Easton's Bible Dictionary
Shihon — Sodomites
overturning, a town of Issachar ( Joshua 19:19 ).
dark, ( 1 Chronicles 13:5 ), the southwestern boundary of Canaan, the Wady el-'Arish. (See SIHOR; NILE .)
black-white, a stream on the borders of Asher, probably the modern Nahr Zerka, i.e., the "crocodile brook," or "blue river", which rises in the Carmel range and enters the Mediterranean a little to the north of Caesarea ( Joshua 19:26 ). Crocodiles are still found in the Zerka. Thomson suspects "that long ages ago some Egyptians, accustomed to worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz., at Caesarea), and brought their gods with them. Once here they would not easily be exterminated" (The Land and the Book).
=Siloah, ( Nehemiah 3:15 ) and Siloam (q.v.)
generally understood as denoting the Messiah, "the peaceful one," as the word signifies ( Genesis 49:10 ). The Vulgate Version translates the word, "he who is to be sent," in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and the LXX., "until that which is his shall come to Shiloh." It is most simple and natural to render the expression, as in the Authorized Version, "till Shiloh come," interpreting it as a proper name (Compare Isaiah 9:6 ).
Shiloh, a place of rest, a city of Ephraim, "on the north side of Bethel," from which it is distant 10 miles ( Judges 21:19 ); the modern Seilun (the Arabic for Shiloh), a "mass of shapeless ruins." Here the tabernacle was set up after the Conquest ( Joshua 18:1-10 ), where it remained during all the period of the judges till the ark fell into the hands of the Philistines. "No spot in Central Palestine could be more secluded than this early sanctuary, nothing more featureless than the landscape around; so featureless, indeed, the landscape and so secluded the spot that from the time of St. Jerome till its re-discovery by Dr. Robinson in 1838 the very site was forgotten and unknown." It is referred to by ( Jeremiah 7:12 Jeremiah 7:14 ; 26:4-9 ) five hundred years after its destruction.
the hearing prayer.
2. A Levite of the family of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 6:30 ).
3. Another Levite of the family of Gershon ( 1 Chronicles 6:39 ).
4. One of David's brothers ( 1 Samuel 16:9 , marg.).
1. One of David's brothers ( 2 Samuel 13:3 ); same as Shimea (4).
2. A Benjamite of the house of Saul, who stoned and cursed David when he reached Bahurim in his flight from Jerusalem on the occasion of the rebellion of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 16:5-13 ). After the defeat of Absalom he "came cringing to the king, humbly suing for pardon, bringing with him a thousand of his Benjamite tribesmen, and representing that he was heartily sorry for his crime, and had hurried the first of all the house of Israel to offer homage to the king" ( 19:16-23 ). David forgave him; but on his death-bed he gave Solomon special instructions regarding Shimei, of whose fidelity he seems to have been in doubt ( 1 Kings 2:8 1 Kings 2:9 ). He was put to death at the command of Solomon, because he had violated his word by leaving Jerusalem and going to Gath to recover two of his servants who had escaped (36-46).
4. A son of Pedaiah, the brother of Zerubbabel ( 1 Chronicles 3:19 ).
6. A Reubenite ( 1 Chronicles 5:4 ).
7. A Levite of the family of Gershon ( 1 Chronicles 6:42 ).
8. A Ramathite who was "over the vineyards" of David ( 1 Chronicles 27:27 ).
9. One of the sons of Heman, who assisted in the purification of the temple ( 2 Chronicles 29:14 ).
hearkening. Ezra 10:31 .
famous, a Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 8:21 ).
guardian, a Benjamite, one of Shimhi's sons (id.).
1. A Simeonite ( 1 Chronicles 4:37 ).
2. The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies ( 1 Chronicles 11:45 ).
3. Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:13 ).
watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun ( Joshua 19:15 ); now probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.
the same, probably, as Shimron ( Joshua 12:20 ).
cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer ( Genesis 14:2 ).
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built ( Genesis 11:1-6 ), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history ( Isaiah 11:11 ; Zechariah 5:11 ). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built cities. Then tribes of Semites invaded the land and settled in it, and became its rulers. This was followed in course of time by an Elamite invasion; from which the land was finally delivered by Khammurabi, the son of Amarpel ("Amraphel, king of Shinar," Genesis 14:1 ), who became the founder of the new empire of Chaldea. (See AMRAPHEL .)
probably the designation of Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards ( 1 Chronicles 27:27 ).
beauty, one of the Egyptian midwives ( Exodus 1:15 ).
judicial, an Ephraimite prince at the time of the division of Canaan ( Numbers 34:24 ).
early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians ( Genesis 49:13 ). Moses ( Deuteronomy 28:68 ) and ( Job 9:26 ) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" ( Numbers 24:24 ). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors ( 1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 2 Chr 8:18 ). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail ( 1 Kings 22:48 1 Kings 22:49 ; 2 Chr 20:35-37 ).
