:20 ), a golden yellow or "green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia ( Job 28:19 ). It was the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it ( Exodus 28:17 ). It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.
lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai ( Deuteronomy 1:1 ), now identified with Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the Edomitish mountains.
=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize the agency by which God punishes or destroys the wicked. We are not to assume from prophetical figures that material fire is the precise agent to be used. It was not the agency employed in the destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in Isa 30:33...Tophet properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom bends round to the east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and the Hill of Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer 'Ayub, where it joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern side especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that fire that was never quenched." Thus Tophet came to represent the place of punishment. (See HINNOM .)
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons" ( John 18:1-3 ). Although it was the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and projecting rocks; there were there caverns and grottos, into which a fugitive might retreat; finally, there were probably a garden-house and tower, into whose gloom it might be necessary for a searcher to throw light around." Lange's Commentary. ( Nahum 2:3 , "torches," Revised Version, "steel," probably should be "scythes" for war-chariots.)
Gr. basanos ( Matthew 4:24 ), the "touch-stone" of justice; hence inquisition by torture, and then any disease which racks and tortures the limbs.
(Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals ( Leviticus 11:29 ). Land tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by "land crocodile." The word, however, more probably denotes a lizard, called by the modern Arabs dhabb .
of Babel ( Genesis 11:4 ), Edar ( Genesis 35:21 ), Penuel ( Judges 8:9 Judges 8:17 ), Shechem ( 9:46 ), David (Cant 4:4 ), Lebanon ( 7:4 ), Syene (Ezek. 29:10 ), Hananeel ( Zechariah 14:10 ), Siloam ( Luke 13:4 ). There were several towers in Jerusalem ( 2 Chronicles 26:9 ; Psalms 48:12 ). They were erected for various purposes, as watch-towers in vineyard ( Isaiah 5:2 ; Matthew 21:33 ) and towers for defence.
a rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek name of a region on the east of Jordan ( Luke 3:1 ); one of the five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.
any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from generation to generation. In Mark 7:3 Mark 7:9 Mark 7:13 , Colossians 2:8 , this word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2 Thessalonians 2:15 ; 3:6 , it is used in a good sense. Peter ( 1 Peter 1:18 ) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (Compare Acts 15:10 ; Matthew 15:2-6 ; Galatians 1:14 ).
(Gr. ekstasis, from which the word "ecstasy" is derived) denotes the state of one who is "out of himself." Such were the trances of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10 ; 11:5 ; 22:17 , ecstasies, "a preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the reception of the vision", (Compare 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 ). In Mark 5:42 and Luke 5:26 the Greek word is rendered "astonishment," "amazement" (Compare Mark 16:8 ; Acts 3:10 ).
of our Lord on a "high mountain apart," is described by each of the three evangelists ( Matthew 17:1-8 ; Mark 9:2-8 ; Luke 9:28-36 ). The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. What these evangelists record was an absolute historical reality, and not a mere vision. The concurrence between them in all the circumstances of the incident is exact. John seems to allude to it also ( John 1:14 ). Forty years after the event Peter distinctly makes mention of it ( 2 Peter 1:16-18 ). In describing the sanctification of believers, Paul also seems to allude to this majestic and glorious appearance of our Lord on the "holy mount" ( Romans 12:2 ; 2 co 3:18 ).
The place of the transfiguration was probably Mount Hermon (q.v.), and not Mount Tabor, as is commonly supposed.
( Matthew 27:6 ; Mark 12:41 ; John 8:20 ). It does not appear that there was a separate building so called. The name was given to the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers were put. These stood in the outer "court of the women." "Nine chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money-gifts instead of the sacrifices; four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple decoration, and burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor. Heb.).
stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden ( Genesis 2:9 ; 3:22 ). Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the Life ( John 1:4 ; 14:6 ). Wisdom is compared to the tree of life ( Proverbs 3:18 ). The "tree of life" spoken of in the Book of Revelation ( Revelation 2:7 ; Revelation 22:2 Revelation 22:14 ) is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise.
[J] indicates this entry was also found in Jack Van Impe's Prophecy Dictionary
stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life ( Genesis 23 ,3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (See ADAM .)
(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Leviticus 5:14-6:7; ; also in Numbers 5:5-8 . The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation. The asham , which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See OFFERING .)
a collection of families descending from one ancestor. The "twelve tribes" of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matthew 24:30 the word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred to as types of the spiritual family of God ( Revelation 7 ). (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF; JUDAH, KINGDOM OF .)
trouble or affiction of any kind ( Deuteronomy 4:30 ; Matthew 13:21 ; 2 co 7:4 ). In Romans 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matthew 24:21 Matthew 24:29 , the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem.
a tax imposed by a king on his subjects ( 2 Samuel 20:24 ; 1 Kings 4:6 ; Romans 13:6 ). In Matthew 17:24-27 the word denotes the temple rate (the "didrachma," the "half-shekel," as rendered by the RSV) which was required to be paid for the support of the temple by every Jew above twenty years of age ( Exodus 30:12 ; 2 Kings 12:4 ; 2 Chr Exodus 24:6 Exodus 24:9 ). It was not a civil but a religious tax.
In Matthew 22:17 , Mark 12:14 , Luke 20:22 , the word may be interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans imposed on the Jewish people. It may, however, be legitimately regarded as denoting any tax whatever imposed by a foreign power on the people of Israel. The "tribute money" shown to our Lord ( Matthew 22:19 ) was the denarius, bearing Caesar's superscription. It was the tax paid by every Jew to the Romans. (See PENNY .)
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons. This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is one, and that there is but one God ( Deuteronomy 6:4 ; 1 Kings 8:60 ; Isaiah 44:6 ; Mark 12:29 Mark 12:32 ; John 10:30 ). 2 . That the Father is a distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona, suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy Spirit. 3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit. 4. That the Holy Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.
a city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor, named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second missionary journey, saw the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who appeared to him, saying, "Come over, and help us" ( Acts 16:8-11 ). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on one of these visits he left his cloak and some books there ( 2 Corinthians 2:12 ; 2 Tim 4:13 ). The ruins of Troas extend over many miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak trees. The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old Constantinople.
a town on the western coast of Asia Minor, where Paul "tarried" when on his way from Assos to Miletus, on his third missionary journey ( Acts 20:15 ).
a foster-child, an Ephesian who accompanied Paul during a part of his third missionary journey ( Acts 20:4 ; 21:29 ). He was with Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had brought him with him into the temple, raised a tumult which resulted in Paul's imprisonment. (See TEMPLE, HEROD'S.) In writing to Timothy, the apostle says, "Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick" ( 2 Timothy 4:20 ). This must refer to some event not noticed in the Acts.
were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers materials. Some were made of silver ( Numbers 10:2 ), and were used only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals and in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams' horns ( Joshua 6:8 ). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald the arrival of special seasons ( Leviticus 23:24 ; 25:9 ; 1 Chronicles 15:24 ; 2 Chr 29:27 ; Psalms 81:3 ; 98:6 ).
was celebrated at the beginning of the month Tisri, the first month of the civil year. It received its name from the circumstances that the trumpets usually blown at the commencement of each month were on that occasion blown with unusual solemnity ( Leviticus 23:23-25 ; Numbers 10:10 ; 29:1-6 ). It was one of the seven days of holy convocation. The special design of this feast, which is described in these verses, is not known.
Used in various senses in Scripture. In Proverbs 12:17 Proverbs 12:19 , it denotes that which is opposed to falsehood. In Isaiah 59:14 Isaiah 59:15 , Jeremiah 7:28 , it means fidelity or truthfulness. The doctrine of Christ is called "the truth of the gospel" ( Galatians 2:5 ), "the truth" ( 2 Timothy 3:7 ; 4:4 ). Our Lord says of himself, "I am the way, and the truth" ( John 14:6 ).
two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his epistle to the ( Romans 16:12 ).
1. The fifth son of Japheth ( Genesis 10:2 ).
2. A nation, probably descended from the son of Japheth. It is mentioned by ( Isaiah 66:19 ), along with Javan, and by ( Ezekiel 27:13 ), along with Meshech, among the traders with Tyre, also among the confederates of Gog ( Ezekiel 38:2 Ezekiel 38:3 ; 39:1 ), and with Meshech among the nations which were to be destroyed ( 32:26 ). This nation was probably the Tiberini of the Greek historian Herodotus, a people of the Asiatic highland west of the Upper Euphrates, the southern range of the Caucasus, on the east of the Black Sea.
the son of Lamech and Zillah, "an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" ( Genesis 4:22 ; RSV, "the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron").