In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called "ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant ships and navigation from the record in Acts 2728 ,28.
=Sheshonk I., king of Egypt. His reign was one of great national success, and a record of his wars and conquests adorns the portico of what are called the "Bubastite kings" at Karnak, the ancient Thebes. Among these conquests is a record of that of Judea. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign Shishak came up against the kingdom of Judah with a powerful army. He took the fenced cities and came to Jerusalem. He pillaged the treasures of the temple and of the royal palace, and carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made ( 1 Kings 11:40 ; 14:25 ; 2 Chr 12:2 ). (See REHOBOAM .) This expedition of the Egyptian king was undertaken at the instigation of Jeroboam for the purpose of humbling Judah. Hostilities between the two kingdoms still continued; but during Rehoboam's reign there was not again the intervention of a third party.
( Isaiah 41:19 ; RSV, "acacia tree"). Shittah wood was employed in making the various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and must therefore have been indigenous in the desert in which the Israelites wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica and A. seyal). "The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of sunt , everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. A slightly different form of the tree, equally common under the name of seyal , is the ancient 'shittah,' or, as more usually expressed in the plural form, the 'shittim,' of which the tabernacle was made." Stanley's Sinai, etc. ( Exodus 25:10 Exodus 25:13 Exodus 25:23 Exodus 25:28 ).
acacias, also called "Abel-shittim" ( Numbers 33:49 ), a plain or valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.) "secretly" to "view" the land and Jericho ( Joshua 2:1 ).
opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. The plain lying between these mountains and the Tigris was called su-Edina, i.e., "the border of the plain." This name was sometimes shortened into Suti and Su, and has been regarded as = Shoa ( Ezekiel 23:23 ). Some think it denotes a place in Babylon. (See PEKOD .)
1. One of David's sons by Bathseheba ( 2 Samuel 5:14 ).
2. One of the sons of Caleb ( 1 Chronicles 2:18 ), the son of Hezron.
captors ( Ezra 2:42 ).
1. The second son of Seir the Horite; one of the Horite "dukes" ( Genesis 36:20 ).
captor, son of Nahash of Rabbah, the Ammonite. He showed kindness to David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim ( 2 Samuel 17:27 ).
Of various forms, from the mere sandal (q.v.) to the complete covering of the foot. The word so rendered (A.V.) in Deuteronomy 33:25 , min'al , "a bar," is derived from a root meaning "to bolt" or "shut fast," and hence a fastness or fortress. The verse has accordingly been rendered "iron and brass shall be thy fortress," or, as in the Revised Version, "thy bars [marg., "shoes"] shall be iron and brass."
2. A man of Asher ( 1 Chronicles 7:32 ); called also Shamer (34).
hidden, or hollow, a town east of Jordan ( Numbers 32:35 ), built by the children of Gad. This word should probably be joined with the word preceding it in this passage, Atroth-Shophan, as in the Revised Version.
in title of Psalms 80 (RSV marg., "lilies, a testimony"), probably the name of the melody to which the psalm was to be sung.
little models and medallions of the temple and image of Diana of Ephesus ( Acts 19:24 ). The manufacture of these was a very large and profitable business.
1. A Canaanite whose daughter was married to Judah ( 1 Chronicles 2:3 ).
2. A daughter of Heber the Asherite ( 1 Chronicles 7:32 ).
prostration; a pit.
1. One of Abraham's sons by Keturah ( Genesis 25:2 ; Chr 1:32 ).
2. 1 Chronicles 4:11 .
a designation of Bildad ( Job 2:11 ), probably because he was a descendant of Shuah.
the same, as some think, with "Shunammite," from "Shunem:" otherwise, the import of the word is uncertain (Cant 6:13 ; RSV, "Shulammite").
two resting-places, a little village in the tribe of Issachar, to the north of Jezreel and south of Mount Gilboa ( Joshua 19:18 ), where the Philistines encamped when they came against Saul ( 1 Samuel 28:4 ), and where Elisha was hospitably entertained by a rich woman of the place. On the sudden death of this woman's son she hastened to Carmel, 20 miles distant across the plain, to tell Elisha, and to bring him with her to Shunem. There, in the "prophet's chamber," the dead child lay; and Elisha entering it, shut the door and prayed earnestly: and the boy was restored to life ( 2 Kings 4:8-37 ). This woman afterwards retired during the famine to the low land of the Philistines; and on returning a few years afterwards, found her house and fields in the possession of a stranger. She appealed to the king at Samaria, and had them in a somewhat remarkable manner restored to her (Compare 2 Kings 8:1-6 ).
an enclosure; a wall, a part, probably, of the Arabian desert, on the north-eastern border of Egypt, giving its name to a wilderness extending from Egypt toward Philistia ( Genesis 16:7 ; 20:1 ; 25:18 ; Ex.15:22). The name was probably given to it from the wall (or shur) which the Egyptians built to defend their frontier on the north-east from the desert tribes. This wall or line of fortifications extended from Pelusium to Heliopolis.
a lily, the Susa of Greek and Roman writers, once the capital of Elam. It lay in the uplands of Susiana, on the east of the Tigris, about 150 miles to the north of the head of the Persian Gulf. It is the modern Shush, on the northwest of Shuster. Once a magnificent city, it is now an immense mass of ruins. Here Daniel saw one of his visions ( Daniel 8 ); and here also Nehemiah (Neh. 1) began his public life. Most of the events recorded in the Book of Esther took place here. Modern explorers have brought to light numerous relics, and the ground-plan of the splendid palace of Shushan, one of the residences of the great king, together with numerous specimens of ancient art, which illustrate the statements of Scripture regarding it ( Daniel 8:2 ). The great hall of this palace (Esther 1) "consisted of several magnificent groups of columns, together with a frontage of 343 feet 9 inches, and a depth of 244 feet. These groups were arranged into a central phalanx of thirty-six columns (six rows of six each), flanked on the west, north, and east by an equal number, disposed in double rows of six each, and distant from them 64 feet 2 inches." The inscriptions on the ruins represent that the palace was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes.
the Lord sustains, one of David's heroes ( 1 Chronicles 11:29 ), general of the eighth division of the army ( 27:11 ). He slew the giant Saph in the battle of Gob ( 2 Samuel 21:18 ; RSV, "Sibbechai"). Called also Mebunnai ( 23:27 ).
coolness; fragrance, a town in Reuben, in the territory of Moab, on the east of Jordan ( Joshua 13:19 ); called also Shebam and Shibmah ( Numbers 32:3 Numbers 32:38 ). It was famous for its vines ( Isaiah 16:9 ; Jeremiah 48:32 ). It has been identified with the ruin of Sumieh, where there are rock-cut wine-presses. This fact explains the words of the prophets referred to above. It was about 5 miles east of Heshbon.
=She'chem, (q.v.), Genesis 12:6 .
of the Egyptians resembled that in modern use. The ears of corn were cut with it near the top of the straw. There was also a sickle used for warlike purposes, more correctly, however, called a pruning-hook ( Deuteronomy 16:9 ; Jeremiah 50:16 , marg., "scythe;" Joel 3:13 ; Mark 4:29 ).
valley of the broad plains, "which is the salt sea" ( Genesis 14:3 Genesis 14:8 Genesis 14:10 ), between Engedi and the cities of the plain, at the south end of the Dead Sea. It was "full of slime-pits" (RSV, "bitumen pits"). Here Chedorlaomer and the confederate kings overthrew the kings of Sodom and the cities of the plain. God afterwards, on account of their wickedness, "overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities;" and the smoke of their destruction "went up as the smoke of a furnace" ( 19:24-28 ), and was visible from Mamre, where Abraham dwelt.
Some, however, contend that the "cities of the plain" were somewhere at the north of the Dead Sea. (See SODOM .)
a seal used to attest documents ( Daniel 6:8-10 Daniel 6:12 ). In 6:17 , this word properly denotes a ring. The impression of a signet ring on fine clay has recently been discovered among the ruins at Nineveh. It bears the name and title of an Egyptian king. Two actual signet rings of ancient Egyptian monarchs (Cheops and Horus) have also been discovered.
When digging a shaft close to the south wall of the temple area, the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, at a depth of 12 feet below the surface, came upon a pavement of polished stones, formerly one of the streets of the city. Under this pavement they found a stratum of 16 feet of concrete, and among this concrete, 10 feet down, they found a signet stone bearing the inscription, in Old Hebrew characters, "Haggai, son of Shebaniah." It has been asked, Might not this be the actual seal of Haggai the prophet? We know that he was in Jerusalem after the Captivity; and it is somewhat singular that he alone of all the minor prophets makes mention of a signet ( Haggai 2:23 ). (See SEAL .)
striking down. The whole country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon to the Jabbok, was possessed by the Amorites, whose king, Sihon, refused to permit the Israelites to pass through his territory, and put his army in array against them. The Israelites went forth against him to battle, and gained a complete victory. The Amorites were defeated; Sihon, his sons, and all his people were smitten with the sword, his walled towns were captured, and the entire country of the Amorites was taken possession of by the Israelites ( Numbers 21:21-30 ; Deuteronomy 2:24-37 ).
The country from the Jabbok to Hermon was at this time ruled by Og, the last of the Rephaim. He also tried to prevent the progress of the Israelites, but was utterly routed, and all his cities and territory fell into the hands of the Israelites (Compare Numbers 21:33-35 ; Deuteronomy 3:1-14 ; Psalms 135: : 1012 -12; 136:17-22 ).
These two victories gave the Israelites possession of the country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon to the foot of Hermon. The kingdom of Sihon embraced about 1,500 square miles, while that of Og was more than 3,000 square miles.