Its peculiar peaceful and gentle habit its often referred to in Scripture. A pair was offered in sacrifice by Mary at her purification ( Luke 2:24 ). The pigeon and the turtle-dove were the only birds permitted to be offered in sacrifice ( Leviticus 1:14 ; 5:7 ; 14:22 ; Leviticus 15:14 Leviticus 15:29 , etc.). The Latin name of this bird, turtur , is derived from its note, and is a repetition of the Hebrew name tor . Three species are found in Palestine, (1) the turtle-dove (Turtur auritus), (2) the collared turtle (T. risorius), and (3) the palm turtle (T. Senegalensis). But it is to the first of these species which the various passages of Scripture refer. It is a migratory bird ( Jeremiah 8:7 ; Cant Jeremiah 2:11 Jeremiah 2:12 ). "Search the glades and valleys, even by sultry Jordan, at the end of March, and not a turtle-dove is to be seen. Return in the second week of April, and clouds of doves are feeding on the clovers of the plain. They overspread the whole face of the land." "Immediately on its arrival it pours forth from every garden, grove, and wooded hill its melancholy yet soothing ditty unceasingly from early dawn till sunset. It is from its plaintive and continuous note, doubtless, that David, pouring forth his heart's sorrow to God, compares himself to a turtle-dove" ( Psalms 74:19 ).
chance, an Asiatic Christian, a "faithful minister in the Lord" ( Ephesians 6:21 Ephesians 6:22 ), who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem ( Acts 20:4 ). He is alluded to also in Colossians 4:7 , Titus 3:12 , and 2 Timothy 4:12 as having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus, probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the church there.
occurs only once in Scripture ( 1 Corinthians 10:11 , A.V. marg.). The Greek word tupos is rendered "print" ( John 20:25 ), "figure" ( Acts 7:43 ; Romans 5:14 ), "fashion" ( Acts 7:44 ), "manner" ( Acts 23:25 ), "form" ( Romans 6:17 ), "example" or "ensample" ( 1 Corinthians 10:6 1 Corinthians 10:11 ; Phil 3:17 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:7 ; 2 th 3:9 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 ). It properly means a "model" or "pattern" or "mould" into which clay or wax was pressed, that it might take the figure or exact shape of the mould. The word "type" is generally used to denote a resemblance between something present and something future, which is called the "antitype."
prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to him ( Acts 19:9 ). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that his "school" was a private synagogue.
a rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles, in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the AEgean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at Gadeira (Cadiz)" (Driver's Isaiah). In the time of David a friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Kings 5:1 ; 2 Chr 2:3 ).
Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the mainland, called "Old Tyre," and the city, built on a small, rocky island about half-a-mile distant from the shore. It was a place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586-573) for thirteen years, apparently without success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander the Great, after a siege of seven months, but continued to maintain much of its commercial importance till the Christian era. It is referred to in Matthew 11:21 and Acts 12:20 . In A.D. 1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate ruin ever since.
"The purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account of the durability of its beautiful tints, and its manufacture proved a source of abundant wealth to the inhabitants of that city."
Both Tyre and Sidon "were crowded with glass-shops, dyeing and weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the least important class were those who were celebrated for the engraving of precious stones." ( 2 Chronicles 2:7 2 Chronicles 2:14 ).
The wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted ( Isaiah 23:1 ; Jeremiah 25:22 ; Ezek. 26; 28:1-19 ; Amos 1:9 Amos 1:10 ; Zechariah 9:2-4 ).
Here a church was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and Paul, on his return from his third missionary journey spent a week in intercourse with the disciples there ( Acts 21:4 ). Here the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They all, with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea-shore. The sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38 miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea ( Acts 21:5-8 ).
"It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1500, and claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded about B.C. 2700. It had two ports still existing, and was of commercial importance in all ages, with colonies at Carthage (about B.C. 850) and all over the Mediterranean. It was often attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken by Alexander the Great after a terrible siege in B.C. 332. It is now a town of 3,000 inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short Phoenician text of the fourth century B.C. is the only monument yet recovered."
(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of communication between the royal palace on Zion and the temple. A fragment of the arch (q.v.) of this bridge (called "Robinson's Arch"), where it projects from the sanctuary wall, was discovered by Robinson in 1839. This arch was destroyed by the Romans when Jerusalem was taken.
The western wall of the temple area rose up from the bottom of this valley to the height of 84 feet, where it was on a level with the area, and above this, and as a continuance of it, the wall of Solomon's cloister rose to the height of about 50 feet, "so that this section of the wall would originally present to view a stupendous mass of masonry scarcely to be surpassed by any mural masonry in the world."