(correctly Shi'hor) black; dark the name given to the river Nile in Isaiah 23:3 ; Jeremiah 2:18 . In Joshua 13:3 it is probably "the river of Egypt", i.e., the Wady el-Arish ( 1 Chronicles 13:5 ), which flows "before Egypt", i.e., in a north-easterly direction from Egypt, and enters the sea about 50 miles south-west of Gaza.
wood, a prominent member of the church at Jerusalem; also called Silvanus. He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the church there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch from the council of the apostles and elders ( Acts 15:22 ), as bearers of the decree adopted by the council. He assisted Paul there in his evangelistic labours, and was also chosen by him to be his companion on his second missionary tour ( Acts 16:19-24 ). He is referred to in the epistles under the name of Silvanus ( 2 Corinthians 1:19 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:1 ; 2 th 1:1 ; 1 Peter 5:12 ). There is no record of the time or place of his death.
Heb. demeshek, "damask," silk cloth manufactured at Damascus, Amos 3:12 . A.V., "in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a couch;" RSV, "in the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed" (marg., "in Damascus on a bed").
Silk was common in New Testament times ( Revelation 18:12 ).
a highway; a twig, only in 2 Kings 12:20 . If taken as a proper name (as in the LXX. and other versions), the locality is unknown.
sent or sending. Here a notable miracle was wrought by our Lord in giving sight to the blind ( John 9:7-11 ). It has been identified with the Birket Silwan in the lower Tyropoeon valley, to the south-east of the hill of Zion.
The water which flows into this pool intermittingly by a subterranean channel springs from the "Fountain of the Virgin" (q.v.). The length of this channel, which has several windings, is 1,750 feet, though the direct distance is only 1,100 feet. The pool is 53 feet in length from north to south, 18 feet wide, and 19 deep. The water passes from it by a channel cut in the rock into the gardens below. (See EN-ROGEL.)
Many years ago (1880) a youth, while wading up the conduit by which the water enters the pool, accidentally discovered an inscription cut in the rock, on the eastern side, about 19 feet from the pool. This is the oldest extant Hebrew record of the kind. It has with great care been deciphered by scholars, and has been found to be an account of the manner in which the tunnel was constructed. Its whole length is said to be "twelve hundred cubits;" and the inscription further notes that the workmen, like the excavators of the Mont Cenis Tunnel, excavated from both ends, meeting in the middle.
Some have argued that the inscription was cut in the time of Solomon; others, with more probability, refer it to the reign of Hezekiah. A more ancient tunnel was discovered in 1889 some 20 feet below the ground. It is of smaller dimensions, but more direct in its course. It is to this tunnel that ( Isaiah 8:6 ) probably refers.
The Siloam inscription above referred to was surreptitiously cut from the wall of the tunnel in 1891 and broken into fragments. These were, however, recovered by the efforts of the British Consul at Jerusalem, and have been restored to their original place.
mentioned only Luke 13:4 . The place here spoken of is the village now called Silwan, or Kefr Silwan, on the east of the valley of Kidron, and to the north-east of the pool. It stands on the west slope of the Mount of Olives.
As illustrative of the movement of small bands of Canaanites from place to place, and the intermingling of Canaanites and Israelites even in small towns in earlier times, M.C. Ganneau records the following curious fact: "Among the inhabitants of the village (of Siloam) there are a hundred or so domiciled for the most part in the lower quarter, and forming a group apart from the rest, called Dhiabrye, i.e., men of Dhiban. It appears that at some remote period a colony from the capital of king Mesha (Dibon-Moab) crossed the Jordan and fixed itself at the gates of Jerusalem at Silwan. The memory of this migration is still preserved; and I am assured by the people themselves that many of their number are installed in other villages round Jerusalem" (quoted by Henderson, Palestine).
used for a great variety of purposes, as may be judged from the frequent references to it in Scripture. It first appears in commerce in Genesis 13:2 ; Genesis 23:15 Genesis 23:16 . It was largely employed for making vessels for the sanctuary in the wilderness ( Exodus 26:19 ; 27:17 ; Numbers 7:13 Numbers 7:19 ; 10:2 ). There is no record of its having been found in Syria or Palestine. It was brought in large quantities by foreign merchants from abroad, from Spain and India and other countries probably.
( Isaiah 7:23 ). Literally the words are "at a thousand of silver", i.e., "pieces of silver," or shekels.
1. The second son of Jacob by Leah ( Genesis 29:33 ). He was associated with Levi in the terrible act of vengeance against Hamor and the Shechemites ( Genesis 34:25 Genesis 34:26 ). He was detained by Joseph in Egypt as a hostage ( 42:24 ). His father, when dying, pronounced a malediction against him ( 49:5-7 ). The words in the Authorized Version ( 49:6 ), "they digged down a wall," ought to be, as correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "they houghed an ox."
2. An aged saint who visited the temple when Jesus was being presented before the Lord, and uttered lofty words of thankgiving and of prophecy ( Luke 2:29-35 ).
3. One of the ancestors of Joseph ( Luke 3:30 ).
4. Surnamed Niger, i.e., "black," perhaps from his dark complexion, a teacher of some distinction in the church of Antioch ( Acts 13:1-3 ). It has been supposed that this was the Simon of Cyrene who bore Christ's cross. Note the number of nationalities represented in the church at Antioch.
5. James ( Acts 15:14 ) thus designates the apostle Peter (q.v.).
was "divided and scattered" according to the prediction in Genesis 49:5-7 . They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a position of insignificance among the other tribes. They decreased in the wilderness by about two-thirds (Compare Numbers 1:23 ; 26:14 ). Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is passed by in silence ( Deuteronomy 33 ).
This tribe received as their portion a part of the territory already allotted to Judah ( Joshua 19:1-9 ). It lay in the south-west of the land, with Judah on the east and Dan on the north; but whether it was a compact territory or not cannot be determined. The subsequent notices of this tribe are but few ( 1 Chronicles 4:24-43 ). Like Reuben on the east of Jordan, this tribe had little influence on the history of Israel.
the abbreviated form of Simeon.
1. One of the twelve apostles, called the Canaanite ( Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:18 ). This word "Canaanite" does not mean a native of Canaan, but is derived from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was the name of a Jewish sect. The Revised Version has "Cananaean;" marg., "or Zealot" He is also called "Zelotes" ( Luke 6:15 ; Acts 1:13 ; RSV, "the Zealot"), because previous to his call to the apostleship he had been a member of the fanatical sect of the Zealots. There is no record regarding him.
4. A Pharisee in whose house "a woman of the city which was a sinner" anointed our Lord's feet with ointment ( Luke 7:36-38 ).
6. A Jew of Cyrene, in North Africa, then a province of Libya. A hundred thousand Jews from Palestine had been settled in this province by Ptolemy Soter (B.C. 323-285), where by this time they had greatly increased in number. They had a synagogue in Jerusalem for such of their number as went thither to the annual feasts. Simon was seized by the soldiers as the procession wended its way to the place of crucifixion as he was passing by, and the heavy cross which Christ from failing strength could no longer bear was laid on his shoulders. Perhaps they seized him because he showed sympathy with Jesus. He was the "father of Alexander and Rufus" ( Matthew 27:32 ). Possibly this Simon may have been one of the "men of Cyrene" who preached the word to the Greeks ( Acts 11:20 ).
7. A sorcerer of great repute for his magical arts among the Samaritans ( Acts 8:9-11 ). He afterwards became a professed convert to the faith under the preaching of Philip the deacon and evangelist (12,13). His profession was, however, soon found to be hollow. His conduct called forth from Peter a stern rebuke ( 8:18-23 ). From this moment he disappears from the Church's history. The term "Simony," as denoting the purchase for money of spiritual offices, is derived from him.
8. A Christian at Joppa, a tanner by trade, with whom Peter on one occasion lodged ( Acts 9:43 ).
watchman, a Levite of the family of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 26:10 ).
is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God" ( 1 John 3:4 ; Romans 4:15 ), in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or commission ( Romans 6:12-17 ; 7:5-24 ). It is "not a mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates his law with penalties. The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and (2) pollution (macula).", Hodge's Outlines.
The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the moral state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit of the soul that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin ( Romans 6:12-17 ; Galatians 5:17 ; James 1:14 James 1:15 ).
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such to us. It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to enter this world, and that is all we know. His permitting it, however, in no way makes God the author of sin.
Adam's sin ( Genesis 3:1-6 ) consisted in his yielding to the assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It involved in it, (1) the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a liar; and (2) the guilt of disobedience to a positive command. By this sin he became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms against his Creator. He lost the favour of God and communion with him; his whole nature became depraved, and he incurred the penalty involved in the covenant of works.
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all mankind, the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature were conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation." Adam was constituted by God the federal head and representative of all his posterity, as he was also their natural head, and therefore when he fell they fell with him ( Romans 5:12-21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:22-45 ). His probation was their probation, and his fall their fall. Because of Adam's first sin all his posterity came into the world in a state of sin and condemnation, i.e., (1) a state of moral corruption, and (2) of guilt, as having judicially imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin.
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only the moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men from Adam. This inherited moral corruption consists in, (1) the loss of original righteousness; and (2) the presence of a constant proneness to evil, which is the root and origin of all actual sin. It is called "sin" ( Romans 6:12 Romans 6:14 Romans 6:17 ; 7:5-17 ), the "flesh" ( Galatians 5:17 Galatians 5:24 ), "lust" ( James 1:14 James 1:15 ), the "body of sin" ( Romans 6:6 ), "ignorance," "blindness of heart," "alienation from the life of God" ( Ephesians 4:18 Ephesians 4:19 ). It influences and depraves the whole man, and its tendency is still downward to deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no recuperative element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it is also universally inherited by all the natural descendants of Adam ( Romans 3:10-23 ; 5:12-21 ; 8:7 ). Pelagians deny original sin, and regard man as by nature morally and spiritually well; semi-Pelagians regard him as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as they are also called, Calvinists, regard man as described above, spiritually dead ( Ephesians 2:1 ; 1 John 3:14 ).
The doctrine of original sin is proved,
5. From the universality of death ( Romans 5:12-20 ). Various kinds of sin are mentioned,
6. "Presumptuous sins," or as literally rendered, "sins with an uplifted hand", i.e., defiant acts of sin, in contrast with "errors" or "inadvertencies" ( Psalms 19:13 ).
7. "Secret", i.e., hidden sins ( 19:12 ); sins which escape the notice of the soul.
8. "Sin against the Holy Ghost" (q.v.), or a "sin unto death" ( Matthew 12:31 Matthew 12:32 ; 1 John 5:16 ), which amounts to a wilful rejection of grace. Sin, a city in Egypt, called by the Greeks Pelusium, which means, as does also the Hebrew name, "clayey" or "muddy," so called from the abundance of clay found there. It is called by Ezekel ( Ezekiel 30:15 ) "the strength of Egypt, "thus denoting its importance as a fortified city. It has been identified with the modern Tineh, "a miry place," where its ruins are to be found. Of its boasted magnificence only four red granite columns remain, and some few fragments of others.
lying between Elim and sinai ( Exodus 16:1 ; Compare Numbers 33:11 Numbers 33:12 ). This was probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula. While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had by this time consumed all the corn they had brought with them out of Egypt. God heard their murmurings, and gave them "manna" and then quails in abundance.
of Sin (the moon god), called also Horeb, the name of the mountain district which was reached by the Hebrews in the third month after the Exodus. Here they remained encamped for about a whole year. Their journey from the Red Sea to this encampment, including all the windings of the route, was about 150 miles. The last twenty-two chapters of Exodus, together with the whole of Leviticus and Nu ch. 1-11, contain a record of all the transactions which occurred while they were here. From Rephidim ( Exodus 17:8-13 ) the Israelites journeyed forward through the Wady Solaf and Wady esh-Sheikh into the plain of er-Rahah, "the desert of Sinai," about 2 miles long and half a mile broad, and encamped there "before the mountain." The part of the mountain range, a protruding lower bluff, known as the Ras Sasafeh (Sufsafeh), rises almost perpendicularly from this plain, and is in all probability the Sinai of history. Dean Stanley thus describes the scene:, "The plain itself is not broken and uneven and narrowly shut in, like almost all others in the range, but presents a long retiring sweep, within which the people could remove and stand afar off. The cliff, rising like a huge altar in front of the whole congregation, and visible against the sky in lonely grandeur from end to end of the whole plain, is the very image of the 'mount that might be touched,' and from which the voice of God might be heard far and wide over the plain below." This was the scene of the giving of the law. From the Ras Sufsafeh the law was proclaimed to the people encamped below in the plain of er-Rahah. During the lengthened period of their encampment here the Israelites passed through a very memorable experience. An immense change passed over them. They are now an organized nation, bound by covenant engagement to serve the Lord their God, their ever-present divine Leader and Protector. At length, in the second month of the second year of the Exodus, they move their camp and march forward according to a prescribed order. After three days they reach the "wilderness of Paran," the "et-Tih", i.e., "the desert", and here they make their first encampment. At this time a spirit of discontent broke out amongst them, and the Lord manifested his displeasure by a fire which fell on the encampment and inflicted injury on them. Moses called the place Taberah (q.v.), Numbers 11:1-3 . The journey between Sinai and the southern boundary of the Promised Land (about 150 miles) at Kadesh was accomplished in about a year. (See MAP facing page 204.)
usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr. Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in the university library of Leipsic, under the title of the Codex Frederico-Augustanus, after his royal patron the king of Saxony. In the year referred to (1859) the emperor of Russia sent him to prosecute his search for MSS., which he was convinced were still to be found in the Sinai convent. The story of his finding the manuscript of the New Testament has all the interest of a romance. He reached the convent on 31st January; but his inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On the 4th February he had resolved to return home without having gained his object. "On that day, when walking with the provisor of the convent, he spoke with much regret of his ill-success. Returning from their promenade, Tischendorf accompanied the monk to his room, and there had displayed to him what his companion called a copy of the LXX., which he, the ghostly brother, owned. The MS. was wrapped up in a piece of cloth, and on its being unrolled, to the surprise and delight of the critic the very document presented itself which he had given up all hope of seeing. His object had been to complete the fragmentary LXX. of 1844, which he had declared to be the most ancient of all Greek codices on vellum that are extant; but he found not only that, but a copy of the Greek New Testament attached, of the same age, and perfectly complete, not wanting a single page or paragraph." This precious fragment, after some negotiations, he obtained possession of, and conveyed it to the Emperor Alexander, who fully appreciated its importance, and caused it to be published as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly the ancient handwriting. The entire codex consists of 346 1/2 folios. Of these 199 belong to the Old Testament and 147 1/2 to the New, along with two ancient documents called the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. The books of the New Testament stand thus: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, the Apocalypse of John. It is shown by Tischendorf that this codex was written in the fourth century, and is thus of about the same age as the Vatican codex; but while the latter wants the greater part of Matthew and sundry leaves here and there besides, the Sinaiticus is the only copy of the New Testament in uncial characters which is complete. Thus it is the oldest extant MS. copy of the New Testament. Both the Vatican and the Sinai codices were probably written in Egypt. (See VATICANUS .)
(Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Leviticus 4-6:13; ; Leviticus 9:7-11 Leviticus 9:22-24 ; 12:6-8 ; Leviticus 15:2 Leviticus 15:14 Leviticus 15:25-30 ; Leviticus 14:19 Leviticus 14:31 ; Numbers 6:10-14 . On the day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity ( Leviticus 16:5 Leviticus 16:11 Leviticus 16:15 ). The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals ( Numbers 2829 ,29), and on the occasion of the consecration of the priests ( Exodus 29:10-14 Exodus 29:36 ). As each individual, even the most private member of the congregation, as well as the congregation at large, and the high priest, was obliged, on being convicted by his conscience of any particular sin, to come with a sin-offering, we see thus impressively disclosed the need in which every sinner stands of the salvation of Christ, and the necessity of making application to it as often as the guilt of sin renews itself upon his conscience. This resort of faith to the perfect sacrifice of Christ is the one way that lies open for the sinner's attainment of pardon and restoration to peace. And then in the sacrifice itself there is the reality of that incomparable worth and preciousness which were so significantly represented in the sin-offering by the sacredness of its blood and the hallowed destination of its flesh. With reference to this the blood of Christ is called emphatically "the precious blood," and the blood that "cleanseth from all sin" ( 1 John 1:7 ).
fruitful places, some unknown place in the south, where David found friends when he fled from Saul ( 1 Samuel 30:28 ).
retiring, a well from which Joab's messenger brought back Abner ( 2 Samuel 3:26 ). It is now called 'Ain Sarah, and is situated about a mile from Hebron, on the road to the north.
(Egypt. Ses-Ra, "servant of Ra").
1. The captain of Jabin's army ( Judges 4:2 ), which was routed and destroyed by the army of Barak on the plain of Esdraelon. After all was lost he fled to the settlement of Heber the Kenite in the plain of Zaanaim. Jael, Heber's wife, received him into her tent with apparent hospitality, and "gave him butter" (i.e., lebben, or curdled milk) "in a lordly dish." Having drunk the refreshing beverage, he lay down, and soon sank into the sleep of the weary. While he lay asleep Jael crept stealthily up to him, and taking in her hand one of the tent pegs, with a mallet she drove it with such force through his temples that it entered into the ground where he lay, and "at her feet he bowed, he fell; where he bowed, there he fell down dead." The part of Deborah's song (Judg. 5:24-27 ) referring to the death of Sisera (which is a "mere patriotic outburst," and "is no proof that purer eyes would have failed to see gross sin mingling with Jael's service to Israel") is thus rendered by Professor Roberts (Old Testament Revision): "Extolled above women be Jael, The wife of Heber the Kenite, Extolled above women in the tent. He asked for water, she gave him milk; She brought him cream in a lordly dish. She stretched forth her hand to the nail, Her right hand to the workman's hammer, And she smote Sisera; she crushed his head, She crashed through and transfixed his temples. At her feet he curled himself, he fell, he lay still; At her feet he curled himself, he fell; And where he curled himself, there he fell dead."
strife, the second of the two wells dug by Isaac, whose servants here contended with the Philistines ( Genesis 26:21 ). It has been identified with the modern Shutneh, in the valley of Gerar, to the west of Rehoboth, about 20 miles south of Beersheba.
the attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom ( Matthew 9:9 ) is the exact way to state the case.", Thomson, Land and Book.
a Persian word (Assyr, sivanu, "bricks"), used after the Captivity as the name of the third month of the Jewish year, extending from the new moon in June to the new moon in July ( Esther 8:9 ).
See GOLGOTHA .
Jeremiah 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Revelation 18:13 the word "slaves" is the rendering of a Greek word meaning "bodies." The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually rendered simply "servant," "bondman," or "bondservant." Slavery as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but only regulated the already existing custom of slavery ( Exodus 21:20 Exodus 21:21 Exodus 21:26 Exodus 21:27 ; Leviticus 25:44-46 ; Joshua 9:6-27 ). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually disappearing from among men.
With a sling and a stone David smote the Philistine giant ( 1 Samuel 17:40 1 Samuel 17:49 ). There were 700 Benjamites who were so skilled in its use that with the left hand they "could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss" ( Judges 20:16 ; 1 Chronicles 12:2 ). It was used by the Israelites in war ( 2 Kings 3:25 ). (See .)
The words in Proverbs 26:8 , "As he that bindeth a stone in a sling," etc. (Authorized Version), should rather, as in the Revised Version, be "As a bag of gems in a heap of stones," etc.
The Hebrews were not permitted by the Philistines in the days of Samuel to have a smith amongst them, lest they should make them swords and spears ( 1 Samuel 13:19 ). Thus the Philistines sought to make their conquest permanent (Compare 2 Kings 24:16 ).
myrrh, an ancient city of Ionia, on the western coast of Asia Minor, about 40 miles to the north of Ephesus. It is now the chief city of Anatolia, having a mixed population of about 200,000, of whom about one-third are professed Christians. The church founded here was one of the seven addressed by our Lord ( Revelation 2:8-11 ). The celebrated Polycarp, a pupil of the apostle John, was in the second century a prominent leader in the church of Smyrna. Here he suffered martyrdom, A.D. 155.
1. Heb. homit, among the unclean creeping things ( Leviticus 11:30 ). This was probably the sand-lizard, of which there are many species in the wilderness of Judea and the Sinai peninsula.
2. Heb. shablul ( Psalms 58:8 ), the snail or slug proper. Tristram explains the allusions of this passage by a reference to the heat and drought by which the moisture of the snail is evaporated. "We find," he says, "in all parts of the Holy Land myriads of snail-shells in fissures still adhering by the calcareous exudation round their orifice to the surface of the rock, but the animal of which is utterly shrivelled and wasted, 'melted away.'"
Common in Palestine in winter ( Psalms 147:16 ). The snow on the tops of the Lebanon range is almost always within view throughout the whole year. The word is frequently used figuratively by the sacred writers ( Job 24:19 ; Psalms 51:7 ; 68:14 ; Isaiah 1:18 ). It is mentioned only once in the historical books ( 2 Samuel 23:20 ). It was "carried to Tyre, Sidon, and Damascus as a luxury, and labourers sweltering in the hot harvest-fields used it for the purpose of cooling the water which they drank ( Proverbs 25:13 ; Jeremiah 18:14 ). No doubt Herod Antipas, at his feasts in Tiberias, enjoyed also from this very source the modern luxury of ice-water."
( Jeremiah 2:22 ; Malachi 3:2 ; Heb. borith), properly a vegetable alkali, obtained from the ashes of certain plants, particularly the salsola kali (saltwort), which abounds on the shores of the Dead Sea and of the Mediterranean. It does not appear that the Hebrews were acquainted with what is now called "soap," which is a compound of alkaline carbonates with oleaginous matter. The word "purely" in Isaiah 1:25 (RSV, "throughly;" marg., "as with lye") is lit. "as with bor ." This word means "clearness," and hence also that which makes clear, or pure, alkali. "The ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil, instead of soap ( Job 9:30 ), and also in smelting metals, to make them melt and flow more readily and purely" (Gesenius).
a fence; hedge, ( 1 Chronicles 4:18 ; RSV, Soco)=So'choh ( 1 Kings 4:10 ; RSV, Socoh), Sho'choh ( 1 Samuel 17:1 ; RSV, Socoh), Sho'co ( 2 Chronicles 11:7 ; RSV, Soco), Sho'cho ( 2 Chronicles 28:18 ; RSV, Soco), a city in the plain or lowland of Judah, where the Philistines encamped when they invaded Judah after their defeat at Michmash. It lay on the northern side of the valley of Elah (Wady es-Sunt). It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Shuweikeh, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem. In this campaign Goliath was slain, and the Philistines were completely routed.
burning; the walled, a city in the vale of Siddim ( Genesis 13:10 ; 14:1-16 ). The wickedness of its inhabitants brought down upon it fire from heaven, by which it was destroyed ( 18:16-33 ; 19:1-29 ; Deuteronomy 23:17 ). This city and its awful destruction are frequently alluded to in Scripture ( Deuteronomy 29:23 ; 32:32 ; Isaiah 1:9 Isaiah 1:10 ; 3:9 ; 13:19 ; Jeremiah 23:14 ; Ezekiel 16:46-56 ; Zephaniah 2:9 ; Matthew 10:15 ; Romans 9:29 ; 2 Pet 2:6 , etc.). No trace of it or of the other cities of the plain has been discovered, so complete was their destruction. Just opposite the site of Zoar, on the south-west coast of the Dead Sea, is a range of low hills, forming a mass of mineral salt called Jebel Usdum, "the hill of Sodom." It has been concluded, from this and from other considerations, that the cities of the plain stood at the southern end of the Dead Sea. Others, however, with much greater probability, contend that they stood at the northern end of the sea. [in 1897].
( Romans 9:29 ; RSV, "Sodom"), the Greek form for Sodom.
those who imitated the licentious wickedness of Sodom ( Deuteronomy 23:17 ; 1 Kings 14:24 ; Romans 1:26 Romans 1:27 ). Asa destroyed them "out of the land" ( 1 Kings 15:12 ), as did also his son Jehoshaphat ( 22:46 ).